EDUCATION FACULTY



Researcher : Andrews SJ

Project Title: An impact study of a high-stakes ESL assessment innovation in Hong Kong secondary schools
Investigator(s): Andrews SJ, Davison CM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 09/2006
Completion Date: 12/2009
Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the impact of the introduction of standards-referenced school-based assessme nt (SBA) in a high-stakes English as a Second Language (ESL) teaching context, the Hong Kong secondary school, where there has been a long tradition of norm-referenced external assessment. The specific aims of the project are to examine critically: the rationale and strategies of the educational authorities in implementing the SBA innovation; the reactions to the SBA innovation in the wider community in Hong Kong; the influence of mediators (SBA trainers, teacher educators, tutori al schools) on the dissemination of the innovation; the proecsses by which the SBA innovation is implemented at the school level; attitudes within the school community towards the SBA innovation, and the impact of the innovation upon the attitudes and practices of teachers and st udents; in order to identify the factors within schools and the wider community which facilitate or inhibit the successful implementation of the innovation.


List of Research Outputs

Andrews S.J. and Davies G.E. , Assessment As A Lever To Promote Teacher Language Awareness (tla), KOTESOL 17th international Conference . 2009.
Andrews S.J. , Teacher language awareness and professional excellence in TESOL, KOTESOL 17th International Conference . Seoul, South Korea, 2009.
Huang J. and Andrews S.J. , Situated development and use of language learner strategies: voices from EFL learners, In: Douglas Allford, Elspeth Broady, Norbert Pachler, Language Learning Journal . London, UK, Routledge, 2010, 38: 19-35.


Researcher : Bray TM

Project Title: Theories and methods in comparative education research
Investigator(s): Bray TM
Department: Education
Source(s) of Funding: Other Funding Scheme
Start Date: 01/1996
Abstract:
To examine historical trends and contemporary diversity in comparative education research. It is cataloguing the relative merits of different approaches and identi fying appropriate strategies for projects of different types. Comparative education has been defined to include intranational as well as international studies.


Project Title: WCCES XIV World Congress Shadow Education: The Growth, Evolution and Implications of Supplementary Private Tutoring
Investigator(s): Bray TM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2010
Completion Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Bray T.M. and Lee C.J., "Editorial" [for special issue of journal, on shadow education], Asia Pacific Education Review . Dordrecht, Springer, 2010, 11 (1): 1-2.
Bray T.M. , Comparative Education: Societies And Associations, In: Peterson, Penelope; Baker, Eva & McGaw, Barry, International Encyclopedia Of Education . Oxford, Elsevier, 2010, 266-271.
Bray T.M. , Confronting The Shadow Education System: What Government Policies For What Private Tutoring?. , Paris, UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, 2009, 132.
Bray T.M. , Directions In Educational Planning: Report of a Symposium. , Paris, UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, 2010, 78.
Bray T.M. , Educación Comparada: Tradiciones, Nuevos Retos y Nuevos Paradigmas, Mexico City, 2010, 270.
Bray T.M. and Yamato Y., Educación Comparada: Tradiciones, Nuevos Retos y Nuevos Paradigmas, In: Bray, Mark, La Educacion Comparada en un Microcosmo: Perceptiones Metodologicas desde el Sector de las Escuelas Internacionales de Hong Kong . Mexico City, Planea, 2010, 55-77.
Bray T.M. , Higher Education in Small States: Opportunities and Challenges, In: UNESCO and Organization of American States, Caribbean Conference on Higher Education . 2010.
Bray T.M. , Members of Editorial Board, Educational Administration Research . Shenyang Normal University, RIEEA, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of Editorial Board, Frontiers of Education in China . Amsterdam, Netherlands, Higher Education Press, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of Editorial Board, KEDI Journal of Educational Policy . Seoul, Korea, Korean Educational Development Institute, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of Editorial Board, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education . Paris, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of International Advisory Board, Asia Pacific Journal of Education . Singapore, Oxford University Press, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of International Advisory Board, Comparative Education . Oxfordshire, Routledge, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of International Advisory Board, Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education . Oxfordshire, Carfax International Publishers, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of International Advisory Board, Current Issues in Comparative Education . New York, Teachers College, Columbia University, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of International Advisory Board, International Journal of Lifelong Education . Oxfordshire, Routledge, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of International Advisory Board, Journal of Applied Research in Education . Universiti Brunei Darussalam, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of International Advisory Board, Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies . Msida, Malta, Faculty of Education, University of Malta, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of International Advisory Board, Peabody Journal of Education . New Jersey, Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Members of International Advisory Council, Revista Espa ñ ola de Educaci ó n Comparada . Spain, 2009.
Bray T.M. , Researching Shadow Education: Challenges and Directions, Asia Pacific Education Review . Dordrecht, Springer, 2010, 11 (1): 3-13.
Bray T.M. , Shadow Education: The Growth, Evolution and Implications of Supplementary Private Tutoring, World Congress of Comparative Education Societies . Istanbul, Turkey, 2010.
Bray T.M. , Tradicion, Cambio y el Papel del Consejo Mundial de las Sociedades de Educacion Comparada, In: Bray, Mark, Educación Comparada: Tradiciones, Nuevos Retos y Nuevos Paradigmas . Mexico City, Planea, 2010, 7-19.
Crossley M., Bray T.M. and Packer S., Education in the Small States of the Commonwealth: Towards and Beyond Global Goals and Targets, The Round Table . 2009, Vol.98, No.405: 731-751.
Hite S. and Bray T.M. , International Organizations: UNESCO’s International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), In: Peterson, Penelope P., Baker, Eva & McGaw, Barry , International Encyclopedia of Education . Oxford, Elsevier, 2010, 688-693.


Researcher : Bryant DA

List of Research Outputs

Bryant D.A. and Carless D.R. , Peer assessment in a test-dominated setting: Empowering, boring or facilitating examination preparation?, Educational Research for Policy and Practice . Netherlands, Springer, 2010, 9(1): 3-15.


Researcher : Carless DR

Project Title: Exploring tests as productive learning opportunities
Investigator(s): Carless DR
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
Objectives To contribute to the development of the theory of formative assessment through analyses of context-specific modes of formative assessment suitable for the Hong Kong setting To explore how primary school English teachers manage the relationship between testing and student learning To analyse how teachers develop formative instructional power from regular internal school tests To explore how lower achieving students respond to testing and how they might be supported before or after tests Key issues and problems Assessment exerts a profound effect on students’ engagement wit h the learning process (Broadfoot, 2007) so it is vital that assessment be researched and developed further. The formative use of summative tests (Black et al., 2003), is a strategy for enhancing the learning potential of internal school tests and developing productive synergies between formative and summative assessment. The notion of ‘tests as productive learning opportunities’ (TAPLO) seeks to address the problem that test performance may not fully result in learning and mastery of taught content and skills. Through follow-up and consolidation, teachers seek to consolidate students’ test-related learning and remediate student difficulties revealed by tests. TAPLO is defined as the process of stimulating productive student learning from the preparation and follow-up to regular internal school tests. In Hong Kong schools, these internal tests are held four or more times per year and are a significant focus for teachers and students. Test follow-up is a specific strategy within the general theme of Assessment for learning (AfL), a significant feature of current educational reforms in Hong Kong, and an important part of wider aims to change the Hong Kong assessment culture. AfL is one of the best ways of enhancing student learnin g (Black & Wiliam, 1998). Societal emphases in Hong Kong on examinations (Pong & Chow, 2002) and assessment of learning does mean however, that AfL implementation is a challenging area requiring further research and development. This project seeks to contribute to the enhancement of TAPLO in English language teaching (ELT) in Hong Kong primary schools through school-based research. The early years of schooling are a crucially important site because they are the foundation stone for both student learning and attempts to introduce AfL throughout the system. If student experiences of teaching, learning and assessment in the early years are negative, then the long-term consequences can be profoundly deleterious. The key issue to be addressed is: how can TAPLO be implemented effectively in ELT in Hong Kong primary schools? Formative and summative assessment are distinguished in terms of function and purpose: the former focuses on supporting student learning, the latter on judging and grading. Are these two assessment functions incompatible or might they be integrated effectively? Brookhart (2001), for example, reports that good students try to use all assessments formatively and often draw on both summative and formative data in making adjustments to their work. The ‘formative use of summative tests’, as described by Black et al . (2003), provides a well-known example of integrating formative and summative functions of assessment. The case study teachers in Black et al., (2003) used strategies such as rectifying the learning on test questions done poorly by students; peer marking of test papers; and re-working of examination answers. There is a wider literature on AfL in general education than with respect to ELT. In ELT, there has been some initial theorizing but relatively little empirical investigation of AfL in the classroom. Rea-Dickins & Gardner (2000) found that distinctions between formative and summative assessment were not as straightforward as sometimes portrayed and called for further investigation on how teachers acquire or develop skills in conducting formative assessment. Leung (2004) points out that AfL cannot be introduced by policy mandate alone and argues that a great deal of theoretical and teacher development work still needs to be done. Within the local ELT context, Davison (2007) points out the need for the mediation between school-based assessment and ‘local’ assessment practices and discourses, so as to enhance the formative function of assessment. Black et al. (2003) acknowledge that frequent summative testing, even if followed-up, may dull the message about means to improve and replace it with information about success and failure. A further potential limitation is that evidence may be less fine-grained than from formative interactions between teachers and pupils; and there may be a tendency to gather frequently what is essentially summative evidence rather than evidence that can be used formatively (Harlen, 2006). Students with learning difficulties may also be deterred by tests and performance targets; these lower achieving students often show the greatest gains from formative assessment processes (e.g. Black & Wiliam, 1998) but may respond less well to summative assessment. These challenges underpin the need for further investigation of the relationship between summative and formative assessment. TAPLO may be a particularly suitable strategy for the Hong Kong context given that summative assessment remains dominant and formative assessment is still at a relatively early stage of development. References Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2003). Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in educatio n, 5 (1), 7-74. Broadfoot, P. (2007). An introduction to assessment. London: Continuum. Brookhart, S. (2001). Successful students’ formative and summative uses of assessment information. Assessment in Education, 8(2), 153-169. Davison, C. (2007) Views from the chalkface: School-based assessment in Hong Kong. Language Assessmen t Quarterly, 4 (1), 1-32. Harlen, W. (2006). On the relationship between assessment for formative and summative purposes. In J. Gardner (Ed.), Assessment and learning, (pp. 61-80). London: Sage. Leung, C. (2004). Developing formative teacher assessment: Knowledge, practice and change. Language Assessment Quarterly, 1 (1), 19-41. McNamara, T. (2001). Language assessment as social practice: challenges for research. Language Testing, 18(4), 333-349. Pong, W.Y. & Chow, J.C.S. (2002). On the pedagogy of examinations in Hong Kong, Teaching and Teacher Education, 18 (2), 139-149. Rea-Dickins, P. & Gardner, S. (2000). Snares or silver bullets: Disentangling the construct of formative assessment. Language Testing, 17(2), 215-243.


Project Title: European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) Biennial Conference 2009 Developing formative assessment through a teacher learning community: a case study
Investigator(s): Carless DR
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Developing formative instructional power from internal school tests
Investigator(s): Carless DR
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 12/2009
Abstract:
To contribute to the development of the theory of formative assessment through an in-depth analysis of specific formative assessment strategies in the socio-cultural context of Hong Kong; to explore how primary school English teachers manage the relationship between testing and student learning; to analyse how teachers develop formative instructional power from regular internal school tests; to explore how lower achieving students respond to testing and how they might be supported before or after tests


List of Research Outputs

Bryant D.A. and Carless D.R. , Peer assessment in a test-dominated setting: Empowering, boring or facilitating examination preparation?, Educational Research for Policy and Practice . Netherlands, Springer, 2010, 9(1): 3-15.
Carless D.R. , Advisory Board Member, Language Teaching . US, Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Carless D.R. , Classroom assessment in policy context (Hong Kong), In: P. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGaw (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education . Oxford, Elsevier, 2010, 3: 438-442.
Carless D.R. , Context and Formative Assessment: A Framework, International Conference on Primary Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong, 25 - 27 November 2009 .
Carless D.R. , Developing Sustainable Feedback Practices, CETL Research Seminar, CETL, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.
Carless D.R. , Developing Sustainable Feedback Practices, CETL Research Seminar, CETL, The University of Hong Kong, 31 March 2010 .
Carless D.R. , From Testing to Productive Student Learning: Implementing Formative Assessment in Confucian-heritage Settings, International Conference on Primary Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong, 25 - 27 November 2009 .
Carless D.R. , From Zhu Xi to Churchill: Rebalancing Assessment, International Conference on Teaching and Learning of English for Children in Early Years in the Asia-Pacific Region, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong, 28 - 29 May 2010 . 2010.
Carless D.R. , Hong Kong Primary School Learners’ Perceptions of Peer and Self-assessment: Possibilities and Tensions, International Conference on Primary Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong, 25- 27 November 2009 .
Carless D.R. , Learning-oriented assessment: principles, practice and a project, In: L. Meyer, S. Davidson, H. Anderson, R. Fletcher, P. Johnston & M. Rees (Eds.), Tertiary Assessment and Higher Education Student Outcomes: Policy, Practice, and Research . Wellington, Ako Aotearoa, 2009, 11 pages.
Carless D.R. , Member of Editorial Board, Asia-Pacific Node of Assessment in Education . 2009.
Carless D.R. , Member of Editorial Board, Asian Journal of EFL . Time Taylor International Ltd, 2009.
Carless D.R. , Member of Editorial Board, English Teaching (Korean Association for Teachers of English) . 2009.
Carless D.R. , Member of Editorial Board, Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics . 2009.
Carless D.R. , Revisiting the TBLT versus P-P-P Debate: Voices from Hong Kong, Asian Journal of English Language teaching . Hong Kong, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2009, 19: 49-66.
Carless D.R. and Deng C. , Task-based language teaching in Chinese contexts: Chall enges and possibilities, 3rd Hong Kong Association for Applied Linguistics (HAAL) Research Forum: Bringing together teachers and researchers to share their work in Applied Linguistics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 12 December 2009 .
Carless D.R. , Task-supported Teaching: Making tasks viable, The 2009 Asia TEFL International Conference: Collaboration and Creativity in English Language Teaching and Learning in Asia, Bangkok, Thailand, 7 - 9 August 2009 .
Carless D.R. , The Enhancement of Feedback Processes: the Role of the Student, The 8th Symposium on Standards Based Assessment and Honours Classification, CETL, The University of Hong Kong, 1 March 2010 .
Deng C. and Carless D.R. , The communicativeness of activities in a task-based innovation in Guangdong, China, Asian Journal of English Language Teaching . Hong Kong, The Chinese University Press, 2009, 19: 113-134.
Yang M. , Carless D.R. , Salter Menzo D.J. and Lam L.K. , Giving and receiving feedback: A Hong Kong Perspective, International Conference on Learning and Teaching . 2010.


Researcher : Chan CKK

Project Title: 8th European Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction Beliefs about Learning and Self-regulated Learning Strategies in Text Understanding
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 08/1999
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: European Conference on Computer-Supported Collaborativce Learning 2001 Beyond "Sitting Next to Each Other": A Design Experiment on Knowledge Building in Teacher Education
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 03/2001
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: 83rd American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting (AREA 2002) Assessing and Fostering Knowledge Building among Chinese Students in a Hong Kong Classroom
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Curriculum & Educational Studies
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 04/2002
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Developing knowledge-building communities among Chinese learners in Hong Kong classrooms
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2002
Abstract:
To design a learning environment premised on know ledge building to foster learning, understanding and collaboration; to assess the effects of the learning environment on students' growth and teachers' conceptual change; to investigate cognitive and social processes related to the growth of knowledge-building communities among Chinese learners.


Project Title: Computer Support for Collaborative Learning 2003 - Designing for Change in Networked Le arning Environments Assessing and Scaffolding Knowledge Building: Pedagogical Knowledge Building Principles and Electronic Portfolios
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2003
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Developing a knowledge building community: promoting scientific understanding and health education on SARS through knowledge forum
Investigator(s): Chan CKK, Law YK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: VCO SARS Research Fund
Start Date: 07/2003
Abstract:
To design, implement, and evaluate a learning environment that fosters students' development in scientific, health, and ethical understanding related to SARS; to examine how students in Hong Kong and Canada understand the SARS epidemics and to cultivate inter-cultural understa nding; to develop a knowledge building community amongst students, teachers, parents, health professionals, and scientistis on learning about SARS.


Project Title: Constructive alignment of learni ng and assessment: electronic portfolios in assessing and fostering student learning in computer-supported collaborative environments
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2003
Abstract:
To develop and examine an educational approach for assessing student learning in computer-supported collaborative learning environments premised on the principle of constructive alignment of learning and assessment. Specifically, includes (a) To design and implement the use of electronic portfolios in assess ing and fostering student learning in computer-based discussion; (b) To characterize student's collaborative process of learning using electronic portfolios; (c) To investigate the effects of electronic portfolios on students' con ceptual understanding and beliefs about learning.


Project Title: American Educational Research Association 2004 Annual Meeting Developing a Knowledge-building Community Among Pre-service Teachers Mediated by Knowledge Forum
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 04/2004
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Fostering collaborative knowledge building among undergraduate students through problem-centred computer-supported learning
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Run Run Shaw Research and Teaching Endowment Fund - Teaching Grants
Start Date: 02/2005
Abstract:
This project aims to design and evaluate an instructional approach that fosters knowledge building among undergraduate students taking an Applied Child Development Minor. (Please refer to hard copy for details)


Project Title: 2005 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association Children's Beliefs about Learning and Constructive Strategy Use in Text Processing
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 04/2005
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Designing Social-Constructivist Assessments in Fostering Collaborative Inquiry in Knowledge Forum
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 04/2006
Abstract:
Objectives. Educational and curriculum reforms have now placed much emphasis on new forms of learning including collaboration, information technology, and assessment for learning. This proposed project examines the question of how collaboration in computer-supported environments can be assessed, and specifically, how assessment can be designed to foster collaborative inquiry. Our objectives include: (a) To design an approach using principles of formative and embedded assessments for promoting collaborative inquiry; (b) To investigate the roles and effects of the assessment approach in fostering students' collaboration, inquiry, and doma in understanding, and (c) To characterize the process and dynamics of collaborative inquiry in computer discussion. Perspectives. Whereas networked computer discussion is becoming increasingly popular for promoting collaboration, many challenges and difficulties exist pertaining to the quality and variability in student participation. It is common to hear teachers wonder how to encourage students to write, how to assess student participation, and how to respond to the many notes. Research has shown that asking student to discuss on computer forums does not necessarily lead to high-quality discourse(Hewitt , 2003; Lipponen et al., 2003). Misalignments between learning and assessment often exist -- Computer forums encouraging inquiry and collaboration are advocated but assessment continues to be competitive and content-focused (Chan & van Aalst, 2004; Reeve, 2000). How can students best learn about inquiry and collaboration when enga ging in computer-supported discourse? How can classroom assessments tap into the theoretical nature of collaborative process while providing pedagogical support in scaffolding student understanding? Currently, much interest has been given to "assessment for learning" -- Assessment is seen not only to measure but also to provide positive backwash effects to foster student learning. Emphasis has been given to constructive alignment of learning and assessment, setting rubrics, making criteria transpare nt, and self- and peer assessments (Biggs, 1995; Gipps, 2004; Shepard, 2000). Accordingly, this project aims to design a social-constructivist assessment approach that turns the responsibility to students in evaluating their own progress guided by criteria in the context of Knowledge Forum, a computer-supported environment (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2003). My earlier research has examined the roles of electronic portfolio; this project continues this line of research refining the design and extending the assessment approach to incor porate both quantitative and qualitative strategies of assessments. Backgro und & Related Work The PI is an international collaborator of the OISE/U of Toronto Knowledge-Building Team (IKIT); knowledge building work spans over 20 countries. Her research on assessment in computer-supported knowledge building has led to international recognition including publication, dissemination of exemplary work among IKIT, and a Research paper award at an International conference on computer-supported learning, 2005. This proposed project continues her program of research on portfolio assessments now extending to designing more comprehensive strategies.


Project Title: 7th International Conference of the Learning Sciences Students Accessing their Own Knowledge Advances in a Knowledge-building Environment
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2006
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Fostering Epistemological Beliefs and Conceptual Change through Computer-Supported Knowledge Building
Investigator(s): Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 10/2006
Abstract:
Background & Objectives The goal of this study is to design and examine the roles of a computer-supported knowledge building environment (Knowledge Forum) in fostering students' epistemological beliefs and conceptual change. and in particular, to examine the reciprocal relations among epistemological beliefs, collaborative knowledge building, and conceptual change, as well as to track the trajectory of growth of beliefs and cognition in the context of high-school students learning chemistry on Knowledge Forum. A major strand of research in science education examines the nature of conceptual change and how it takes place (Driver & Oldham, 1986; Duit and Treagust, 2003). More recently, Sinatra and Pintrich (2003) introduced the notion of "intentional conceptual change" highlighting the role of student agency and ownership. They characterized intentional conceptual change as involving complex changes including cognitive, motivational and epistemological aspects primarily controlled and regulated by the learners. One particular area of interest is students' epistemological beliefs referring to their beliefs about the nature of learning and knowledge (e.g., certainty, simplicity, source of knowing and justification for knowing, Hofer, 2001; Hofer & Pintrich, 2003). Research on epistemologic al beliefs has examined how these beliefs influence students' learning approaches, reasoning modes, motivational beliefs, and academic achievement (e.g. Cano, 2005; Neber & Schommer-Aikins, 2002). Students having more sophisticated epistemological beliefs were shown to attain higher learning outcomes than those having more superficial views about the nature of learning and knowledge. The importance of examining and scaffolding student agency in scientific inquiry and understanding is now widely accepted. Much effort has been given to the design of learning environment to help students learn science using technology. A prominent example of an educational approach using computer technology is "knowledge building" that emphasizes knowledge as the accomplishment of a community, and that it is improv able by means of student discourse (Scardamalia and Bereiter, 2003). The knowledge building model uses the analogy of a community of scientists where students work together to inquire and to improve new knowledge for the community . The software most often used for supporting knowledge building is called Knowledge Forum (KF) designed to foster metacognition and knowledge co-construction. Similar to scientists engaging in inquiry, in knowledge-building communities, students make progress not only in improvin g their personal but also in developing collective knowledge (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1996). The knowledge building model has been tested and examined in many classrooms in North America, Europe and Asia. More recently, the investigator and her colleagues (van Aalst & Chan, in press; Lee, Chan & van Aalst, 2006) have developed a portfolio assessment approach in fostering and asses sing knowledge building providing examples of how the approach could work in the Hong Kong context.. Although there is much interest in scientific inquiry and epistemologic al beliefs, current work is mostly concerned with measuring the nature of beliefs and examining the relations of beliefs with student achievements in Western context. Although science researchers have generally proposed the importance of epistemological beliefs on conceptual change, empirical work is limited in particular those considering socio-cultural and contextual influences. For example, in a recent study, significant relationships between epistemological beliefs and conceptual change learning were obtained among American students, but no such relationships were found among their Chinese counterparts (Qian and Pan, 2002). More studies are needed to understand the nature of epistemological beliefs and its relations with conceptual change in different cultural contexts. Other major gaps also exist - Whereas much interest has been given to examining the nature of epistemological beliefs and its relations with achievement and other constructs, there is few work examining how epistemological beli efs might be fostered; how they can be changed; and in particular, how instructional interventions influence students' epistemological beliefs. I propose that knowledge-building pedagogy and environments emphasizing epistemic agen cy and metacognition would foster conceptual change and epistemological beliefs. When students collaborate on knowledge building environments, they would be better able to reflect on their beliefs and understanding as they compare others' beliefs and models with theirs. Conflictual views might be identified and resolved collaboratively when students are working as a community of learners and inquirers helping each others to improv e their knowledge. Apparently, when knowledge is constructed through discourse among participants, students would have more opportunities to understand that knowledge is not handed down by authority; they would have opportunities to reflect on the nature of knowledge and justify its nature and sources. Although there is extensive work on knowledge building, thus far, few work has systematically examined relations of student beliefs with collaborative knowledge building and conceptual change. Accor dingly, this project proposes to examine the roles of the knowledge building pedagogy in fostering epistemic beliefs, collaborat ive inquiry and conceptual change as well as to explore the dynamics and relations among these constructs. The following objectives are included: (a) To examine the roles of knowledge-building environment and to investigate if students with knowledge building instruction experience more shifts in epistemological beliefs and conceptual change; (b) To examine the relations and dynamics among epistemological beliefs, collaborative knowledge-building activities and conceptual change in knowledge building and regular classroom environm ents; and (c) To examine the developmental patterns and trajectories of changes in students' epistemological beliefs and knowledge building processes .


Project Title: Facilitating Teacher Change through a Knowledge Building Community
Investigator(s): Chan CKK, Law NWY, Ma SF, van Aalst JCW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 08/2007
Completion Date: 10/2009
Abstract:
To evaluate the effectiveness and impacts of a teacher network of knowledge building for enhancing teacher and student development in inquiry, collaboration, learning to learn, and domain understanding. To examine teachers' growth trajectory and specifically to inves tigate how they change in beliefs and practice and how they use pedagogical and assessment strategies to promote knowledge building in classrooms. To examine factors related to the development of the knowledge building community and to examine how teacher growth is supported, sustained and scaled up in the community.


Project Title: Professional development network for knowledge building in schools
Investigator(s): Chan CKK, Law NWY, van Aalst JCW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 09/2008
Abstract:
(1) To develop, sustain and scale up a network of teachers comprising teachers of diverse levels of experience in knowledge building in different KLAs, who will collaborate to develop quality learning for sustained good practice in schools. (2) To support network teachers with application of knowledge building and technology to implement curriculum and pedagogical innovations that align with 334 reform goals. (3) To develop repertoires of curriculum planning, pedagogies and assessment strategies that facilitate students' literacy, inquiry, collaboration and higher-order thinking. (4) To motivate teachers and students from different schools, locally and internationally, to work collaborati vely in building knowledge. (5) To foster the development of online and offline communities of practice for teachers for exchanging experience and good practice as well as collaborative knowledge building. (6) To present accounts of successful knowledge building practices. (7) To identify constraints and to examine the role of knowledge building for teacher and student developm ent. (8) To develop models that can illustrate how teacher network supported with knowledge building and technology can work successfully for teacher professional development.


Project Title: Sciences of Learning
Investigator(s): Chan CKK, Cheng KM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding for Strategic Research Theme
Start Date: 11/2008
Abstract:
n/a


Project Title: Developing a Teacher Community for Classroom Innovation through Knowledge Building
Investigator(s): Chan CKK, van Aalst JCW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
1) To evaluate the effects of a knowledge-building teacher community on enhancing teacher and student learning and inquiry to meet 21st century education goals with sustained growth. 2) To examine how teachers change and adopt classroom innovations and, more specifically, to characterize the nature of teachers’ knowledge and beliefs; to investigate how teachers transform their classroom practice; and to chart their developmental trajectories of change towards innovation. 3) To investigate the factors and conditions that facilitate the growth of the community and more specifically, to examine how teacher growth is supported, sustained, and scaled- up in the community.


List of Research Outputs

Au T.K.F. , Chan C.K.K. , Chan T.K., Cheung M.W.L., Ho J.Y.S. and Ip G.W.M., Research Output Prize - Folkbiology meets microbiology: A study of conceptual and behavioral change (co-author) , The University of Hong Kong . 2009.
Chan C.K.K. and Chan Y.Y. , Beliefs about Collaboration, Approaches to Learning, and Participation in Computer-Supported Knowledge-Building Inquiry., American Educational Research Association Annual Convention 2010 (AERA 2010) . Denver, CO, 2010.
Chan C.K.K. , Best Research Paper Award - Conceptual Change And Epistemic Growth Through Reflective Assessment In Computer-sup ported Knowledge Building, International Conference Of The Learning Sciences . 2010.
Chan C.K.K. , Editorial Board Member, Exceptional Children . 2010.
Chan C.K.K. , Editorial Board, Journal of the Learning Sciences . Routledge, 2010.
Chan C.K.K. , Editorial Board, Learning and Instruction . Elsevier, 2010.
Chan C.K.K. , Chan Y.Y. and Lei C. , Technology-Enhanced Innovation and Knowledge-Buildin g Teacher Community (Poster, CSCL Practices in Schools in Asia, International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE 2009) . 2009.
Chan C.K.K. , Understanding And Promoting Student Thinking And Learning, Invited Talk From Office Of Deputy Secretary Of Education, Education Bureau, 2009.
Chan Y.Y. and Chan C.K.K. , Assessing Integrative Learning Among Engineering Students Using a Structure-Behavior-Function Framework , Engineering Learning Workshop . 2010.
Chan Y.Y. and Chan C.K.K. , Engineering Undergraduates Learning Computer System Modeling in a Constructivist Learning Environment: Multi-Level Analysis of Collaborative and Individual Learning, American Educational Research Association Annual Convention 2010 (AERA 2010) . Denver, CO., 2010.
Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. , van Aalst J.C.W. , Chan C.K.K. , Kwan A.C.M. , Lu J. and Ki W.W. , Using Web 2.0 Technology To Support Learning, Teaching And Assessment In The Nss Liberal Studies Subject, 《學習2.0》: 一個支援新高中通識教育及「專題探究」的學習及評估平台, In: 胡少偉、楊沛銘, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Journal . 香港教師中心學報, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre, 2009, 8: 43-51.


Researcher : Chan CYJ

List of Research Outputs

Chan C.Y.J. , Wong L.L.N. and McPherson D.B. , Comparison of speech perception in noise and localiz ation abilities in young and middle-age adults, Research Conference of the American Academy of Audio logy . San Diego, 2010.
Wong L.L.N. , Chan C.Y.J. and Soli S.D., Development and application of the Hearing In Noise Test, Journal of Audiology and Speech Pathology . China, 湖北省邮政报刊发行局, 2009, 17: 323-326.
Wong L.L.N. , Chan C.Y.J. and Soli S.D., Development and application of the Hearing In Noise Test, Journal of Audiology and Speech Pathology . China, Journal of Audiology and Speech Pathology, 2009, 17(4): 323-326.
Wong L.L.N. , Kei J., Wong P. and Chan C.Y.J. , Measuring connected speech understanding ability in Cantonese-speaking children, Annual Convention of the American Academy of Audiology . USA, 2010.
Wong L.L.N. , Kei J., Wong P. and Chan C.Y.J. , Measuring connected speech understanding ability in Cantonese-speaking children, Annual Convention of the American Academy of Audiology . San Diego, USA, 2010.


Researcher : Chan ESY

Project Title: Adopting a PBL Approach to Enhance Liberal Studies Teachers' Competence
Investigator(s): Chan ESY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 07/2009
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
Key Research Questions: - What are the conceptions of Problem-based Learning(PBL) held by the pre-services PGDE Liberal Studies student teachers? - How can the employment of PBL enhance the pre-service Liberal Stud ies student teachers' competence in Liberal Studies teaching and learning?


List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Chan E.S.Y. , Cantonese Opera as Local Intangible Cultural Heritage: Constructing the Learning Experience in Formal Educat ion in Hong Kong, Symposium on the Politics & Poetics of Asian Intangible Cultural Heritage (Hong Kong) . The University of Hong Kong, 2009.


Researcher : Chan KMK

List of Research Outputs

Yiu E.M.L. , Kong J. , Fong R. and Chan K.M.K. , A preliminary study of a quantitative analysis method for high speed laryngoscopic images, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology . 2010, in print.


Researcher : Chan SCW

List of Research Outputs

Chan S.C.W. , Students’ understanding of generic skills development in a university in Hong Kong, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences . Istanbul, 2010, 2: 4815-4819.


Researcher : Chan YY

Project Title: Learning Sciences and Innovations in Undergraduate-Level Information Security Education
Investigator(s): Chan YY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 11/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
Project goals: To develop research strength in learning sciences and innovations in Engineering Education (information security education at undergraduate-level in particular) and to contribute to the research and enhancement of teaching and learning in higher educati on. Project objectives: 1) To undergo interdisciplinary research collaborations in information secretary education with academic members within and outside the Faculty and the University 2) To perform educational research within and outside engineering classes 3) To produce scholarly research outputs in relevant prestigious academic journals such as Journal of Engineering Education, IEEE Transactions on Education, and IEEE security & Privacy.


Project Title: Examining and Fostering Engineeri ng Students’ Epistemology and Understanding: Tackling Novel Problems about Internet Security with Zero Day Attacks
Investigator(s): Chan YY, Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
A) BACKGROUND The proposed project will investigate student epistemological development and domain understanding, premised on a framework that comprises inquiry-based learning and collaborative knowledge building, to examine how engineering undergraduates learn about internet security – a knowledge domain with rapid changes and frontier advancement. Specifically, we will examine how the exposure to zero day attacks (security attacks with no known solution exists so far) and the collaborative inquiry into threats mitigation scaffolded in an inq uiry-based environment, can foster students’ epistemological development and domain understanding. This project is an interdisciplinary research, in line with SRT Sciences of Learning, that integrates concepts and methodologies from the education and engineering disciplines. The project team comprised of members with academic backgrounds in learning sciences and engineering (information security). According to the U. S. National Academies, interdisciplinary research (IDR) is “one of the most productive and inspiring of human pursuits” and is the one that “provides a format for conversations and connections that lead to new knowledge” (The National Academies, 2005). This proposed project responds to such aspiration and will investigate how a key research theme in educational psychology (epistemological development) works in a specific subject context (zero day attack in information security in engineering discipline. B) PERSPECTIVE & PROBLEM Epistemological belief, or personal epistemology, is an individual’s belief about the nature of knowledge (Hofer & Pintrich, 2002). Studies of epistemological belief involve two key aspects: • The nature of knowledge (certainty of knowledge and simplicity of knowledge) • The nature of knowing (source of knowledge and justification of knowledge) which involve scientific investigation in the process of learning and knowing Although much progress has been made with psychological research on epistemological beliefs, key issues remain regarding domain specificity and expertise in subject domain knowledge for examining epistemological development (Hofer & Pintrich, 2002). This project that involves students tackling novel problems in information security provides a timely opportunity for investigation into epistemological belief with cross-disciplinary endeavors. A number of learning theorists advocated that a key goal of education is to foster epistemological development (Baxter Magolda, 1992; Hofer, 2001; King and Kitchener, 1994; Perry, 1970; Schraw & Sinatra, 2004). It is now widely accepted that learning can be influenced by the epistemological beliefs held by individuals (Ryan, 1984; Schommer, 1990; Schommer, Crouse, and Rhodes, 1992). Studies also show personal epistemology affects the learning process in various ways (Garrett-Ingram, 1997; Nussbaum, Sinatra and Poliqu in, 2008; Qian and Alvermann, 1995; Schommer, 1990). Information security offers an interesting domain for inquiry because change in the nature of security education is not only brought by technology as a tool but is itself a part of the evolving technology. Education and research of information security also experiencing the paradigm shift (Chin, Irvine & Frincke, 1997; Matt, 2002). There are novel problems that the community and information security researchers needs to tackle; it offers an authentic situation for understanding the evolving nature of knowledge and how new knowledge can be created collectively. With these various changes, research community that traditionally focuses on technical aspects of information security began to quest about the nature of information security knowledge (Pfleeger & Cooper, 1997; Irvine, Chin, Frincke, 1998; Matt, 2002) and how the domain knowledge is taught and constructed (Mclaughlin, 2003; Yasinsac et. al., 2003; Jayaratna, 2004; Chan & Wei, 2008, 2009). Rather than focusing on traditional aspects educating students about technical skills and problem solving procedures, commonly considered to be what engineering is about, the rapidly evolving nature of information security requires a fundamentally different approach. Current theories of learning indicate learning not merely as knowledge acquisition but knowledge creation in inquiring communities (Paavola, Lipponen, & Hakkarainen, 2004). Understanding information security as a rapidly changing field with no known solutions involves knowledge creatio n that advance the collective knowledge of the community. Against the background of tertiary curriculum reform, how students understand information security and specifically how they view the nature of knowledge in information security as related to deep understanding need to be investigated. Our previous work on knowledge building and collaboration (Chan, 2001, 2008; Chan, Burtis & Bereiter, 1997), inquiry-based learning (Chan, 2007), and conceptual change in security education (Chan & Wei, 2008, 2009) have shown that instructional interventions premised on constructivist learning environments are effective for student learning. We further propose to investigate into students’ epistemic development, as well as knowledge-construction strategies and the necessary conditions that foster such development. In particular, zero-day attacks will be employed as ill-structured and novel problems for students to conduct inquiry. By definition, zero-day attacks are computer threats that exploit application vulnerabilities that are unknown to software manufacturer and for which no security fix is available. Inquiry into zero-day attacks and any attempts to mitigate the threats directly contribute to extending the knowledge frontiers in information security. Understanding the nature and approach to information security thus requires and enables students to experience and be aware about the evolving nature of knowledge in 21st century, key issues of study of epistemology. C) OBJECTIVES 1) To characterize the epistemology of information security in contemporary network and computing environment. And to examine and characterize engineering undergraduates’ models of understanding and epistemological beliefs about internet security; in dimensions of certainty of knowledge, simplicity of knowledge, source of knowledge, and justification for knowing. 2) To evaluate the effects of instructional interventions (inquiry-based learning, collaborative learning) and environments (knowledge building, the internet-based learning environments) on students’ learning about information security. In particular, their domain understanding (academic outcome) and epistemological development will be examined; and specifically, towards which directions and extends that the dimensions of personal epistemology will move. 3) To examine how changes of epistemological belief and domain understanding scaffolded by the inquiry environment take place; specifica lly to investigate the roles of knowledge-construction and knowledge-creation strategies students adopt in understanding information security, and how their epistemological belief change and understanding of domain growth. And to consider the factors and conditions that foster epistemological development.


Project Title: 2009 International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ISPACS 2009) Using Anomalous Data to Foster Conceptual Change in Security Awareness
Investigator(s): Chan YY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 12/2009
Completion Date: 12/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Chan C.K.K. and Chan Y.Y. , Beliefs about Collaboration, Approaches to Learning, and Participation in Computer-Supported Knowledge-Building Inquiry., American Educational Research Association Annual Convention 2010 (AERA 2010) . Denver, CO, 2010.
Chan C.K.K. , Chan Y.Y. and Lei C. , Technology-Enhanced Innovation and Knowledge-Building Teacher Community (Poster, CSCL Practices in Schools in Asia, International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE 2009) . 2009.
Chan Y.Y. , 2010 Hong Kong Annual Gifted Education Conference, Mentorship Programme: Collaboration and Growth between University Professors and Gifted Students . 2010.
Chan Y.Y. and Chan C.K.K. , Assessing Integrative Learning Among Engineering Students Using a Structure-Behavior-Function Framework , Engineering Learning Workshop . 2010.
Chan Y.Y. and Chan C.K.K. , Engineering Undergraduates Learning Computer System Modeling in a Constructivist Learning Environment: Multi-Level Analysis of Collaborative and Individual Learning, American Educational Research Association Annual Convention 2010 (AERA 2010) . Denver, CO., 2010.
Chan Y.Y. , Hui D.W.Y. , Dickinson A.R., Chu D., Cheng D.K.W., Lau W.H., Wong J., Lo E.W.C. and Luk K.M., Engineering outreach: A successful initiative with gifted students in science and technology in Hong Kong, IEEE Transactions on Education . 2010, 53(1): 158-171.
Chan Y.Y. , Lam H.F., Yang H., Mark K.P. and Leung C.H., Hybrid Inquiry-based Learning, In: Fu Wang; Joseph Fong; Reggie Kwan, Handbook of Research on Hybrid Learning Models: Advanced Tools, Technologies, and Applications . Hershey, PA, 2010, 203-227.
Chan Y.Y. , Sciences of Learning: Trends and Opportunities in Global Pre-University Education, IEEE Teacher In-Service Program Workshop . 2009.
Chan Y.Y. , Using Anomalous Data to Foster Conceptual Change in Security Awareness. , International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ISPACS 2009) . Kanazawa, Japan, 2009.


Researcher : Chen F

List of Research Outputs

Chen F. , Ma E.P.M. and Yiu E.M.L. , Effect of pitch and vowels on the quality of resonant voice production. , The Voice Foundation's 39th Annual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice . 2010.
Chen F. and Yiu E.M.L. , Measuring Bone Vibration in Resonant Voice., Hong Kong Speech and Hearing Symposium. . 2010.
Chen F. , Ma E.P.M. and Yiu E.M.L. , Measuring bone vibration in resonant voice, The Inaugural Hong Kong Speech and Hearing Symposium, Hong Kong, 8 May 2010 .


Researcher : Chen Y

List of Research Outputs

Chen Y. and Postiglione G.A. , Muslim Uyghur Students in a Dislocated Chinese Boarding School: Bonding Social Capital as a Response to Ethnic Integration, Race and Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Context s . Indian, Indiana University Press, 2009, 2(2): 287–309.


Researcher : Cheng B

List of Research Outputs

Cheng B. and Wang M. , Investigation of performance-oriented workplace E-Learning for human capital development, International Conference on e-Learning in the Workplace (ICELW) . 2010.
Cheng B. and Wang M. , Mining and Visualizing Domain Knowledge in E-Learning Enabled Workforce Development Using Co-Occurrence Analysis, Proceedings of 14th Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education (GCCCE) . 2010, Best Student Paper Award.
Wang M. and Cheng B. , Best Student Paper Award, Mining and Visualizing Domain Knowledge in E-Learning Enabled Workforce Development Using Co-Occurrence Analysis (authored by Bo Cheng and Minhong Wang), Proceedings of 14th Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education (GCCCE), Singapore (note: Bo Cheng is a PhD student supervised by Minhong Wang) . 2010.


Researcher : Cheng KM

Project Title: Forty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Emergence of Planning, but for What? - Education Reform in the State of Karnataka, India
Investigator(s): Cheng KM
Department: Curriculum & Educational Studies
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 03/2002
Abstract:
N/A




Researcher : Cheng MW

Project Title: Visualization in learning science – students understanding of 2D representations
Investigator(s): Cheng MW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 11/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
The representation of scientific concepts is inherently multimodal, i.e. it involves the combination of more than one mode of representation. Consequently, the successful learning of science involves the construction of mental associations among the macroscopic, (sub)mi croscopic and symbolic levels of representation of scientific phenomena using different modes of representation. Traditional linguistically-framed research studies are only capable of capturing some aspects of that understanding. It is suggest that students’ understanding of 2D (diagrammatic) representations – the visual mode – should be more extensively exploited in science educa tional research. The theoretical underpinning of the above ideas have been presented in a conference (Cheng & Gilbert, 2007) and published in a book chapter (Cheng & Gilbert, 2008). This project seeks to investigate the above theoretical stance empirically. At one level, the way that science teachers make use of 2D representati ons will be investigated. At another level, how students’ make meaning from the 2D representations presented by teachers, and how students represent their knowledge through the use of 2D representations will be studied. In this project, selected topics in the science subjects will be taken as cases for indepth analyses. The broad research questions are: (1) How do teachers make use of 2D representations in constructing the explanation of science concepts? (2) How do students make meaning out of 2D representations in their learning of science? How do they represent their understanding of science concep ts diagrammatically? It is expected that a framework that enriches how teachers made use of 2D representations in their explanations as established by Kress et al (2001) and Mortimer and Scott (2003) can be emerged from the data. Also, our knowledge on students’ conceptual understanding of science, as represented not by langua ge only, can be expanded.


Project Title: Visualization in learning science - students understanding of 2D representations
Investigator(s): Cheng MW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 07/2009
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
The representation of scientific concepts is inher ently multimodal, i.e. it involves the combination of more than one mode of representation. Consequently, the successful learning of science involves the construction of mental associations among the macroscopic, (sub)microscopic and symbolic levels of representation of scientific phenomena using different modes of representation. Traditional linguistically-framed research studies are only capable of capturing some aspects of that understanding. It is suggest that students’ understanding of 2D (diagrammatic) representations – the visual mode – should be more extensively exploited in science educational research. The theoretical underpinning of the above ideas have been presented in a conference (Cheng & Gilbert, 2007) and published in a book chapter (Cheng & Gilbert, 2008). This project seeks to investigate the above theoretical stance empirically. At one level, the way that science teachers make use of 2D representations will be investigated. At another level, how students’ make meaning from the 2D representations presented by teachers, and how students represent their knowledg e through the use of 2D representations will be studied. In this project, selected topics in the science subjects will be taken as cases for indepth analyses.


List of Research Outputs

Cheng M.W. and Gilbert J.K., Case studies of students' visualization of science – a dual coding perspective , European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) Conference (Istanbul, Turkey) . 2009.
Cheng M.W. , Hong Kong, In: B. Risch, Teaching Chemistry around the World . Münster, Waxmann, 2010, 91-110.
Cheng M.W. , Wong A.S.L. , Yung B.H.W. and Hodson D., Mediating Inquiry: Using Videos of Exemplary Teaching in Pre-Service Teacher Education, In: Kwo, O. (Ed.), Teachers as Learners: Critical Discourse on Challenges and Opportunities . Hong Kong, Springer/Comparative Education Research Centre, HKU, 2009, 109-132.
Cheng M.W. and Gilbert J.K., On the potential of dual coding theory in research into students’ visualization of science, International Conference of East-Asian Science Educati on (Taipei, Taiwan) . 2009, 10.
Wong A.S.L. , Yung B.H.W. and Cheng M.W. , A blow to a decade of effort on promoting teaching of nature of science, In: Lee, Y.J. (Ed.), The world of science education: Handbook of research in Asia . Rotterdam, Sense Publisher, 2010, 259-276.


Researcher : Cheung CK

Project Title: Humanities Conference 2003: Intern ational Conference on New Directions in the Humanities Media Education in Hong Kong: From Civic Education to Curriculum Reform
Investigator(s): Cheung CK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2003
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Globalization in the midst of globalization: Contextualizing civic education from an international perspective
Investigator(s): Cheung CK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 09/2006
Abstract:
To study globalization in the midst of globalization: contextualizing civic education from an international perspective.


List of Research Outputs

Cheung C.K. , A Study Of The Impact Of Media Education On Student's Medai Analysis Skills, World Summit On Youth And Culture . 2010.
Cheung C.K. , Integrating Media Education into Liberal Studies: a Positive Response to Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong, Curriculum Journal . Routledge, 2009, 20(4): 437-446.
Cheung C.K. , Making A Case For The Social Media Literacies: Extedning Henry Jenkins' Argument From Civic Engagement, Global Studies Conference . 2009.
Cheung C.K. , The Development Of Critical Analysis Skills In Media Education; An Interim Report, S.K. Media Education Report in 2010 . Chinese International Broadcasting Press, 3-13.


Researcher : Cheung KW

Project Title: Comparative and International Education Society 45th Annual Meeting The Emergence of Regulated Individualism: Case Study of an Educational Journal in China
Investigator(s): Cheung KW
Department: Education
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 03/2001
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Social and political conditions of educational policy process in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Cheung KW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Other Funding Scheme
Start Date: 05/2003
Abstract:
To give an overview of the conditions in which the recent educational reform is designed and implemented.


Project Title: Chinese private school legislati on
Investigator(s): Cheung KW
Department: Education
Source(s) of Funding: Other Funding Scheme
Start Date: 05/2003
Abstract:
To facilitate and inform legislation on minban schools.




Researcher : Cheung PKE

List of Research Outputs

Cheung P.K.E. , GID in Hong Kong: A critical overview of medical treatments for transsexual patients , As Normal As Possible: Negotiating Sexuality and Gender in China and Hong Kong . Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press, 2010, pp.75-85.
Cheung P.K.E. , 當輔導員遇上同志 How to work with sexual minorities (Educational DVD & Booklet) . 香港城市大學應用社會科學系 & 姊妹同志, 2009.


Researcher : Cheung WM

Project Title: Enhancing creative teaching behav iors by Learning Study and its impact on writing and reading abilities of Primary school students in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Cheung WM, Tse SK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 12/2009
Abstract:
To inform teachers and help them develop creative teaching behaviors to enhance their teaching in Chinese by means of Learning Studies; to examine the cultural relevance and validate the Creative Teaching Framework to creative teaching behaviors of teachers in Hong Kong; to examine the impact of Learning Studies on teachers’ creative teaching using the framework set out in objective 2 and qualitative analysis of lesso ns; to examine achievement gains in writing and reading among primary students as a result of the creative teaching developed by objective 1; to explore the relationship between creative teaching behaviors of teachers and achievement gains in writing and reading among primary students


List of Research Outputs

Cheung W.M. , Tse S.K. , Lam J.W.I. and Loh E.K.Y. , Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2006(PIRLS): Pedagogical correlates of fourth-grade students in Hong Kong, In: Rhona Stainthorp, Journal of Research in Reading . Horsforth, Leeds, UK, Blackwell Publishing, 2009, 32(3): 293-308.
Tsang H...W...H..., Leung A...Y..., Chung R...C...K..., Bell M... and Cheung W.M. , Review on predictors of vocational outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia: an update since 1998, In: Peter Joyce, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry . Stockholm, Sweden, Informa Healthcare, 2010, 44: 495-505.
Tsang H...W...H..., Fung K...M...T..., Leung A... .Y..., Li S...M...Y... and Cheung W.M. , Three year follow-up study of an integrated supported employment for individuals with severe mental illness, In: Peter Joyce, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry . Stockholm, Sweden, Informa Healthcare, 2010, 44: 49-58.
Tse S.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam J.W.I. and Cheung W.M. , Factors affecting the outstanding performance of Hong Kong primary school students in PIRLS 2006, China Reading . China, China Books Publisher, 2009, 1: 247-261.


Researcher : Chi J

Project Title: Parental beliefs about education and children's attainment: contextual variation among families in China
Investigator(s): Chi J
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund
Start Date: 03/2004
Abstract:
To study parental beliefs about education and children's attainment: contextual variation among families in China.




Researcher : Chigaeva S

Project Title: Academic reading and socialization practices of first-year university students
Investigator(s): Chigaeva S, Andrews SJ, Davison CM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2008
Completion Date: 07/2009
Abstract:
Purpose The goals of this proposed ethnographic study of academic reading are: 1. to examine the academic literacy experiences and academic socialization practices of first-year undergraduate students of the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Hong Kong; 2. to explore literacy expectations that university instructors have of their students and the role they assign to texts in the courses they teach; and 3. to trace developmental changes in students’ academic reading and socialization practices. Key issues and problems being addressed Literacy experiences and academic socialization practices of first-year students The importance of academic reading in the first year of university study cannot be overemphasi zed. Students transitioning from secondary school to university study are faced with vast amounts of condensed information presented in textbooks and lecture notes and with the challenge of engaging in critical, interpretative, and responsive processes of reading about complex not ions. It is through reading (as well as other literacy practices) that first-year students gain access to and socialize into academic practices of their chosen disciplines. While some students may find the transition phase unprobl ematic, recent studies suggest that students find it challenging to overcome the gap that exits between their high school and university study in terms of linguistic demands and expected literacy practices (e.g., Bangeni and Kapp, 2006; Spack, 1997; van Pletzen, 2006). Many first-year students in Hong Kong universities, in add ition, have to make a significant linguistic shift. Since 1998, in approximately 70% of Hong Kong’s secondary schools Chinese (Cantonese) has been used as the medium of instruction (Jackson, 2005). At the University of Hong Kong, where English is the medium of instruction, currently 33% of students come from Chinese medium schools (University of Hong Kong, 2008). Understanding how our students cope with the literacy demands of their new English-speaking environment is crucial to providing them with best learning opportunities. A detailed qualitative study of students’ existing rea ding practices will therefore enable our understanding of the students’ needs and problems and assist us in helping to ease their initiation into the academic literacy demands of university study. Course instructors’ expectations and use of texts The need to research course instructors’ expectations about reading and use of texts in the courses they teach has been strongly suggested by the results of the pilot study conducted in January-April, 2008. The pilot study showed that first-year students’ level of engagement with academic texts depends significantly on the importance their instructors assign to individual texts, the ways in which texts are used in lectures and tutorials, and the overall requirements for passing the course. Understanding course instructors’ views on the importance of readin g in their courses, their evaluation of students' literacy skills, their expectations and their use of texts will form a significant dimension of the study and provide means of triangulating student data. Students’ developmental changes The pilot study, which involved second-semester students, also demonstrated that by the time students start their second semester they may already have developed a set of techniques and approaches to dealing with academic texts. To understan d the nuances of students’ socialization practices and unfolding understandings of academic literacy, it is therefore important to engage with students in their first semester at the university and to trace the challenges they face in dealing with academic reading as well as the processes in which they engage to modify their literacy practices throughout the first year of study.




Researcher : Chow Y

List of Research Outputs

Law N.W.Y. , Chow Y. and Pelgrum W...J., Scale and Indicator Construction for the School and Teacher Levels, In: R. Carstens & W. J. Pelgrum (Eds.), IEA SITES 2006 Technical Report . Amsterdam, IEA, 2009, 93-125.
Law N.W.Y. and Chow Y. , Teacher Questionnaire Development, In: R. Carstens & W. J. Pelgrum (Eds.), IEA SITES 2006 Technical Report . Amsterdam, IEA, 2009, 29-40.


Researcher : Chu KW

List of Research Outputs

Chu K.W. , Wang M. and Yuen H.K. , Teacher perception of Implementation of Knowledge Management in School, 6th International Conference on Knowledge Manageme nt . 2009.
Chu K.W. , Wang M. , Zhou S. and Yuen H.K. , Teachers’ Perception on Knowledge Management: A Case Study in a Secondary School, 4th International Conference on e-Learning, Toront o, Canada: University of Toronto . 2009.


Researcher : Chu SKW

Project Title: Support for internship and final year projects for undergraduate students at the University of Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Chu SKW, Tiwari AFY, Law NWY, Kennedy DM, Kwan ACM, Warning PB, Lee FWL
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Teaching Development Grants
Start Date: 03/2007
Abstract:
To enhance HKU undergraduate students' experiential learning in their interships and final year projects (FYP). In particular, it investigates the effectiveness of using IT in facilitating such learning activities. Through working collaboratively with colleagues from various faculties/departments, this project examines different programs in the university (e.g. Bachelor of Science in Information Management in the Faculty of Education, Bachelor of Nursing in the Faculty of Medicine, and Bachelor of Social Work in the Faculty of Social Sciences) with elements of interships and/or FYP. This study will investigate success factors and ways for students to optimize their learning during these activities. Similarities and differences between student internships from different courses will be identified with the intention of developing generic support structures for students' needs shared across programs. Recognition of specialized needs in specific programs will lead to tailored support structures. A general model may be developed that can be adapte d to different environments (and/or programs). Similarly, assessment structures will be compared among different interships with the goal of developing an assessment template that can be modified to suit specific programs.


Project Title: Use of TWiki in facilitating stud ents' learning through 3 kinds of knowledge building activities in three courses
Investigator(s): Chu SKW, Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Run Run Shaw Research and Teaching Endowment Fund - Teaching Grants
Start Date: 06/2007
Abstract:
Introduction The purpose of this case study is to examine the effectiveness of using customized online collaboration spaces using TWiki, an open-source onl ine collaborative groupware, in facilitating students’ learning through three different kinds of knowledge building activities designed for three different courses - a master level course on research method, a master level course on children literature, and an undergraduate course on knowledge management. Literature review Ebersbach, Glaser, and Heigi (2006, p. v) defined wikis as “tools with which lots of people with a minimum of organization, planning, money and time can create something together and communicate with each other from several scattered computers or over the Internet”. Wikis are thus powerful tools for people to work collaborative together online on a project. The most famous project developed by the wiki technology is Wikipedia – the largest free online encyclopedia in the world. It contains over one million articles on different topics which are authored and maintained by thousands of people worldwide (Richardson, 2005). While wiki was first developed as a tool for co-construction of knowledge, it has been welcomed by educators also as a powerful learning support tool (Richardson, 2006). On the other hand, very few research have been published on applying wikis in teaching and learning. The few that can be identified all showed wikis to be an effective tool for students’ online collaboration (Bold, 2006; Nicol, Littlehohn, and Grierson, 2005; Raman, Ryan, Olfman, 2005). Raman, Ryan, and Olfman (2005) focused their investigation on the use of a wiki to facilitate knowledge management in an academic environment and they found that wikis can support collaborative knowledge creation and sharing in an academic setting. And the success in applying wikis in education depends on the teacher’s and the students’ familiarity with wiki technology, careful planning for the implementation, suitable class size, and students’ motivation in engaging in discovery learning . Nicol, Littlehohn, and Grierson (2005) used TikiWiki, a form of wiki, as the online collaborative space for 40 third year engineering product design students to engage in an engineering design project. The students were divided into teams of four to work on their projects over a period of six weeks. The researchers found Tiki Wiki to be an effective tool for students to create and structure the following kinds of resources: (1). Briefing information: class instruction documents; (2). Supplied information: those selected by faculty; (3). Retrieved information: information identified by students as relevant; (4). Production information: sketches, draft reports, calculations, development of concepts, reco rding of design decisions, etc.; (5). Output information: students’ final presentation of developed concepts (both product and process) and final version of their reports; (6). Management information: students’ team information and their task allocation. Students in Nicol, Littlehohn, and Grierson (2005)’s study commented that TikiWiki helped them share resources at any time from anywhere without the need to meet face-to-face. Students not only shared their resources among their own teams, but also across the teams. The author concluded that the shared workspace provided by TikiWiki was a powerful tool to support collaborative learning in open-ended engineering projects. The sharing of resources among teams and between teams helped to stimulate students to generate new, innovative ideas for their designs. They also developed better information literacy skills, particularly in organizing the information found and those they created. The shared online space facilitated the students’ collaborative design process and there was potential for reuse of the rich set of student-developed resources by future cohorts of design students. Key issues and problems being addressed As discussed earlier, the application of wikis in education is an emerging field such that not much has been published about the issues of pedagogic design and facilitation for this new form of learning. Of the publications reviewed above, they showed that the construction of resource collections benefits learning and that a sensible resou rce structure facilitates team collaboration (Nicol, Littlehohn, and Grierson, 2005). However, the processes and activities that took place during resource construction was not yet fully understood. Besides, investigations on how to configure a wiki for more effective sharing for different kinds of collaborative tasks, information structures, and teacher interventions are much needed to make this new pedagogical organization more useful and more widely adopted. Another worthwhile study is to investigate how best to transfer the resources and knowledge accumulated by students who have just completed their projects to future cohorts of students. This proposed study will examine students’ group projects in three different courses. For the research methods course, the group project is to design a small research, carry it out, and write up the findings in a report as the final product. The children literature course requires students to produce a multimedia bilingual e-book as the final group product. Students taking the knowledge management course will create in groups a piece of knowledge to contribute to Wikipedia. As the level of complexity in the group projects of the three courses are different, this proposed study will first focus on the design of three different wiki templ ates to tailor for the specific requirements of the three projects. Among the many different forms of wikis that are available as freewares, Ebersbach, Glaser, and Heigi (2006, p. 147) claimed that TWiki “is without doubt the flagship of the wiki variants” and so this proposed research thus select TWiki as the choice for building the wiki templates. This study will then investigat e the usefulness of TWiki in facilitating students’ knowledge building. Nicol, Littlehohn, and Grierson (2005) found the wiki technology to be a powerful tool to support collaborative learning in open-ended engineering projects. Students’ co-construction process will be examined to identify whether there is growth, modification an d refinement in the students’ knowledge and whether students will benefit from peer to peer (within the same group) review, and group to group review. The impact of the various scaffolding designs on capturing and sharing information and on knowledge building will also be examined.


Project Title: An examination of social bookmarking tools for personal and group information management
Investigator(s): Chu SKW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 04/2008
Abstract:
This is an exploratory study into the social book marking phenomenon. This study tries to examine two to three social bookmarking tools for two user types - students and academics/scientists - in regards of their usefulness for personal and group information management, in inform ation discovery, and group networking. It also aims at finding out the educational applications of the tools. While there is an explosion of metadata, folksonomies and tagging are still in their infancies (Fichter, 2006), very few articles have been written on social bookmarkin g. The ones that have been published were mainly about defining social bookmarking and its related concepts (Golder & Huberman, 2006) and some general discussion on social bookmarking tools (Hammond, Hannay, Lund and Scott, 2005; Lund, Hammond, Flack and Hannay, 2005). Hotho, Jäschke, Schmitz, and Stumme (2006, p.3) claimed that “there are currently virtually no scientific public ations about folksonomy-based web collaboration systems. The main discussion on folksonomies and related topics is currently taking place on mailing lists only”. Social bookmarking services, such as Del.icio.us, have successfu lly acquired two million users since its launch in 2003 (Schachter, 2007). Del.icio.us [http://del.icio.us], being the most commonly and widely used tools among users, is basically a server-based system with a simple-to-use interface that allows users to organize and share bookma rks on the Internet. These tools yield benefits for each individual user (e.g. organizing one’s bookmarks in a browser-independent, persistent fashion) without too much overhead. There is a proliferation of resources in the Web that makes it difficult to remain up-to-date and track on documents related to one’s own area of interest. The usage of social bookmarking tools indicates that web- and folksonomy-based approaches seem to be the solution to overcome this difficulty (Hotho & et al., 2006). Most social bookmarking tools allow people to assign a number of tags (keywords) to a bookmark, representing the key ideas covered in the website that the person bookmarks. This is a significant change when compared to the traditional information structures where only subject specialists will classify informati on in websites. Instead, anyone can now contribute to this task (Godwin-Jones, 2006). Gordon-Murnane (2006) further discussed the usage of the social booking tools. He believed that social bookmarking tools have begun serving academic and scientific interests. Several tools serving the function have been created, such as CiteULike [http://www.citeulike.org/] and Connotea [http://www.connotea.org/]. CiteULike is a free service designed for academics to “share, store, and organize the academic papers they are reading” and the software “automatically extracts the citation details” (“CiteULike FAQ”, n.d.). The Connotea is designed primarily for the scientific community. It captures the bibliographic information from scientific articles and journals. Gordon-Murnane claimed that apart from keeping, organizin g and managing bookmarks, another goal of social bookmarking tools is to aid the search for content. Unlike the traditional search engines, social bookmarking tools make use of metadata or tags in web pages. With the combination of the use of metadata or tags and the power of search, social bookmarking tools can be a powerful search tool to find information in the chaos of the Web. To better understand grassroots classification, Mathes (2004) did a research on examining user-generated metadata, such as tags created by users of a document, which was implemented and applied in Del.icio.us and Flickr [http://www.flickr.com/] (a photo management and sharing web application). It was suggested that the tagging function of these tools encourages users to organize information in their own ways. User-generated metadata is responsive to user needs and involves th e users of information actively in the organizational system. A review on social bookmarking tools, particularly Connotea, and their advantages was summarized by Hammond et al. (2005) and in its companion paper by Lund et al. (2005). Connotea makes sharing of personal collecti ons of resources much easier than before. Instead of placing materials hierarchically in folders, Connotea allows users to create simple tags to the bookmarks. Tagging makes the organization of bookmarks more flexible, multi-faceted and spacious. Furthermore, all bookmarks posted to these tools are visible to registered users, which take the concept of sharing to a higher level. The openness benefits “not just from the ease with which it allows explicit sharing with friends and colleagues, but from many users storing their bookmarks in the same space” (Lund et al. 2005, p. 4). Golder and Huberman (2005) investigated the usage patterns of a collaborative tagging system. They analyzed the structure of collaborative tagging systems. They discovered regu larities in the user activity, tag frequencies, kinds of tags used, bursts of popularity in bookmarking and a remarkable stability in the relative proportions of tags within a given URL. They found that when the users discover new interests, they may add new tags to categorize and describe the bookmarks. Therefore users’ tags grow over time and expand in different growth rates. The tags show how users’ interests develop and change over time. The above review shows that almost no research has been done on user perspective in regards of social bookmarking systems. Golder and Huberman’s (2005) article did touch on the users’ patterns of the tagging system. However, it relied on the log data only. In addition, there is no direct comparison of the use of the tools between different user groups. Therefore, the aims of this article are to examine the users’ perspectives from students and academics/scientists in terms of: (a) how they organize their bookmarks and their rationales behind in a social bookmarking tool; and (b) how they make use of the tools to conduct information search and their perceived usefulness of the tools for info rmation discovery. Moreover, Golder and Huberman (2005, p. 207) stated that “While this research was focused on Del.icio.us, we expect that these findings will apply to other, similar tagging system”. To follow up on Golder and Huberman’s research, this research will analyze the log data through data mining in tools other than Del.icio.us to explore: (a) if same findings will be derived from other social bookmarking tools; and (b) areas that have not been investigated by Golder and Huberman (2005).


Project Title: Applying Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning and English in the Discipline in the BSc[Information Management] program
Investigator(s): Chu SKW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Teaching Development Grants
Start Date: 12/2008
Abstract:
This project will focus on the examination of effectiveness and identification of key challenges for the application of the OBTL approach, focusing on knowledge management and sharing as well as applying OBTL to the FYP course in the BScIM program. These approaches have great potential for transfer to other foundation courses within the BScIM program (program-based) or to other programs within the Faculty of Education, e.g. Language Education, Speech and Hearing Sciences, and Exercise and Health (cross-disciplinary) or to other faculties (University-wi de).


Project Title: Development of social sciences postgraduate students’ information literacy
Investigator(s): Chu SKW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 12/2008
Abstract:
Introduction In this Google age where enormous amount of information is available on the internet, people may think that university students, especially those at postgraduate level, would not have problems in information literacy – the ability to find, access and use information sources (Kuhlthau, Maniotes, Caspar i, 2007). Past research showed that the information literacy level of many university students, including postgraduate students, is still far from satisfactory in this information-rich environment (Chu & Law, 2008; Graham & Metaxas, 2003; Laverty, Reed, & Lee, in press). Even by year 2008, a PhD student in Education, who is a computer expert teaching computer programming at the tertiary level, encountered many difficulties finding relevant sources for his doctoral research. A 1.5 hours information search tutorial from the Princ ipal Investigator (PI) helped this student identified key sources that he has long been looking for. He said: “I have been seeking actively for what I need for my research in the past two months but still could not find it. If I had taken this lesson earlier, those two months could have been spared.” Purpose: This study on research postgraduate students aims at (1) measuring the information literacy level of these students; (2) identifying the problems and challenges faced by them in terms of finding key sources for their resea rch; (3) examining if information literacy training is still desirable at postgraduate level; (4) trying to verify and generalize the findings uncovered in a former exploratory study by including more participants; and (5) investi gating the cross-cultural components in information literacy. Literature review Bruce (2004) points out that information literacy is described as “the overreaching literacy essential for twenty-first century living” and “inextricably associated with information practices and critical thinking in the information and communication technology environment.” (Introduction Section). Since being information literate is so important, many educators, especially the librarians, designed sessions (Wong, Chan, & Chu, 2006), online tutorials (Chu, 2007), or even an entire course (http://teaching.ust.hk/~gned008/) to equip students with such knowledge. Wilder (2005) held an opposite view and argued that instruction in information literacy should be replaced by instruction in other areas. He believed that students have their own ability to filter the information they found. However, preli minary findings from the iSkills assessment measuring students’ information literacy proficiency suggested that many tested college-age students could not find and use information effectively (ETS, 2006). For example, only 40% of the 6,300 test takers used multiple search terms to narrow down the results and only 50% of them used strategy that minimized irrelevant results when searching a large database. These findings suggested that instruction in information literacy would still be needed at undergraduat e or even postgraduate level. Dunn (2002) explored ways to assess students’ information literacy level and she suggested that teaching interventions to improve student performance could be designed by more accurate measures of students’ knowledge and skills. Maybee’s study (2006) revealed that current information literacy pedagogy is always tied to a set of skills and cannot adequately address students’ needs. She believed that with better understanding of how undergraduates use information, educators could design more effective information literacy instruction. After all, most information seeking studies on students were conducted at the undergraduate level. Studies focusing on postgraduate level, particularly on research students (MPhil and PhD), are rare in the literature (Barry, 1997; Chu 2008; Libutti & Kopala, 1995). The PI of this proposed study did one study with research students that has resulted in different publications (Chu & Law, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008) and found that they (including the PhDs) encountered many problems in finding key information for their research. It was found that research students need to achieve a competent or proficient level of information search expertise to locate relevant sources for their research and it took time for them to develop such expertise. Kuhlthau, Maniotes and Caspari’s (2007) definition for information literacy consists of two aspects: (1) the ability of searching relevant information and, (2) the ability to use and manage the information sources effectively. Previous studies have dealt with the first aspect, but the second aspect seems to be an unexplored area, especially at the postgraduate level. Several studies (e.g. Kessler & Van Ullen, 2005; Wilson, 2006) have pointed out the usefulness of bibliographic management tools to help students manage and use their information found. In particular, EndNote, a PC-based personal citation prog ram, is often used by faculty and students to create, manage and format bibliographic citations in publication styles (Kessler & Van Ullen, 2005). As noted by Wilson (2006), EndNote allows users to create citations by simply dragging and dropping PDF files onto an EndNote referenc e, saving much time and work for the users. Apart from bibliographical tools, some researchers found social bookmarking tools useful for managing information sources. Gordon-Murnane (2006) believed that these tools, such as CiteULike [http://www.citeulike.org/] and Connotea [http://www.connotea.org/], have begun serving academic and scientific interests. CiteULike is a free service designed for academics to “share, store, and organize the academic papers they are reading” and the software “automatically extracts the citation details” (“CiteULike FAQ”, n.d.). Connotea is design ed primarily for the scientific community. It captures the bibliographic information from scientific articles and journals. The above review suggests a gap in the literature in three areas. First, there are few longitudinal studies that track postgraduates’ development in information search. PI’s former research tried to fill this gap, but it was only an exploratory qualitative study with a small sample size of six students for each of the two disciplines examined. Similar studies with a larger sample size are needed to generalize findings. Second, very few cross-cultural studies on students’ information literacy were found in the literature. Such studies will help enrich our understanding in the effect of cultural elements in information literacy. Third, the ways that students manage and use informatio n has rarely been explored in formal research. Such research is necessary to develop effective teaching interventions in information literacy.


Project Title: Promoting a Collaborative Teaching Approach to Inquiry Project-based Learning with Web 2.0 at Upper Primary Levels
Investigator(s): Chu SKW, Ho SY, Tavares NJ, Siu FLC
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Quality Education Fund
Start Date: 04/2009
Abstract:
The project aims at promoting the integration of students’ knowledge and skills across subject discipline areas through an inquiry project-based learning with Web 2.0 tools in 4 primary schools.


Project Title: 2009 ASIS&T Annual Meeting The development of students’ information literacy and IT skills via inquiry PBL and collaborative teaching
Investigator(s): Chu SKW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 11/2009
Completion Date: 11/2009
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: The affordances and constraints of wiki: A case study of university students’ interaction with wiki for group work management and documentation
Investigator(s): Chu SKW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
Researchers have recently begun to explore the potential of Web 2.0 technologies in enhancing student learning. One of the most widely used tools under this rubric is wiki, which can be used to engage individuals in collaborative knowledge construction (Parker & Chao, 2007). Recent research has supported the usefulness of wiki, particularly for tasks that are collaborative in nature (Bower, Woo, Roberts, & Watters, 2006). They have the potential to facilitate student interaction, thus enabling students to collaborate in project work (Augar, Raitman, & Zhou, 2004). These advantages may make wiki particularly relevant to group project design and management from the primary to the tertiary level (Fountain, 2007; Molyneaux & Brumley, 2007; Lamb, 2004). On a theoretical level, several studies have started to investigate the application of wikis, explore its effects on student learning, and assess its effectiveness for instruction across different subject disciplines in secondary and tertiary education (Bold, 2006; Chu, 2008; Coyle, 2007; Engstrom & Jewett, 2005; Guzdial, Rick, & Kehoe, 2001; Honjegger, 2005; Mak & Coniam, 2008; Nicol, Littlejohn, & Grierson, 2005). A recent study on the use of wikis in undergraduate and postgraduate students in the University of Hong Kong showed positive perceptions of students towards the use of wikis (Chu, Cheung, Ma, & Leung, 2008). Among postgraduate student s, the quality of their output, as measured by grades, was also seen to be better when a wiki platform was introduced. However, there is a dearth of research on the underlying processes in the students’ use of wiki. Most studies have used a relatively simplistic model claiming that wiki leads to better learning outcomes but they were unable to identify the specific affordances in wiki and the nature of the interaction between the student and wiki that presumably facilitated learning. For example, there is limited information on how students interact with a wiki platform. More specifically, research that examines the actual interactions with wikis of students in higher education is scarce (Elgort et al., 2008). In addition, the characteristics of the wiki pages that are created by students are relatively un explored. This is especially surprising since the changes made by the students in the wiki pages and the content of these pages can indicate the level of the cognitive learning attained by the students. From a more practical perspective, there is also a lack of research on the affordances and constraints in wiki. Affordances refer to action possibilities that are readily perce ived by a person during interaction with an object or environment (Norman, 1988). Educational affordances refer to the perceived action possibilities that result from the interaction between properties of an educational interventi on and the characteristics of the learner that enable learning to take place (Kirschner, 2002). As students engage in collaborative group project work using wiki, they come to perceive its affordances and constraints. Identification of these affordances and constraints in wiki can have implications for improving its functionality and effectiveness. Based on the gaps identified above, this research has four main objectives: • Identify the affordances and constraints of wiki in group work management and documentation • Explore how students utilize these affordances and deal with the constraints of wiki • Investigate the nature of the interaction between the students and the wiki platforms during the different phases of the group project • Describe the level of cognitive learning students attained as they revised their wiki pages


Project Title: Provision of Services for Conducting an Evaluative Study on the Roles of Teacher-Librarians in Public Sector Schools
Investigator(s): Chu SKW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
The project aims to assess how effective teacher -librarians ("TLs") in Hong Kong primary and secondary public schools have taken up the prescribed roles as specified in the guides published by EDB. Factors that impede or promote the successful transformation of TLs’ roles will be studied. Based on the analysis, a model will be developed to facilitate TLs fulfilling their roles as specified in the guides.


Project Title: Using Web 2.0 technologies to enhance experiential and capstone learning in different HKU faculties
Investigator(s): Chu SKW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Teaching Development Grants
Start Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
advance the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies in this university through implementing the technology to support internships / group projects / FYPs (“final year projects”) in 6 programmes


List of Research Outputs

Choi S.T.P., Chu S.K.W. , Cheng M.M.Y., Koo P.L.H., Leung D.W. and Fung S.M.H., Applying Web 2.0 in Medical-Related Organizations, Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM] . 2009.
Chu S.K.W. , Early Career Research Output Awards 2010, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.
Chu S.K.W. , Inquiry project-based learning with a partnership of three types of teachers and the school librarian, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology . 2009, 60: 1671-1686.
Chu S.K.W. , Invited talk: A collaborative teacher/librarian approach for inquiry PjBL with Web 2.0 at upper primary levels. Presented at the Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute Company Ltd., HKSAR, Jun, 2010.
Chu S.K.W. , Invited talk: A collaborative teacher/librarian approach to inquiry project-based learning with Web 2.0 at upper primary levels. Presented at Your School Library Fourth International Online Conference, Jun, 2010.
Chu S.K.W. , Invited talk: A collaborative teaching approach to inquiry project-based learning with Web 2.0 at upper primary levels. Presented at the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication & Information, NanYang Technological University, Singapore, Jun, 2010.
Chu S.K.W. , Invited talk: Partnership of the School Librarians and Teachers in the 21st Century Schools. Presented at the Hong Kong Teacher Librarians’ Association, HKSAR, June, . Hong Kong, 2010.
Chu S.K.W. , Ritter W. and Hawamdeh S., Managing knowledge for global and collaborative innovations, Series on Innovation and Knowledge Management, (Vol. 8), Singapore, Singapore: World Scientific, 2009, (Vol. 8).
Chu S.K.W. , In: Chu, S., Managing knowledge for global and collaborative innovations. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management & 2009 International Symposium on Knowledge and Systems Sciences [CD-ROM]. . Hong Kong, Hong Kong: CITE, 2009.
Chu S.K.W. , Kennedy D. and Mak Y.K. , MediaWiki and Google Docs as online collaboration tools for group project co-construction. , Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM]. . 2009.
Chu S.K.W. , Regional Editor for Asia, Journal of Information & Knowledge Management . 2010.
Chu S.K.W. , Gorman G.E. and Du H.S., Social Bookmarking: An Empirical Analysis of Connotea Users’ Perspectives, CITE Research Symposium 2010 .
Chu S.K.W. , Special Issue Editor, Journal of Global Information Management . 2009.
Chu S.K.W. , Chow K. and Tse S.K. , The development of students’ information literacy an d IT skills via inquiry PBL and collaborative teaching, Proceedings of the 2009 ASIS&T Annual Meeting . Canada, 2009.
Chu S.K.W. , Malhotra N., Ho I., Leung D. and Mo J., Using blogs to support information, knowledge sharing , and provide emotional support during internship, Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM] . 2009.
Chu S.K.W. , Mak Y.K. and Wong P.T.Y., WiseNews database for upper primary students and teac hers?, International Conference on Primary Education . The Hong Kong Institute of Education, 2009.
Du H., Chu S.K.W. and Lam F., Social Bookmarking and Tagging Behavior: An Empirical Analysis on Delicious and Connotea., Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM]. . 2009.
Kwan A.C.M. , Chu S.K.W. , Tiwari A.F.Y. , Zhou P. , Leung D. and Mo J., Using blogs to support internship for information management and nursing students. , Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM]. . 2009.
Leung K. and Chu S.K.W. , Using Wikis for Collaborative Learning: A Case Study of an Undergraduate Students’ Group Project in Hong Kong., International Conference on Knowledge Management 2009 .
Liang M., Chu S.K.W. , Siu F.L.C. and Zhou P. , Comparing User Experiences in Using Twiki & Mediawiki to Facilitate Collaborative Learning. , Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM]. . 2009.
Warning P.B. , Chu S.K.W. and Kwan A.C.M. , Information Seeking And Stopping Among Undergraduate Interns., Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM] . 2009.
Wong J.Y.H. , Chu S.K.W. , Tiwari A.F.Y. , Fung S. and Mo J., The use of blog to facilitate clinical learning during practicum among undergraduate nursing students: a preliminary study., Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Knowledge Management: Managing Knowledge for Global and Collaborative Innovations [CD-ROM] . Hong Kong, 2009.
Woo M. and Chu S.K.W. , Best Student Paper Award, The 6th International Conference on Knowledge Management, 2009 . 2009.
Woo M. , Chu S.K.W. , Ho A.W.Y. and Li X. , Collaborative Writing with a Wiki in a Primary Five English Classroom., Chu S., Ritter W. and Hawamdeh S. (Eds.), Series on Innovation and Knowledge Management - Vol. 8, Managing Knowledge for Global and Collaborative Innovations . Singapore, Singapore: World Scientific, 2009, 8: 193-206.


Researcher : Chung ALS

Project Title: Web-based learning and teaching support (WLTS) materials for the student assessment of the basic competency assessments (BCA) in the key learning area of Chinese language at key stages 1 and 2
Investigator(s): Chung ALS, Ki WW, Lam HC
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 12/2002
Abstract:
To provide web-based learning and teaching support materials for the student assessment of the basic compe tency assessments in the key learning area of Chinese language at key stage 1 (listening) and key stage 2 (listening and reading).


List of Research Outputs

Chung A.L.S. and Ng F.P. , Biography of Leung Sing Boh (in Chinese) . 梁醒波傳, Hong Kong, ET Press, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Chung A.L.S. and Lam J.W.I. , Construing the Learning Community of Cantonese Opera Education: Supporting the New Senior Secondary Curric ulum Reform, 共同建構粵劇教育的學習社群──支援新高中課程改革, Legend of the Purple Hairpin Classroom . 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009, 14-20.
Ng F.P. , Chung A.L.S. and Lam J.W.I. , Legend of Purple Hairpin Classroom . 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Chung A.L.S. , Legend of the Purple Hairpin Classroom (in Chinese), 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Chung A.L.S. , The 3rd phase of the “Seed Project of Cantonese Opera --- Integrate Cantonese Opera in Education”: Hong Kong Arts Development Awards - Arts Education Awards, Non-scho ol division (Bronze Prize), 香港藝術發展獎 藝術教育獎(非學校組)銅獎, Hong Kong Arts Development Council . 2010.
Ng F.P. and Chung A.L.S. , The Art of Leung Sing Boh (in Chinese) . 梁醒波傳﹕亦慈亦俠亦詼諧, Hong Kong, ET Press, 2009.
Ng F.P. and Chung A.L.S. , The publication and the exhibition of Leung Sing-boh Biography were elected as the Top 10 News in Cantonese Opera Industry 2009, 十大梨園新聞, Radio Television Hong Kong, Radio 5 . 2010.


Researcher : Chung SY

List of Research Outputs

Chung S.Y. , Xue S.A. and Yiu E.M.L. , A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effectiveness of Chinese medicine decoction in treating phonotraum atic lesions. , The Voice Foundation's 39th Annual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice . 2010.
Chung S.Y. and Yiu E.M.L. , Effectiveness of Chinese Medicine in Treating Phonotraumatic Lesions: A Pilot Study. , Hong Kong Speech and Hearing Symposium. . 2010.


Researcher : Chung YB

List of Research Outputs

Yuen M.T. , Li H. , Siu A.C.K. , Wong M.Y.P. , Sun R.C.F. and Chung Y.B. , Understanding and guiding whole-person development. Learning Guide Part 1. pp.67 . Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education, 2010.
Yuen M.T. , Li H. , Siu A.C.K. , Wong M.Y.P. , Sun R.C.F. and Chung Y.B. , Understanding and guiding whole-person development. Learning Guide Part 2. pp.45 . Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education, 2010.


Researcher : Churchill D

Project Title: Design of Effective Interactive Learning Objects for Pocket PC delivery
Investigator(s): Churchill D
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 05/2005
Abstract:
The aim of this project is to develop a strategy that enhances the design of learning objects for Pocket PC mode of delivery. This will be achieved through understanding the limitations of this environment for effective visualization and interactivity (Bederson and Shneiderman, 2003; Fraser, 1999; Nardi, 1997; Tufte , 1983). Once developed the strategy will be useful as heuristics for individuals engaged in the design of learning objects for delivery in Pocket PC environments. These individuals might be teachers or multimedia designers engaged in preparation of educational resources. This understanding will also be useful as a guideline to teachers who intend to use such technology with their students, providing information on the limitations as well as the kinds of support necessary to ensure effective learning. Learning objects are most effective when designed as interactive visual representations of data, information and knowledge (Jonassen and Churchill, 2004; Churchill, 2004). Such interactive and visual representations allow learners to examine data, retrieve information, generalize, experiment, practice, test assumptions (Churchill, 2003). Use of an effective interactive learning object potentially leaves a residue in a form of a cognitive resource which adds to overall intellectual capacity of learners (Churchill, 2005). This understanding of learning objects is in line with contemporary theories of learning which confirm that it is important to plan for technology integration in support of learners' engagement in an activity where they conduct inquiries, solve problems, innovate and collaborate (Engeström, 1987; Jonassen, and Carr, 2000; Jonassen and Rohrer-Murphy, 1999; Salomon, Perkins, and Globerson, 1991). We have very limited guidelines in relation to effective design of interactive learning objects for Pocket PC mode of delivery (Luchini, Quintana, and Soloway, 2004) Most of the interactive learning objects have been designed for delivery over standard computers. There are rare attempts by designers to create learning objects for the Pocket PC environment. Most attempts to design education content for this mode of delivery are reduced to creating e-books as a scrollable text with some illustrations and very limited interactivity. Squeezing a lot of text and images in limited screen space is clearly a problem for a consumer of this material.


Project Title: Explorative study of educational applications of blogs
Investigator(s): Churchill D
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 09/2006
Abstract:
To carry out cxplorative study of educational applica tions of blogs.


Project Title: International Council for Educationa l Media 2007 Using Blogs to Support Teaching and Learning
Investigator(s): Churchill D
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 09/2007
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Using Learning Objects to Support Outdoor Education Activities
Investigator(s): Churchill D
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2007
Completion Date: 07/2009
Abstract:
About the Project This project proposes development and implementation of a set of learning objects in order to conduct a study of their design and application within outdoor education activities. The applicant-researc her for this funding indents to follow a group of students and teachers to the field trip in North Thailand. During this trip, the students will attend variety of outdoor activities such as investigating rivers and quality of life in local villages. Previously the researcher explored how students benefited from mobile technology (notebooks and portable digital assistant) in the fi eld and arrived at conclusion that such technology although can be effective, has one limitation – there is a lack of suitably designed learning objects for the purpose of outdoor activities. Moreover, there is currently limited understanding of: (a) how should such learning objects be designed for particular purpose and particula r technology, (b) is mobile technology effective for their application, and (c) what is impact of use of appropriately designed learning objects in outdoor activities upon students’ learning. These are the key issues that this proposed study intends to address. Learning Objects Learning objects can be described as interactive, multimedia curriculum resources purposely designed to achieve learning outcomes (Le@rning Federat ion, 2007). Alternatively, learning objects can be described in more general terms as a representation designed to afford use in different educational contexts (Churchill, 2007a). Learning objects can be distinguished from digital resources which refer to pertinent multimedia resources that can be woven into learning objects, sequences or activities. Usually learning objects reside in digital repositories, ready to be retrieve d and utilized by those involved in generating educational activities (e.g. teachers and students). These representations address: key concepts from disciplines, in visual and often interactive ways (conceptual models); informatio n (information objects) and situated data (contextual representation objects) that can be useful in the context of developing discipline-specific thinking, a culture of practice, a spirit of inquiry, theoretical knowledge and information; presentation of small, instructional sequences and demonstrations that deliver encapsulated descriptions and illustration of some aspects of sub ject matter (presentation objects); provide opportunity for practice (practice objects); and simulations of key equipment, tools and processes from a discipline to support the development of a deeper understanding of artifacts used in a culture of practice (simulation objects). Conceptual models are of a particular interest in the context of this proposed project. It is assumed that supplying such learning objects to students in the fields will provide them with support that will lead to increased knowledge-base required for completion of their tasks. Information objects might also be effectively utilized in this context. Application of Learning objects via Handheld Devices Handheld devices for the delivery of learning objects can obviously becom e critical and important for learning in authentic contexts. A key advantage of handheld technology is portability which enables students to have access to learning objects anytime and anywhere as required by the demands of a learning task (e.g., during field-based inquiries, during an experiment in a laboratory, or a class trip to a museum). Conceptual models and information obje cts appear to be the best match for this kind of technology application (Churchill, 2007b). A handheld device today is not only a small portable piece of technology it is equipped with computer capabilities, wireless network connectivity, mobile telephony, a camera and a variety of other hardware and software extensions. These dev ices are referred to variously as Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), Pocket PCs, “smartphones” (Keegan, 2004), “wearables” (Sharples, 2000), “communicators” or “mobile multimedia machines” (Attewell, 2005). For Attewell (2005), as the number of such devices available globally increases, this technology will become “digital life” for many individuals. This tool potentially creates a spectrum of educational opportunities and a new type of student-technology partnership in learning. Handheld devices may assist learners “to access internet resources and run experiments in the field, capture, store and manage everyday events as images and sounds, and communicate and share the material with colleagues and experts throughout the world” (Sharples, Corlett & Westmancott, 2002, p. 222). For Luchini, Quintana and Soloway (2004), the key benef it of handheld device technology is that it is a powerful personal device that “provides access to tools and information within the context of learning activities” (p.135). Of particular interest are the multimedia presentational capabilities of this technology and the possibilities for design and delivery on learning objects to students anywhere. If appropriately designed for the context, learning objects can be effectively delivered to a variety of learning environments. How ever, the key problem of this technology for delivery of learning objects is limited size of display and to a lesser extent the screen brightness in high light environments. The current typical dimension of a screen area of a handheld device is about 3.5” (9cms) with a resolution of 320 by 240 pixels. Further development in this technology may involve a possible reduction in physical size of screen area. For example, the new models of O2, Dipod and HP mobile-enabled handheld devices have screen size of about 2.7” (7cms). Recent studies have pointed to potential limitations of such screen sizes for effective presentation of information. For example, Albers and Kim (2001) highlight three specific issues that affect user access to information via handheld devices: (a) users’ reading of text of a handheld computer screen is more difficult than on paper, (b) presenting graphical information is limited in the size and complexity of image, and (c) challenges for interactivity are increased due to the lack of keyboard and mouse and also the screen size limits space for interactive elements to be displayed.


Project Title: Using Web 2.0 Social Space to Supp ort Teaching and Learning in a University
Investigator(s): Churchill D, Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 04/2009
Abstract:
This project aims to investigate how Web 2.0 social bookmarking system leads to more pedagogically productive content sharing, re-use and re-development at a universit y. In addition, the project aims to understand positive socio-cultural influences on uses of resources that occur in a social space environment. The study aims to develop a set of recommendations for educationally effective use of social bookmarking in a context of university teaching and learning. The study will also attempt to understand ways in which a social bookmarking system can be extended to a better platform to support of teaching and learning, as well as, any possible way for integration of such systems and more traditi onal learning management systems. For Richardson (2006), we “are at the beginning of a radically different relationship with the Internet, one that has long-standing implicati ons for educators and students” (p.133). Leading contemporary developments are emerging innovative applications of the Internet that are now often referred as to ‘Web 2.0’ (Churchill, 2007). Web 2.0 applications often enable users not only to consume, but also to create information and contribute to the sites by publishing content. Web 2.0 is also referred as to “read-write web” (Gillmor, 2004; Richardson, 2006), while application s that allow this to happen can be referred as to “infoware” (O’Reilly, 2005). In Web 2.0, users subscribe to an information service and information is delivered to them when it becomes available. It is frequently suggested that in Web 2.0, individuals benefit from “harnessing the collective intelligence” of communities (O’Reilly, 2005). Resource sharing and referencing systems are powerful form of Web 2.0 social spaces. It is often said that such information retrieval is amplified by the collective activities of all users of the system and such environments are spoken of places where individuals can harness the “wisdom of crowds” (Suriowecki, 2005). This proposed project aims to explore these ideas of Web 2.0 and social space in context of teaching and learning. Web 2.0 continues to introduce new and exciting possibilities for educational applications. One of these highly popular possibilities is social bookmarking (with Delicious dot com as an example). This system introduces a powerful new way of working with the Internet. A typical social bookmarking system allows online storage and management of bookmarks that can be accessed anytime, anywhere, via any browser and any web-enabled device. Such system enables bookmarks to be tagged by user-defined key words. The social dimension of such a system enables sharing of bookmarks with others, as well as ranking and engaging in an extended dialogue around them. By digging through the social bookmarking space, a user can locate relevant bookmarks based not only on personal pursuit but also upon collective tags, specific user’s recommendations and popularity. Rather than acting alone, a user mobilizes collective intelligence of the community to locate useful bookmarks. Such system allows users to subscribe for information about new bookmarks by specific user s and specific tags, and to save and manage these in their own personal space. In addition, such systems also integrate effectively across other Web 2.0 tools and it is possible to feed stuff to other places such as in blogs and wikis. RISAL – Repository of interactive social assets for learning – is a social space system being developed in the Division of Information and Technology Studies of the Faculty of Education that incorporates a repository of digital assets to support teaching and learning. The system is designed with a view to facilitate and encourage informal sharing and collaboration of students with similar interests or learning foci across levels and programs. This form of learning support builds on and encourages the Web 2.0 culture of social networking and contribution of the individual to the community. In addition, the system is designed to incorporate compliance with Hong Kong's Copyright Ordinance (Creative Commons). The system is built using open source tools and enhancements are being made on the integration of more social networki ng features. This system is a developed form a technical perspective, however, a little is understood about impact this technology has upon support of teaching and learning. The system is currently under final phase of development and it will be ready for use in January 2008.


Project Title: ICEM Conference 2009 A Web 2.0 Social Space for Support of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education A Conceptual Model for Small Screens: A Case of Design, Redesign and Application in the Context of an Outdoor Educational Activity
Investigator(s): Churchill D
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 10/2009
Completion Date: 10/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Churchill D. , Expanding the idea of the learning object, Learning Technology Newsletter . USA, 2010, 12(1): 65-67.
Churchill D. , Learning object for conceptual learning, Learning Technology Newsletter, 11(4), 7-10. . USA, 2009, 11(4): 7-10.
Churchill D. , New Literacy in the Digital World: Implications for Higher Education. , ALSR2010: Academic Librarian 2, March 11-12, Hong Kong. . 2010.
Churchill D. , Salter Menzo D.J. , Law N.W.Y. and Tai B.Y.T. , Social bookmarking-Repository-Networking: Possibilities for Support of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Serial Records . 2009, 35(3): 142-148.
Churchill D. , Kennedy D., Flint D. and Cotton N., Using handhelds to support students’ outdoor educational activities, International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning . USA, 2010, 20(1): 54-72.
Lim C.P., Ching S.C. and Churchill D. , , Leading ICT practices in education: a capacity building toolkit for teacher education institutions in the Asia- Pacific . Microsoft, 2010, 110.
Sze Y.L., Saban F. and Churchill D. , Web 2.0 in a Singapore’s Primary School: Classroom Teachers’ Experience with Blogs, In: L. Y. Tay, C. P. Lim, & M. S. Khine, A School's Journey into the Future: Research by Practitioners for Practitioners. . Singapore, 2009, 111-137.


Researcher : Clarke MA

Project Title: Language teacher identities: Co-con structing discourse and community
Investigator(s): Clarke MA
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 02/2007
Abstract:
To study language teacher identities: co-constructing discourse and community.


Project Title: Promoting 'New Literacies' in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Clarke MA, Luk JCM, Hoye LF, Lo MM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Quality Education Fund
Start Date: 08/2008
Abstract:
Building the new literacy confidence, skills and knowledge of primary 4 to 6 and secondary 1 to 3 English Language teachers in 12 schools and researching, developi ng and disseminating a collection of high quality multi-modal literacy resources.


List of Research Outputs

Lo M.M. and Clarke M.A. , Practicing or preaching? Teacher educators and student teachers appropriating new literacies , In: Darren L. Pullen & David R. Cole, Multiliteracies and technology enhanced education: Social practice and the global classroom . Hershey, PA, IGI Global., 2009, 147-166.


Researcher : Davies GE

List of Research Outputs

Andrews S.J. and Davies G.E. , Assessment As A Lever To Promote Teacher Language Awaren ess (tla), KOTESOL 17th international Conference . 2009.
Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.


Researcher : Day JR

Project Title: Health related behaviour of schoo l students in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Day JR
Department: Curriculum Studies
Source(s) of Funding: Other Funding Scheme
Start Date: 09/2001
Abstract:
To inform Curriculum Developers Resource Providers and Cares about students behaviours which may be beneficial or detrimental to their health in order to develop more relevant curriculum or intervention programmes.


List of Research Outputs

Yung B.H.W. , Yip D.Y., Day J.R. , Wong A.S.L. , Ho K.M. and Lai C. , Curriculum Resources for the Emphases on Nature and History of Biology and Scientific Inquiry in the Secondary Biology Curriculum. Hong Kong: Education Bureau, Hong Kong SAR Government. . 2009.


Researcher : Deng C

List of Research Outputs

Carless D.R. and Deng C. , Task-based language teaching in Chinese contexts: Challeng es and possibilities, 3rd Hong Kong Association for Applied Linguistics (HAAL) Research Forum: Bringing together teachers and researchers to share their work in Applied Linguistics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 12 December 2009 .
Deng C. and Carless D.R. , The communicativeness of activities in a task-based innovation in Guangdong, China, Asian Journal of English Language Teaching . Hong Kong, The Chinese University Press, 2009, 19: 113-134.


Researcher : Deng L

List of Research Outputs

Deng L. and Yuen H.K. , Chapter 14: Designing Blended Learning Communities: Principles and Implementation, In: F.L. Wang, J. Fong, & R.C. Kwan, Handbook of Research on Hybrid Learning Models: Advanced Tools, Technologies, and Application . USA, IGI Global publications, 2009, 228-243.
Deng L. and Yuen H.K. , Educational affordances of blogs in preservice teacher education, CITE Research Symposium 2010 . Hong Kong.
Deng L. and Yuen H.K. , Value of Blogs in Preservice Teacher Education, ICCE 2009 . Hong Kong.
Yuen H.K. , Fox R.M.K. , Sun A.H.Y. and Deng L. , Course management systems in higher education: unders tanding student experiences, International Journal of Interactive Technology and Smart Education . 2009, 6, (3): 189-205.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. , Fox R. and Tavares N.J. , Engaging Students with Online Discussion in a Blended Learning Context: Issues and Implications, In: F.L. Wang et al, ICHL 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS 5685) . Berlin Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 2009, 150-162.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. , Fox R. and Tavares N.J. , Engaging Students with Online Discussion in a Blended Learning Context: Issues and Implications, ICHL2009, Macau . 2009.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. , Fox R.M.K. and Tavares N.J. , Engaging Students with Online Discussion in a Blended Learning Context: Issues and Implications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science . Berlin Heidelberg, 2009, 5685: 150-162.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. and Fox R.M.K. , The use of WebCT in online and blended modes, International Conference on ICT in Teaching and Learning . Hong Kong, The Open University of Hong Kong, 2009, 325-332.
Yuen H.K. and Deng L. , Use of WebCT in Online and Blended modes, ICT2009, Hong Kong: The Open University of Hong Kong . 2009.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. and Fox R.M.K. , Use of WebCT in online and blended modes, International Journal of Interactive Technology and Smart Education . Emerald, 2009, 6, (4): 254-260.


Researcher : Deng Z

List of Research Outputs

Deng Z. , Asia-Pacific Journal of Eduation, Member of International Advisory Board . Routledge, 2009.


Researcher : Ding XJ

Project Title: Play with power: revealing the discrepancy between policy of Minban education and its implementation in Shanghai
Investigator(s): Ding XJ
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund
Start Date: 03/2004
Abstract:
To study play with power through revealing the discrepancy between policy of Minban education and its implementation in Shanghai.




Researcher : Du H

List of Research Outputs

King R.B. and Du H. , Poster presented at the 22nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Broadening hopeful thinking: From the personal to the communal . Boston, U.S.A., 2010.


Researcher : Edwards TG

Project Title: The receptivity of PSHE teachers in secondary schools to curriculum reform in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Edwards TG, Stimpson PG, Kwan TYL
Department: Curriculum Studies
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 02/2002
Abstract:
To investigate the initial response to the reform proposals of teachers who will be responsible for the organization and teaching of the Personal, Social and Humanities Education KLA.


Project Title: Learning in Communities of practice in school-university partnership
Investigator(s): Edwards TG, Tsui ABM, Lopez-Real FJ
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 09/2005
Abstract:
Since the early eighties, various models of partnership between university and schools have emerged and studies of such models have been reported in the literature. However, these studies have largely focused on the institutional dimension of partnership. Few have inve stigated partnership from the perspective of multiple forms of, and contexts for, professional learning that are afforded by partnership. This volume examines the opportunities for learning afforded by school-university partnership from the perspective of a social theory of learning which sees participation in social practice as fundamental to the process of learning and knowing; it not only shapes one’s experience but also the community in which one participates (Lave, 1988, Lave and Wenger, 1991, Wenger, 1998). Wenger argues that only a community in which practice is the source of coherence can be considered a “community of practice”, and he outlines three dimensions in which practice brings about coherence in a community: mutual engagement, the negotiation of a joint enterprise and the development of a shared repertoire (p. 73). Using the above theory of learning as social participation and the concept of communities of practice as a framework, the book examines the communities of practice that were brought about by partnership established between The University of Hong Kong and schools in Hong Kong. It analyses the learning that takes place as the participants, that is, the student-teachers, mentor teachers, and unive rsity supervisors, mutually engage in the joint enterprise of improving teaching and learning in schools, develop shared practices, and create new communities of practice. The relations that are developed as communities of practice interact will also be explored. The book conclude s by identifying the conditions that are necessary to bring about learning in communities of practice.




Researcher : Fairbrother GP

Project Title: A study of provincial-level implementation of citizenship education policy in China
Investigator(s): Fairbrother GP
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 01/2006
Abstract:
To investigate the process by which Chinese provincial-level educational administrators plan the implementation of cental government-formulate policy guidelines on citizenship education in a societal context of educational decentralization and flexible policy implementation.




Researcher : Fan W

Project Title: A case study of the development of thinking styles in the hypermedia environment among university students
Investigator(s): Fan W
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund
Start Date: 03/2004
Abstract:
To carry out a case study on the development of thinking styles in the hypermedia environment among university students.




Researcher : Fong R

List of Research Outputs

Yiu E.M.L. , Kong J. , Fong R. and Chan K.M.K. , A preliminary study of a quantitative analysis method for high speed laryngoscopic images, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology . 2010, in print.


Researcher : Fong WTR

List of Research Outputs

Fong W.T.R. and Yuen M.T. , Associations among measures of perfectionism, self-concept and academic achievement identified in primary school students in Hong Kong , Gifted and Talented Internationa . Winnipeg, Canada, city & country, 2009, 24(1): pp.147-154.
Fong W.T.R. and Yuen M.T. , Associations among measures of perfectionism, self-concept and academic achievement identified in primary school students in Hong Kong. , In: Taisir Subhi Yamin, Gifted and Talented International . Winnipeg, The World Council for Gifted and Talented Children, 2009, 24: 147-154.
Yuen M.T. and Fong W.T.R. , Career life skills, school connectedness, and leadership talent among high-ability adolescents. Paper presentation. , 18th World Conference on Gifted and Talented Children. . Vancouver, 2009.


Researcher : Fox RMK

Project Title: ICT research in Hong Kong: identifying the gaps
Investigator(s): Fox RMK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 09/2007
Abstract:
To carry out ICT research in Hong Kong: identifying the gaps.


Project Title: Exploring the professional communi ty of teachers using technology as a lever for curriculum reform
Investigator(s): Fox RMK, Yuen HK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 10/2007
Abstract:
The study will conduct an in-depth investigation into good and innovative uses of technology in the curriculum and explore how communities of practices can support staff efforts to enhance their teaching. In 2012, all undergraduate programs in Hong Kong will switch primarily from a three to a four year program. Different universities in Hong Kong are planning their own approaches to optimizing the use of this extra year of study. Common across universities is a desire to make the extra year a keystone experience that prepares students for the world of work in knowledge-based economies. At the same time, both university senior management and key government agencies frequently praise the potentia l of information and communication technology (ICT) to support expanded educational opportunities: “Web-based education is seen as a means by which quality higher education can be provided at a lower cost per student. Given the move towards increasing the proportion of students in higher education, along with declining real unit resource costs, the enthusiasm for web-based approaches can be appreciated” (UGC, 2005, p. 10). However, the pedagogical contribution of ICT remains debatable, in particular whether ICT can act as a lever for educational change in higher education (Fox, 2006). As part of the preparation for the four year undergraduate curriculum reform initiative, the university in the proposed study has encouraged teachers to write up and upload case studies of ‘good practices’ in the use of ICT in the curriculum onto a website. 'Good practices’ does not imply ‘excellent’ or ‘perfect’ examples of teaching and learning with technology, but rather the collected cases are used by teachers to share, debate, reflect on each others ‘good practices’ and to experiment with the adaptation and transfer of ideas and practices to their own teaching. This proposed study aims to investigate the effectiveness and value of these shared ‘good practices’and to what extent the website and related activities between teachers stimulates change and innovation in curriculum development appropriate to the new four year degree program. Objectives 1. Investigate good and innovative practices of using technology in the curriculum 2. Investigate the value of teachers sharing and exchanging examples of good practices 3. Investigate how the website and related activities enhance staff and curriculum development


List of Research Outputs

Fox R.M.K. , Lam P., Ho E. and Cheung W., Designs for Learning: Changing Teaching and Learning Environments at CUHK, Teaching and Learning Expo 2009 . 2009.
Fox R.M.K. , Increasing Role of Web 2.0 and Mobile Technologies in Education, UNSW, Australia . 2010.
Fox R.M.K. , Member of Editorial Board, AACE Journal . Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education al, 2010.
Fox R.M.K. , Member of Editorial Board, Contemporary Issues in Technology & Teacher Educa tion (CITE) . Association for the Advancement of Computing in Educational , 2010.
Fox R.M.K. , Multi-literacies and Web 2.0 in schooling, Education 2.1 Conference . 2010.
Fox R.M.K. , New Learning Spaces at Universities, UNSW, Sydney, Australia . 2010.
Fox R.M.K. and Duffy P., New Learning Spaces for Universities in Hong Kong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University . 2009.
Fox R.M.K. , Lee J., Lee K. and Ho S., Roles of computers in student learning, 2009 International Conference on ICT in Teaching and Learning . Hong Kong, The Open University of Hong Kong, 2009, 1: 92-103.
Fox R.M.K. , e-Learning Futures, Education 2.1 Conference . 2010.
Li S., Chen L., Fox R.M.K. and Tsang P., Competency model for Chinese distance education in higher education, International Conference on Hybrid Learning 2010 . Beijing, Beijing Normal University.
Yuen H.K. , Fox R.M.K. , Sun A.H.Y. and Deng L. , Course management systems in higher education: understanding student experiences, International Journal of Interactive Technology and Smart Education . 2009, 6, (3): 189-205.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. , Fox R.M.K. and Tavares N.J. , Engaging Students with Online Discussion in a Blended Learning Context: Issues and Implications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science . Berlin Heidelberg, 2009, 5685: 150-162.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. and Fox R.M.K. , The use of WebCT in online and blended modes, International Conference on ICT in Teaching and Learning . Hong Kong, The Open University of Hong Kong, 2009, 325-332.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. and Fox R.M.K. , Use of WebCT in online and blended modes, International Journal of Interactive Technology and Smart Education . Emerald, 2009, 6, (4): 254-260.


Researcher : Fuente Contreras AN

Project Title: Auditory damage caused by organic solvent exposure. From early detection to rehabilitative strategies
Investigator(s): Fuente Contreras AN
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund
Start Date: 03/2004
Abstract:
To study auditory damage caused by organic solvent exposure, from early detection to rehabilitative strategies.




Researcher : Fung CL

List of Research Outputs

Fung C.L. and Yip W.Y.V. , The Policies Of Reintroducing Liberal Studies Into Hong Kong Secondary Schools, In: Oon-Seng Tan, Educational Research For Policy And Practice . Netherlands, Springer, 2010, 9: 17-40.


Researcher : Gao F

List of Research Outputs

Gao F. , Language and power: Korean students’ language attitude and practice. , Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development . 2009, 30: 525-534.
Gao F. , A comparative analysis of the meaning of model minority among ethnic Koreans in China and the United States., Comparative Education . 2010, 46: 207-222.
Gao F. , BED (Hong Kong Education: Systemic Features and Social Perspectives) invited lecturer, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong . 2009.
Gao F. , Being a model minority: Schooling experiences of ethnic Koreans in China. . Maryland, U.S.: Lexington Books, 2010.
Gao F. , Bilingual Education Among Ethnic Koreans In China: Ethnic Language Maintenance And Upward Social Mobility., Chinese Education & Society . 2010, 43: 82-92.
Gao F. , Ethnicity, Achievement And Friendship: Korean Chinese Students’ Construction Of Peer Networks. , Educational Review . 2010, 62: 143-156.
Gao F. , Learning Korean language in China: Motivations and strategies of non-Koreans. , International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism . 2010, 13: 273-284.
Gao F. , Researching Korean children’s schooling attitude and practice in China: An ethnographic approach., Social Transformations in Chinese Societies . 2009, 5: 225-245.
Gao F. and Park J.H. , Teaching Chinese as a Second Language in China, 2010 Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong “Globalization within Regionalization: Identity, Understanding and Interactions,” Guangzhou, China . 2010.
Tsung L.T.H. , Gao F. , Shum M.S.K. and Ki W.W. , Acquisition of Chinese as a second language in Hong Kong: Chinese language studies among ethnic minority students, Zaixianggang huanjingxia de zhongwen dier yuyan jiaoxue: Shaoshu zuyi xuesheng de zhongwen xide yanjiu, Butong huanjing xiade hanyu jiaoxue guoji xueshu yantaohui , 2009.


Researcher : Gu M

Project Title: Learners' motivation in NS-NNS interaction - the Mainland China EFL context
Investigator(s): Gu M
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund
Start Date: 03/2004
Abstract:
To study learners' motivation in NS-NNS interaction - the Mainland China EFL context.




Researcher : Harfitt GJ

List of Research Outputs

Harfitt G.J. , 'Incorporating Popular Culture and Film into the English Language Curriculum,' , The Hong Kong Teachers' Centre for a workshop to secondary school English teachers, (7th November, 2009) . 2009.
Harfitt G.J. , Does class size make a difference? , Postgraduate Research Conference, HKU, 5th Decemb er, 2009. . 2009.
Harfitt G.J. , English Consultant (professional development and lesson observations), The Teaching of Short Stories and NSS, at PLK, Tang Yuk Tien School, Tuen Mun, March-May 2010 . 2010.
Harfitt G.J. , Guest Adjudicator, Catholic Diocese English Talent Show, Lai King Cath olic Secondary School, March 2010 . 2010.
Harfitt G.J. , Guest Adjudicator, Poetry Recital Competition, at Victoria Shanghai Academy (Primary), 29th January, 2010. . 2010.
Harfitt G.J. , Helping Teachers to use short stories and films in tandem, The Teacher Trainer . Pilgrims, 2009, 23: 3.
Harfitt G.J. , Invited speaker at a teacher development seminar on The Teaching of Poems and Songs for the Hong Kong Teachers’ Centre (HKTC) at the EDB, Kowloon Tong, 11 July 2009 . 2009.
Harfitt G.J. , The Teaching of Film, St Paul's Convent Secondary School . 2010.
Harfitt G.J. , The Teaching of Poems and Songs , Professional Development Workshop for Teachers of English at Carmel Bunnan Tong Memorial Secondary School . 2010.
Harfitt G.J. , ‘Class size and its impact on what happens in the classroom’ , Symposium on English Language Teaching and Research, Gothenburg University, Sweden, 24th May, 2010. . 2010.
Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.


Researcher : Henri J

Project Title: Innovative pedagogical practice online (IPPO)
Investigator(s): Henri J, Siu FLC, Kwan ACM, Lee SM, Chieng ASL, Trinidad SG
Department: HKU SPACE
Source(s) of Funding: School of Professional and Continuing Education - General Award
Start Date: 09/2002
Abstract:
To identify the characteristics and motivation factors of full-time teachers undertaking part-time tertiary study; to trial a range of innovative and flexible pedagogies in selected modules to determine their effect on academic performance and participation; to compare the efficacy of flexible learning with tradition al face-to-face instructional approaches; to determine other factors that influence learning progress; to design and pilot an instrument that will enable instructors to gain information on motivation and lifestyle factors; to provide preliminary data for monograph for return-to-st udy teachers.


List of Research Outputs

Warning P.B. , Henri J. , Shek J. and Leung A., Designing, Implementing And Evaluating Training For School Librarians In Rural China: A Case Study, 38th Annual Conference Of The International Associ ation Of School Librarianship Incorporating The 13th International Forum On Research In School Librarianship . 2009.


Researcher : Ho AWY

List of Research Outputs

Woo M. , Chu S.K.W. , Ho A.W.Y. and Li X. , Collaborative Writing with a Wiki in a Primary Five English Classroom., Chu S., Ritter W. and Hawamdeh S. (Eds.), Series on Innovation and Knowledge Management - Vol. 8, Managing Knowledge for Global and Collaborative Innovations . Singapore, Singapore: World Scientific, 2009, 8: 193-206.


Researcher : Ho MW

Project Title: Maximize the Effects of Problem-based Learning through On-going and Multidimensional Assessment
Investigator(s): Ho MW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 07/2009
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
The proposed study examines the effects of using PBL in a one-year-full-time PGDE programme in Hong Kong. The research questions guide the study: 1) Cant he constructive alignment enhance student-teachers' competence in Liberal studies teaching? 2) Can the constructive alignment foster student-teachers to become active learners and reflective practitioners? 3) How can the employment of on-going and multi-dimensional assessment help the course tutors shape the programme to maximize student-teachers' learning?


List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.


Researcher : Ho SY

Project Title: Enhancing deep understanding of literary works through cooperative learning in panel discussions
Investigator(s): Ho SY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 09/2006
Abstract:
To enhance deep understanding of literary works through cooperative learning in panel discussions.


Project Title: An Analysis of Lung Yingtai's Intellec tual Prose and Its Implications for Civic Education
Investigator(s): Ho SY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 09/2007
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
This is a literary and educational research project which aims at exploring the art of a contemporary essayist and enhancing university students’ civic awareness through literature. 1. Key issues and problems being addressed According to the government’s policy, our education system should serve the dual purpose of, first, enabling students to become enlightened citizens who understand the rights and obligations of citizenship, and second, developing students’ critical thinking skills. These goals are expressed in the curriculum guidelines, issued by the Education Bureau, on “Civic Education” and “Liberal Studies” for secondary schools. The proposed study will extend these ideas to higher education. A four-year undergraduate curriculum will be introduced at the University of Hong Kong in 2012. It encourages interdisciplinary inquiry, multidisciplinary collaboration, multiple forms of learning, engagement with local and global communities, and development of civic and moral values. The proposed study, by bringing civic education to life through literature, will ena ble university students from different fields to develop their capabilities in critical intellectual inquiry, effective communication, and multicultural understanding. As a result, students are expected to become advocates for the improvement of the human condition, in line with the objectives of the four-year undergraduate curriculum document. The wealth of literature linked to civic education spans all literary genres and pro vides an attractive complement to the factual reading materials of social studies. Intellectual prose is a kind of literary nonfiction which emphasizes powerful social criticism, convincing argument, and effective rhetoric as well as personal perspective. The proposed study will thoroughly examine the writings of Lung Yingtai (1952- ) and select appropriate reading materials from her work for a civic curriculum. Lung Yingtai is a celebrated essayist and cultural critic. Her critical writings in Wild Fire (1985) were considered to have greatly contributed to the democratization of Taiwan in the 1980s. Her influence has also spread to Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Singapore through her poignant and critical essays on culture and society. The proposed study will focus on two of her most recent books, Please Use Civilization to Convince Me (2006) and Lung Yingtai’s Hong Kong Notes (2006), which have aroused heated discussion among intellectuals in Hong Kong. 2. Objectives - To analyze the thought and art of Lung Yingtai’s publish ed work. - To compare Lung Yingtai’s work with that of other essayists. - To develop teaching materials drawing on Lung Yingtai’s work for civic education in an undergraduate curriculum. - To enhance university students’ civic awareness and critical thinking by reading quality intellectual essays. - To develop university students’ communicative abilities by helping them acquire rhetorical strategies and write intellectual essays. References: Berndt, Michael & Muse, Amy (2004). Composing a Civic Life: A Rhetoric and Readings for Inquiry and Action. New York: Pearson. Curriculum Development Council (2005). Liberal Studies: Proposed New Senior Secondary Curriculum and Assessment Framework. Hong Kong: Education & Manpower Bureau. Curriculum Development Council (1996). Guidelines on Civic Education in Schools. Hong Kong: Education Department. Farris, Pamela J. (2001). Elementary to Middle School Social Studies: An Interdisciplinary Instructional Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill. Halstead, J. Mark & Pike, Mark A. (2006). Citizenship and Moral Education: Values in Action. London: Routledge. Nguyen, B. Minh & Shreve, Porter (2005). Contemporary Creativ e Nonfiction: I & Eye. New York: Pearson. Scott, David & Lawson, Helen, eds. (2002). Citizenship Education and the Curriculum. Westport: Greenwood. Watson, Bradley C. S., ed. (2005). Civic Education & Culture. Wilmington: ISI Books.


Project Title: Caring for Children all over the World: Enhancing Hong Kong Secondary School Students' Global Horizons and Humanistic Concern through an Interdiscipl inary Learning Program
Investigator(s): Ho SY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Quality Education Fund
Start Date: 09/2009
Completion Date: 09/2010
Abstract:
This project responds to the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of the Child and promotes public awareness of the needs of children all over the world.


Project Title: Enhancing Students' Citzenship through Literature: An Interdisciplinary Learning Approach to General Education
Investigator(s): Ho SY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Run Run Shaw Research and Teaching Endowment Fund - Teaching Grants
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
This project aims at enhancing university studen ts' citizenship awareness through the study of selected contemporary literary works. In the proposed learning program, an integrated, interdisciplinary learning perspective will incorporate the discussion of literature and citizenship concepts, as well as reading, writing, and drama activities. 1. Objectives (1) To analyze the themes and the art of three literary works, caref ully selected for their treatment of citizenship issues such as individual development and identity, power and authority, cultural diversity, environmental protection, human rights, and social injustice. (2) To draw up a student-centred learning program in which literature and citizenship are integrated. (3) To enhance university students' citizenship awareness, humanistic concern, and critical thinking through reading and discussing the three literary works in the program. (4) To develop students' communicative abilities by guiding them to conduct forums, to perform Readers Theatre of citizenship, and to write literary journals and critical essays. (5) To develop students' action competence of citizenship by arranging them to participate in voluntary works conducted by non-government organizations (NGOs). (6) To evaluate students' responses to and learning effects of their interdisciplinary learning experiences. (7) To disseminate the project outcome to other faculties for the preparation of the new 4-year undergraduate curriculum. 2. Project Background In an age where there is an enormous amount of information available over the internet, we would like to ask how educators can help students deal with the information available to them, and help them think seriously and act responsibly as 21st century citizens. In response to this challenge, the idea of interdisciplinary learning has become well established, especially in student-centred classroom s. The learning of more than one subject, for example, of literature and civics, at the same time in an interdisciplinary curriculum serves to strengthen the tenets of both content areas. Students in the proposed program will thus have an opportunity to develop a wider range of perspectives and to find connections between various types of knowledge, and will be encouraged to participate actively in their learning—making decisions, raising questions, and engaging in diverse learning activities. As students listen, discuss, read, and write about literature and citizenship, it is hoped that they will develop a deeper appreciation of literary works and understanding of civic concepts, and finally they can act consistently in accordance with the citizenship values they have internalized. According to the Hong Kong government's educational policy, our education system should serve the dual purpose of, first, enabling students to become enlightened citizens who understand the rights and obligations of citizenship, and second, developing students' critical thinking skills. These goals are clearly expressed in the curriculum guidelines, issued by the Education Bureau, on "Civic Education" and "Liberal Studies" for secondary schools. The proposed project will extend these ideas to higher education and take citizenship work forward. 3. Relevance of the Project to the 4-year Curriculum Reform A 4-year undergraduate curriculum will be introduced at the University of Hong Kong in 2012, which will encourage interdisciplinary inquiry, multidisciplinary collaboratio n, multiple forms of learning, engagement with local and global communities, and the development of civic and moral values. The proposed project therefore can be seen as a pilot for preparing for the HKU Common Core Curriculum in the curriculum reform.* By integrating literature with citizenship, the project will explore the possibility of gathering university students from different fields to develop their capabilities in critica l intellectual inquiry, effective communication, multicultural understanding, and ethical practice. As a result of this integration and collaboration, it is hoped that students will internalize citizenship values and become advocates for the improvement of the human condition, in line with the objectives of the 4-year undergraduat e curriculum document. * Four areas of inquiry are proposed for the Common Core by the committee on 4-year undergraduate curriculum. They are Science & Technological Literacy, Humanities, Global Issues, and China: Culture, State & Society. 4. Project Focus The capacity of art to bring about a change in the way citizens perceive themselves and their society is the focus of attention in this proposal. Literature, a subject of the humanities, has traditionally been the core of general education. The wealth of literature relat ed to citizenship education spans all literary genres and provides an attractive complement to the factual reading materials of social studies. Great literature can broaden one's horizons, widen one's perspectives, stimulate the imagination, refine aesthetic sensibilities, and triggers empathy and respect for others. For students, literature first of all has the power to arouse their interest and give them pleasure. Further, because literature is related to life, students will have the opportunity to increase their self-understanding, learn to respect others, and explore the meaning of life. Nussbaum (1997 ) has pointed out that literature plays an important role in liberal education in that it fosters in students an informed and compassionate vision of "the different" by deciphering meanings of literary works through the use of imagination. Cornett (1999) also states that literature stimulates moral thinking about values and issues of right and wrong. Similarly Halstead (2006) points out that it is literature which offers the great est potential for fostering morally aware and responsible citizens. These theories emphasizing the significance of literature will be used to construct a model for integrating literature and citizenship throughout the proposed curriculum. This integration, together with a heuristic pedagogy, means bringing in the arts, which give life to civic concepts so that students can learn both literature and citizenship in depth. References: Cogan, John J. & Derricott, Ray, eds (2000). Citizenship for the 21st Century: An International Perspective on Education. London: Kogan Page. Cornett, Claudia E. (1999). The Arts as Meaning Makers: Integrating Literature and the Arts Throughout the Curriculum. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Curriculum Development Council (2005). Liberal Studies: Proposed New Senior Secondary Curriculum and Assessment Framework. Hong Kong: Education & Manpower Bureau. Curriculum Development Council (1996). Guidelines on Civic Education in Schools. Hong Kong: Education Department. Farris, Pamela J. (2001). Elementary to Middle School Social Studies: An Interdisciplinary Instructional Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill. Halstead, J. Mark & Pike, Mark A. (2006). Citizenship and Moral Education: Values in Action. London: Routledge. Nussbaum, Martha C. (1997). Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Steering Committee on 4-year Undergraduate Curriculum (2008). Transforming student learning: new undergraduate curriculum under the "3+3+4" structure. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong.


Project Title: The 8th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities An In-depth Learning of a Lu Xun's Short Story through Drama Techniques
Investigator(s): Ho SY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 01/2010
Completion Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Ho S.Y. , An In-depth-learning of a Lu Xun's Short Story through Drama Techniques, The 8th Annual International Hawaii Conference on Arts and Humanities . 2010.
Ho S.Y. , The Use of Hot-seating in a Literature Classroom, TEFOzine [Journal of Drama and Education] . 2009, 4: 34-38.


Researcher : Ho WL

List of Research Outputs

Whitehill T.L. , Yu K.K.M. , Kwan Chen L.L.Y. and Ho W.L. , Chaper: peer and Self Assessments, In: McAllister, L., Patternson, M., Higgs, J., Bithell,C ., Book: Innovations in Allied Health Fieldwork Education: A Critical Appraisal. . Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Sense Publishers, 2010.
Whitehill T.L. , Yu K.K.M. and Ho W.L. , PILOTING A REFLECTIVE WEEK IN CLINICAL PRACTICE , 2010.
Whitehill T.L. , Yu K.K.M. and Ho W.L. , Peer and Self Assessment, In: McAllister, L., Paterson, M., Higgs, J., Bitthell, C., Innovations in Allied Health Fieldwork Education: a Critical Approach . Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Sense Publishers, 2010.


Researcher : Hodgson P

Project Title: Assessment experience for first-year students in universities in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Hodgson P, Carless DR
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
Even though first-year students have overcome many difficulties in school and public examinations in Hong Kong, they encounter a certain degree of challenge when starting university study. One of the commonest is the difference between studying at school and in university (O’Shea 2006). Studying in larger groups means less direct guidance from teachers than in schools and few interactions between peers. There is an expectation that students are to study independently. This means that students need to develop greater self-managed learning autonomy. Besides, student cohorts are no longer as homogeneous as those in schools. University courses in Hong Kong are mixed, with local students, mainland Chinese students who have immigrated to Hong Kong or have been awarded a scholarship for study in Hong Kong, and international students, who may have English as their first language or as an additional language. To help students to make a successful transition, universities can adopt a number of good practices, including increasing the opportunities for social interaction and developing a sense of belonging (Scagnoli 2001). Developing a sense of connection is critical for university students, but they soon find out that the assessment skills deve loped in school are different from those expected in university. Studying in schools in Hong Kong, they might have learned how to use technologies to search for information from the World Wide Web and write reports using a compute r. They may also learn about some assessment tactics, such as when tackling multiple-choice questions or essay questions in examinations. However, assessment activities are not restricted to the paper-based end-of-term examination. Some schools provide alternative learning and assessment activities. For instance, students were required to do a group report based on a field trip overseas by using personal digital assistants (PDAs) as tools to share data that were collected in the field; students in groups used wiki, a web application that allows them to do collective writing and online revision to produce written coursework. Given the diverse assessment experiences that some school students might have had, can they transfer the learning strategies and assessment tactics acquired in schools to university study? Considering what is required when studying in a university, students need to develop proficiency in reading, write with academic honesty, develop information literacy (sourc ing and selection of electronic resources), be able to demonstrate critical thinking, develop skills in problem solving, and acquire computational and oral presentation skills. This represents a gap between what they have already developed and what they need to develop. Moreover, as there is a growing population of international students and students from China in local universities, local students may lack multicultural awareness when they are involved in group projects or assignments. If they are to succeed in university study, they need to develop a new level of academic competence and learning habits when preparing for assessment activities with hetero geneous cohorts. Although end-of-course sit-in examinations are one of the commonest assessment activities, students may have experience of other types of assessment in university. This research project aims to examine the challenges that students encounter through the secondary– tertiary transition so that academics can support improved student learning when they prepare for assessment activities in university. This project therefore aims to 1. Find out the different expectations of assessment activities in school and university in Hong Kong; 2. Examine what assessment activities university students have experienced; 3. Review what assessment skills and strategies are transferred from school to university study; 4. Find out the study strategies used when preparing for assessment activities in university study; 5. Find out the perceived need to develop new assessment skills and strategies to be used in university study; 6. Find out the challenges encountered when working with non-local students when working in group assignments; 7. Find out student responses on feedback collected from educators, professionals and peers; 8. Find out how first-year university assessment experience may contribute to subsequent years of university study; and 9. Find out the perceived support from the university that they need in order to develop new assessment skills and strategies.


Project Title: The 4th International Inquiring Pedagogies Conference (iPED 2009) Designing and implementing learning-centred blogs for university teaching: two cases
Investigator(s): Hodgson P
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 09/2009
Completion Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Chan L...K. and Hodgson P. , A comparison of the learning experience of full- and part-time students building an online database of professiona l terminology, Proceedings of International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation ICERI2009 Conference Madrid, Spain, 16 – 18 November 2009 . p1317-1323.
Hodgson P. and Kwok M...H...P..., Building a blended learning community: a case in service marketing, the CITE Research Symposium 2010: e-Learning design and designs for learning, Hong Kong, 4 - 6 March 201 0 .
Hodgson P. , Designing and implementing learning-centred blogs for university teaching: two cases, Proceedings of the 4th International Inquiring Pedagogies Conference 'Researching Beyond Boundaries', Academic Communities without Borders’, Coventry, U.K., 14 – 15 September 2009 . p44-49.
Hodgson P. and Wong D., Developing professional skills in journalism through blogs, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education . Oxford, Routledge, 2009, 34(6): p.1-15.
Hodgson P. , Man D. and Fong A., Digital educational game-based learning: from design, development to implementation, the CITE Research Symposium 2010: e-Learning design and designs for learning, Hong Kong, 4-6 March . 2010.
Hodgson P. , Enhancing student learning through blending varied learning and assessment experiences, In: Ng, E. M. W. (Ed.), Comparative Blended Learning Practices and Environments . Hershey, PA, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2009, p50-69.
Hodgson P. and Chan L.K., Extending professional development from the workplace through joint university program: A case of apparel manufacturing, The International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation ICERI2009 Conference,16-18 Nov 2009, Madrid, Spain . 2009.
Hodgson P. , Man D. and Leung J., Managing the development of digital educational games, In: Biswas, G., Carr, D. Yam, S.C. and Hwang W.Y. , Proceedings of the IEEE 3rd International Conference on Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 12–16, April . 2010, p.191-4.
Hodgson P. and Tong E., Practising clinical communication in simulation, the Frontiers in Medical and health Sciences Education: “Making sense in communication” - HKU 2009 conference, Hong Kong, 11-12 Dec . 2009.
Hodgson P. , WIL: Achieving intended and unintended learning outcomes of university study, In Proceedings of the International Conference on Work Integrated Learning ‘University-Industry Collaboration for Real Life Education’, Hong Kong, 3 – 5 February 2010 .


Researcher : Hong Y

List of Research Outputs

Hong Y. , Ethnic Groups and Educational Inequalities: An Empirical Study of the Educational Attainment of the Ethnic Minorities in Western China族群与教育不平等:我国西部少数民族教育获得的一个实证研 究 Chinese Journal of Sociology社会 . Shanghai, China, 上海大学《社会》, 2010, 30: pp.45-73.
Hong Y. , Home Language and Educational Attainment in Western China , Chinese Education and Society . USA, M. E. Sharpe, 2010, 43: pp.24-35.


Researcher : Hoye LF

Project Title: A dictionary of pragmatics
Investigator(s): Hoye LF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2003
Abstract:
To provide a comprehensive survey of the terms/conc epts relating to linguistic-oriented pragmatics and socially-oriented pragmatics; to provide accessible and concise explanations of terms, movements, and proper names central to the field, and thereby to offer an overall picture of the nature and aims of pragmatics; to profile past and present trends in pragmatic research and related methodological issues, also with reference to pragmatics and language education; to contextualize pragmatics in relation to theoretical and applied linguistics, language educa tion, anthropological linguistics, ethnomethodology, the philosophy of linguistics, language philosophy, psycholinguistics and language learning, media languages and communication ; to address the interests and enquiries of a specialist and broad readership, and to offer this readership a ready and accessible reference to the terms and concepts central to the discipline of pragmatics.


Project Title: Multimodal literacies: A pragmatic framework
Investigator(s): Hoye LF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 01/2007
Abstract:
The project aims to develop a pragmatically-motivated framework for analyzing multimodal (mainly verbal-visual) texts from an intercultural perspective and to explore how these are used in educational and related settings. Until now, pragmatics has been primarily concerned with verbal communication, specifically language user s, their uses of language, and the contexts in which they use language. As a contextually-motivated perspective on communication, pragmatics can purposefully be extended to deal with visual texts and the verbal-visual interface (multimodal texts). Of course, the study of visual and verbal-visual texts has been undertaken before: it is a central concern of visual semiotics. Much of that work has involved the adoption and adaptation of another powerful perspective on human (verbal) communication, namely Systemic Functional Linguistics (cf. Halliday 1985, 2004; Kress and van Leuween 1996, 2006; O'Toole 1994). However, the social semiotic models that underp in Systemic Functional approaches are essentially concerned with systems of choice and the various ways in which these can be categorised and defined. Pragmatics, on the other hand - which has as its key focus situated communication - is more attuned to an approach which focuses on the power of visual (and visual-verbal) texts and how these are USED by the 'author(s)' and USED by the 'reader(s)'. Multimodal texts can then be seen as instantiations of VISUAL PRAGMATIC ACTS, derived from Mey's theory of PRAGMATIC ACTS (2001). Their instantiation involves not just the 'producer' of a sign but the 'recipient' of that sign - it is on account of the implicit communicative contract betwe en the two (or more) participants, and the synergies that arise in a given context, that communication becomes possible and meanings are made. The project aims to consider multimodal texts from a Western (US/UK) and non-Western (China/Asian) perspective and to assess what differences there may be in how these are read across cultures. The findings could have important implications for developing multimodal literacy skills in educational and related settings. In sum, the objectives of the project are to: *Extend the LINGUISTIC PRAGMATIC model to embrace multi-modal texts; *Adapt the concept of PRAGMATIC ACT and recast this as VISUAL PRAGMATIC ACT; *Explore multimodal texts in the Chinese and Western contexts and assess how visual perception may be culturally fashioned and the implications this may have in educational and related settings. Halliday, M.A.K., & Hasan, R. (1985). Language, context, and text: aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Halliday, M. A. K and Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen (2004) (3rd Edition) An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Hodder Arnold. Kress, Gunther and Theo van Leuween. (1996)(2006) (2nd edition). Reading images: The grammar of visual design. London: Routledge. Mey, Jacob L. (2001). Pragmatics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell. O'Toole, Michael. (1994). The language of displayed art. Leicester: Le icester University Press.




Researcher : Huang J

List of Research Outputs

Huang J. and Andrews S.J. , Situated development and use of language learner strategi es: voices from EFL learners, In: Douglas Allford, Elspeth Broady, Norbert Pachler, Language Learning Journal . London, UK, Routledge, 2010, 38: 19-35.


Researcher : Hui DWY

Project Title: Diagnostic and Innovative Assessment of Language by Oral Genre with the Use of Engagement (DIALOGUE)
Investigator(s): Hui DWY, Davison CM, Andrews SJ
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 09/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
This proposed study aims to develop, pilot and implement a web-based language diagnostic tool and framework for teachers to use for the purpose of diagnosing learners’ spoken language difficulties and developing pedagogical strategies for improvements of learners’ speaking performance in school-based assessment (hereafter SBA), within communities of practice, and with the use of innovative technology. SBA has been introduced and carefully interwoven into the HKCE (English language) curriculum as part of the teaching and learning proc ess since 2005. It is recurrent, and contains both formative and summative characteristics. Most learners will progress in their spoken language development when provided with supportive conditions. However, there are many aspects of spoken language which are more difficult, especially for Chinese learners of English. This poses new challenges for teachers of these students amidst the current SBA reform. The findings of a recent ongoing study concerned with SBA illustrated that teachers reported that they needed additional support, especially in the technical aspects of spoken language assessment, and also indicated concerns for the teaching of speakin g (Hamp-Lyons, 2007). To help improve learners’ achievement, it is crucial to provide specific support for teachers addressing the technical aspects of diagnosis, so that they become more efficient to generate the necessary diagnostic information in formulating their pedagogical decisions in SBA. This can be completed more effecti vely with the aid of a systematic language diagnostic framework, also a key aim of this proposed study. The term “diagnosis” and the phrase “diagnosis in order to improve learning” (Alderson, 2006, p. 1) are frequently used in the literature, especially with reference to discu ssions of language education, testing, and applied linguistics. It generally refers to the identification of an individual’s specific areas of strength and weakness in his/her knowledge and use of language (Alderson, 2006; Bachman , 1990). Despite this frequent reference, examples of good diagnostic tests are lacking, and guidance as to how to conduct diagnosis remains limited. Unlike the well-established diagnostic tests of first language competence, studies using diagnostic tests in the areas of second and foreign languages are woefully inadequate. In the context of SBA, diagnostic practice aims to provide a technical evaluation based upon observable phenomena, or problems concerned with informing students of their language performance difficulties. Such information informs and shapes teachers’ decisions, and their understandin g and impact concerning strategies for improvement of students’ speaking performance. Moving away from the conventional notion of diagnosis, the diagnostic practice within SBA resituates the problem identification process within a broader context, by highlighting the importance of the following aspects: (a) the important role play ed by the diagnostician, that is, the teacher, when making diagnostic decisions based upon their knowledge, skills and understanding, (b) articulations of procedures, clearly and explicitly, whilst making diagnostic decisions and justifications concerning these decisions and outco mes (see the assessment framework suggested by Bachman & Palmer, in press), (c) consideration of additional factors for informing diagnostic decisions, including factors accounting for individual differences such as motivation and, verbal intelligence, and broader socio-cultural factors such as youth cultures and medium of instruction issues, and (d) development of a pedagogical language for engaging dialogues (e.g., Hui, 2006) an d analyzing diagnostic practice within communities of practice (see Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998). This proposed study extends the findings of a previously funded study involving systematic analyses of a large corpus of video-recorded, non-standard language forms, produced by Form 3-6 students’ spoken language, collected as part of a range of completed studies conducted by the SBA Consultancy Team at HKU, and concomitant description and explanation of these non-standard speaking forms involving a group of 24 teachers from 18 schools in focus group discussions. Against this background, this proposed study aims to accomplish the following objectives: 1. Develop, pilot and implement a web-based language diagnostic tool focused upon specific and technical aspects of spoken language assessment and teaching of speaking in support of teachers’ practice in SBA. 2. Provide a conceptual framework for characterizing diagnostic practice and understanding of pedagogical strategies as to how to improve students’ speaking performance within SBA. 3. Enhance our understanding of the common speaking difficulties encountered by students in Hong Kong, within SBA. 4. Raise awareness of the diagnostic practice of speaking within SBA. 5. Create a common assessment and pedagogical discourse within a community of practice, and engage teachers’ knowledge concerned with the analysis of learners’ spoken language difficulties in SBA, with the facilitation of teacher professional growth and change. In addition, I will address three key research questions: (1) What are the characteristics of teachers’ diagnostic practice in Hong Kong? (2) What are the major problems the teachers encountered when implementing the language assessment reform? (3) What are the implications of the findings in both (1) and (2) for the development of a language diagnostic tool in support of teachers’ assessment reform and practice?


Project Title: Mediated-Learning Effects of e@Leader on Students’ Scholastic Achievement in English Language Learning, and Curriculum Integration in the Hong Kong Primary School Classroom
Investigator(s): Hui DWY, Carless DR
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
Whether online edutainment gaming can really enhance active student learning, or truly correlate school academic performance remain debatable issues within education (e.g., Gee, 2003, 2007; Prensky, 2006), and is of great interest to policymakers, researchers, educators, practitioners and parents. It is frequently reported that students are often distracted from their studies in their persistent use of computer-mediated video games (e.g., Walsh, 2004), accounting for as much as 3 hours of their choice behaviour activity per day (e.g., NIMF, 2002, for a more recent British government commissioned review, see Byron, 2009). These critics claim that students’ use of computer-mediated video gaming is having a negative effect upon either their scholastic achievements, or the development of core academic, cognitive and social intelligences. Moreover, the use of video games has not as yet been shown to facilitate any measurable context-related depth of processing effects for purposeful language and high-level cognitive learning (e.g., Craik & Lockhart, 1972). This modern development has thus become of increasing concern to both educators and parents alike. Indeed many of them believe that such activities may interfere with students’ more traditional scholastic study meth ods and homework completion. However, little if any empirical data has as yet been put forward by these critics in confirming the general fears of computer-mediated gaming learning activity. In contrast, the impact of the use of video games for accomplishing educational learning appears to be rather promising in the literat ure. For instance, research has shown that frequent classroom use of the Internet, together with other web-based learning environments can foster potential learning opportunities for pupils in terms of promoting higher levels of engagement, enhanced personal knowledge gain, and more diverse knowledge acquisition (e.g., Coiro, 2003). More specifically, research has shown the positi ve effects of carefully planned video game usage in the curriculum, for example, in the engagement of students’ deeper learning (e.g., Coller & Scott, in press), facilitation of students’ growth in “smart thinking” (Restak, 2009, p. 149), development of intelligence and social autonomy (e.g., Laird, 2007), significantly increased student attention and awareness to visual events (e.g., Green & Bavelier, 2003, 2006), and faster response times as measured by general perceptuo-motor enhancements and specific eye-hand coordination development (e.g., Dye, Green, & Bavelier, in press). As IQ scores reliably correlate with speed of processing, the question as to whether gaming might actually lead to an increase in IQ has also been raised (e.g., Restak, 2009). Despite the promising research outcomes, researchers such as Coiro and Restak do not seem to provide a clearly defined programme and explicit architecture for any optimal design for effective learning outcomes. Extending a previous study conducted in a primary school in Singapor e (e.g., Dickinson & Hui, in press), this proposed study further examines the effects of a purpose-built online educational gaming and assessment programme, e@Leader, on students’ scholastic achievement and general intelligence, and how e@Leader can be incorporated effectively int o the extant school curriculum to enhance improved students’ scholastic performance in English language learning in particular English language comprehension, with pupils studying primary school in Hong Kong. Attention will also be paid to the learning of Mathematics. The construction of e@Leader was informed by research-based knowledge in neuroscience, cognitive psychology and education, with reference to principles in experienti al learning and student-centered inquiry. Having won the Creativity Award given by EDB in 2008 and the ICT Award by the HKSAR in 2009, e@Leader is currently available to 400 primary schools in Hong Kong through the IT Challenge Award programme. The objectives of this proposed study are six-fold: (1) to determine whether, and to what extent, the use of such alternative computer -based teaching and learning tools (and in this case the use of a novel game-play edutainment programme) may afford the optimal nurturing and enhancement of the learning and development of pupils attending primary school in Hong Kong, (2) to examine these issues in an attempt to provide the first empirical evidence in support of the claims for the putative learning effects of edutainment gaming platform use on students’ scholastic achievement (e.g., Fishman, Marx, Best, & Tal, 2003; Gee, 2007), (3) to identify exemplars of best practice regarding the specific ways in which e@Leader can be integrated into the curriculum that will enhance improved students’ scholastic achievement, (4) to increase teachers’ knowledge and practical understanding of the specifi c ways in which a purpose-built online educational game and assessment system, e@Leader, can enhance active student engagement and learning (Dickinson & Hui, in press), (5) to enrich pupils’ learning experience through the use of a technologically-mediated programme in both a fun and educational way, (6) to inform future explorations, either in larger or similar scales, but in a different cultural setting. (At the time of writing, a preliminary research plan is underway to design a parallel research study in a primary school in Guangzhou).


List of Research Outputs

Chan Y.Y. , Hui D.W.Y. , Dickinson A.R., Chu D., Cheng D.K.W., Lau W.H., Wong J., Lo E.W.C. and Luk K.M., Engineering outreach: A successful initiative with gifted students in science and technology in Hong Kong, IEEE Transactions on Education . 2010, 53(1): 158-171.


Researcher : Hui EKP

Project Title: What motivates or demotivates Hong Kong Chinese students in their academic achievement? The roles of parental involvement and filial piety
Investigator(s): Hui EKP
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 02/2007
Abstract:
To study what motivates or demotivates Hong Kong Chinese students in their academic achievement, and, the roles of parental involvement and filial piety.


Project Title: The process of forgiveness with Hong Kong Chinese youth
Investigator(s): Hui EKP
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
Purpose: The overarching goal of this research is to examine the process of forgiveness with HK Chinese youth, specifically the internal and exte rnal factors affecting ways people deal with unforgiveness through decisions to forgive (DF), forbearance, and emotional forgiveness (EF). Key Issues: Most psychological researchers concur that forgiveness is not excusing, condoning, exonerating, justifying, or reconciling (Enright & Fitzgibbons, 2000). Forgiveness is viewed as an intra-psychic or phenomenon in interpe rsonal context, is motivationally oriented (McCullough et al., 2003), and involves a redirection of negative motivations with conciliatory motivations. The victim becomes less motivated to harm and more motivated to do acts that will benefit the offender. Forgiveness involves a decisional and an emotional process (Worthington, 2006). The personal benefits include better physical and mental health (Toussaint & Webb, 2005). Social benefits include better relationship (Fincham et al. , 2005), and societal harmony (Cairns et al., 2005). Several weaknesses have been identified in empirical studies on forgiveness... • Researchers have treated forgiveness as if it were something unitary, when there are different types of forgiveness, each of which with different outcomes (Worthington, 2006). • Researchers have assumed that forgiveness is identical for people from different cultures (Hook, Worthington, & Utsey, 2009). Forgiveness has most often been seen as entailing an individualistic cultural worldview that forgiveness is for one’s personal well being. • Though forgiveness is essentially a cultural value, most research has been carried out in Western contexts (for a review, see Hook et al., 2009). • Apart from a few studies (e.g., Hui & Wong, 2003; Park & Enright, 1997), most research have been conducted with adult sample. • Forbearance and motivation to forgive have not been investigated because psychometrically sound instruments do not currently exist. Problems being addressed According to Worthington’s (2006) stress-and-coping theory of forgiveness, unforgiveness, defined as negative behavioral intentions or emotional reactions to a transgressor after an offense or hurt, is stressful. It is coped with in a variety of ways, including suppressing negative responses (called forbearance) and forgiving. Decisio nal forgiveness (DF) is a decision to reduce or eliminate negative behavioral intentions toward the transgressor; emotional forgiveness (EF) is the process of emotional replacement of negative unforgiving emotions with positive other-oriented emotions (Exline et al., 2003). The accumulation of stress can negatively affect physical health, mental health, relationships, and spiritual well-being (Worthington et al., 2007). DF is likely dominated by reasoning and has been hypothesized to affect relationships, social interactions, and social harmony as well as spiritual well-being. It can lead to either forbearance or emotional forgiveness. EF is likely dominated by emotionally driven reasoning, and it has been shown to affect physical health (Worthington et al., 2007) and mental health (Toussaint & Webb, 2005) positively. Forbearance has recently been shown to lead to increase in blood pressure, heart rate, and other indications of increased stress (Witvliet, et al., 2008). Psychometrically sound instruments to assess DF and EF have only recently been developed (see Worthington et al., 2008). Little empirical research have been conducted to test such hypothesis Hook, Worthington, and Utsey (2009) propose a theoretical model of collectivistic forgiveness, which differs from individualistic forgiveness. They posit that collectiv istic forgiveness is antithetical to revenge, and it occurs within the context of social harmony and reconciliation. Collectivistic forgiveness primarily involves DF, which is motivated to promote and maintain social harmony rather than personal emotional peace. This theoretical model was supported by US college sample only (Hook, et. al., 2009). Recent research by P.I. and her colleagues revealed that Chinese understanding of forgiveness endorses more of collectivist world view. In PRC, forgiveness was seen as an ideal, practically unattainable unless the offender apologized, made restitution, and was willing to give face (Fu, Watkins, & Hui, 200 4). Consistent with Hook et al.,’s (2009) theory, forgiveness was influenced mostly by social motivations rather than individualistic or religious considerations, with relationship orientation and harmony as the strongest predictor. HK Chinese youth also perceived forgiveness as a means for maintaining social harmony (Hui & Wong, 2003). In contrast to the PRC counterpart, religious affiliation was the strongest predictor of concepts of forgiveness, whereas religious practice predicted attitudes toward forgiveness and the practice of forgiveness (Hui, Watkins, Wong, & Sun, 2006). Intervention studies (Hui & Chau, 2008; Hui & Ho, 2004) have demonstrated that Chinese participants showed an improvement in psychological well being and forgiveness after receivin g a psychologically based forgiveness intervention. However, in a different intervention study, no significant difference was found in the conceptualization and practice of forgiveness between youth receiving psychological oriente d programmes and those receiving Chinese cultural oriented programme (Hui & Tang, 2008). These researches suggest that despite some of the differences between HK’s cultural milieu (with more influence from Western culture) and that of PRC, a collectivist, relational, harmony orientation seems to have been maintained. As Hook, et. al. (2009) postulate, collectivists forgi ve for group-oriented motivations and view forgiveness within the context of reconciliation. Forgiving in a collectivist culture may be primarily decisional in order to repair a relationship rather than emotional which entails a change of emotion. However, the investigation of precisely how forgiveness occurs in cultures other than the West is lacking (Worthington, 2006). Objectives We propose two studies to examine the process of forgiveness and supplement them by a qualitative study for the development of a Forbearance Scale and Motivation to Forgive Scale. Transgression is hypothesized to be dealt with often by DF or by forbearance (i.e. suppressing negative emotion). When DF occurs, people may move towards personal peace (i.e. EF). Forbearance is hypothesized to increase risk of stress disorders. In Study One, we investigate whether internal factors, such as personality and dispositional forgiveness predicts mental, physical health, and life satisfaction, and whether unforgiveness, DF, and EF affect health above the effects of internal factors. In Study Two, we investigate whether young people’s motivations to forgive or to forbear are related to cultural values, and how those reasons might be differentially applied to someone in in-group and out-group.


List of Research Outputs

Cheng K...Y. and Hui E.K.P. , Affective education in Guangzhou, China: A case study, International Journal of Learning . Common Group, 2009, 16(11): 521-532.
Hui E.K.P. , Tsang S.K.M. and Law B.C.M. , A secret book of bullying prevention, P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood: A Jockey Club Youth Enhanceme nt Scheme (Secondary One Curriculum). (Lesson plan on web: http://www.paths.hk/download/tier1_new.asp) . Hong Kong, P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood, 2010.
Hui E.K.P. and Sun R.C.F. , Chinese children’s perceived school satisfaction: the role of contextual and intrapersonal factors, Educational Psychology . UK, Routledge, 2010, 30(2): 155-172.
Hui E.K.P. , Consultant, Hong Kong Catholic Diocese (HKCD) Educational Psychology Services for Primary Schools . 2009.
Hui E.K.P. , Consultant, Services Sub-committee for the Diocesan Secondary Schools, Hong Kong Catholic Diocese (HKCD) Educational Psychologist's . 2009.
Hui E.K.P. , Council Member, Member of Management Committee, Vice-Chair of Academic Committee, Hong Kong International Institute of Educat ional Leadership . 2009.
Hui E.K.P. , Guiding students for positive development, In: Zhang, L.F., Biggs, J., & Watkins, D. (Eds.), Learning and development of Asian students: What the 21st century teacher needs to think about . Singapore, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010, 221-244.
Hui E.K.P. , Reviewer of Manuscript: Parental Involvement and Private High School Attendance, KEDI Journal of Educational Policy . 2010.
Hui E.K.P. , Reviewer of manuscript “Help-Seeking Behaviors of Adolescents in Relation to Terrorist Attacks: The Perceptions of Israeli Parents", The British Journal of Guidance and Counselling . 2009.
Hui E.K.P. , School consultant, Po Leung Kuk Ngan Po Ling College . 2009.
Hui E.K.P. , School manager, Wah Yan College Hong Kong . 2009.
Hui E.K.P. and Tsang S.K.M. , Subjective Outcome Evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H. S.: Comparison of Findings Based on the Perspective of the Program Participants and Program Implementers (Secondary One Program). , 2010 Joint Social Work World Conference held from 10-14 June, 2010 in Hong Kong. . 2010.
Hui E.K.P. , Supervisor and Chair of School Management Committee, Marymount Primary School . 2009.
Hui E.K.P. , Supervisor and Chair of School Management Committee, Marymount Secondary School . 2009.
Hui E.K.P. , Tsang S.K.M. and Law B.C.M. , What should I do?, P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood: A Jockey Club Youth Enhan cement Scheme (Secondary One Curriculum). (Lesson plan on web: http://www.paths.hk/download/tier1_new.asp) . Hong Kong, P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood, 2010.
Lam S...K...Y. and Hui E.K.P. , Factors affecting the involvement of teachers in guidance and counselling as a whole-school approach, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling . UK, Routledge, 2010, 38(2): 219-234.
Tsang S...K...M., Hui E.K.P. and Law B...C...M., Behind the mask of bullying, P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood: A Jockey Club Youth Enhance ment Scheme (Secondary One Curriculum). (Lesson plan on web: http://www.paths.hk/download/tier1_new.asp) . Hong Kong, P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood, 2010.
Tsang S.K.M. , Hui E.K.P. and Law B.C.M. , Incidents of bullying, P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood: A Jockey Club Youth Enhancemen t Scheme (Secondary One Curriculum). (Lesson plan on web: http://www.paths.hk/download/tier1_new.asp) . Hong Kong, P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood, 2010.
Tsang S.K.M. and Hui E.K.P. , Subjective Outcome Evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H.S.: Comparison of Findings Based on the Perspective of the Program Participants (Secondary One Program), In: 2010 Joint Social Work World Conference held from 10-14 June, 2010 in Hong Kong, 2010.
Tsang S.K.M. , Hui E.K.P. , Shek D...T...L. and Law B.C.M. , Subjective outcome evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H .S.: Findings based on the perspective of the program implementers (Secondary 1 program), TheScientificWorldJOURNAL . 2010, 10: 201-210.
Tsang S.K.M. , Hui E.K.P. and Law B.C.M. , Subjective outcome evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H.S.: Findings based on the perspective of the program implement ers in the second year of the full implementation phase (Secondary One Level)., International Public Health Journal . 2009.


Researcher : Hung HK

List of Research Outputs

Hung H.K. , So W. and Yuen H.K. , Learning Multiple Literacies from Multimode Knowledge Representation, In: Warren Halloway & John Maurer, International Research in Teacher Education: Current Perspectives . NSW, Australia, Kardoorair Press, 2010, 307-321.
Hung H.K. and Yuen H.K. , Learning beyond text mode: Multimodal discourse with ICT platform, ICCE 2009 . Hong Kong.


Researcher : Hyland F

Project Title: Exploring the role of feedback in the Master’s dissertation writing process
Investigator(s): Hyland F
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
The master’s level supervisory process is a complex and challenging one for both students and their superv isors. Unlike doctoral students, master’s students are often novice researchers and many of them are also writing in their second language. The scaffolding, support and feedback that such students receive from their supervisors throughout the research and writing process is therefore crucial, and clear communication between the two parties is essential. This project aims to examine the role of both oral and written feedback given by supervisors to the Master’s level students in the Faculty of Education at the University of Hong Kong. It will focus on the ways that the feedback, advice and support offered by supervisors contribute to students’ development as writers and researchers. It also aims to develop a better understanding of the writing problems students encounter during the dissertation process. On many Master’s level programmes, the dissertation is seen as an important part of a student’s assessment. In the Faculty of Education it is viewed as a crucial way of helping to ensure that students develop intellectual and research skills and is described as ‘the culmination of the knowledge and skills’ acquired’ over the whole course. It is also a high stakes assessment, since it accounts for three out of eight modules of credit towards successful completion of the MED. Although they have the support of dissertation seminars during the semester, doing a dissertation can be quite an isolating and demanding experience for these novice researchers. Students are not just developing research skills and disciplinary knowledge, but also need to be able to understand and utilize accepted text norms as well as often unwritten criteria for good student texts in their discipline (Dysthe, 2002). The role of the supervisor in providing support and feedback to help students to successfully negotiate all these writing and research demands is highly important. However while there are training programmes and workshops for doctorate level supervision, the area of feedback offered to Master’s level students has not received very much attention. This study will closely look at master’s supervision and explore the ways that the written feedback from supervisors, together with the supervisory dialo gue (conducted via both face to face and email exchanges) contribute to the development of the students’ emerging research and writing skills, their sense of personal ownership of their project and the building of a productive and collaborative interpersonal relationship between supervisor and supervisee. To more fully understand the role of supervision in the dissertation writing process and to get a detailed picture of the part played by written feedback from supervisors as scaffolding and support to masters’ students on their writing, this study will investigate both supervisors’ and students’ perceptions and expectations of the feedback and the ways that these interact and change as the dissertation process unfolds. The study will also examine the rela tionship between the feedback offered by supervisors and the development of the students’ writing during the dissertation process, through a detailed analysis of the written feedback given to the six case study participants on their chapters and drafts. This will also be cross-ref erenced to subsequent changes made to students’ writing as evidenced in final versions of the dissertation. To summarize, this research aims to: • Collect information on students’ perceived needs for feedback and support and their experiences of supervision as part of the dissertation writing process • Collect information from supervisors about their understandings and expectat ions of their own roles and responsibilities and those of their students • Examine the written feedback that students get from their supervisors and analyse its role in students’ development as academic writers and researchers as evidenced in their drafts and final versions of their dissertations.


List of Research Outputs

Hyland F. , Book reviews editor, In: M Machon Ilona Leki, Fiona Hyland, Journal of Second Language writing . Elsevier science, 2009.


Researcher : Imafuku R

List of Research Outputs

Imafuku R. , Students' academic experience in medical problem-based learning tutorials, Proceedings of the Independent Learning Association 2007 Japan Conference (Online): Exploring theory, enhancing practice: Autonomy across the disciplines . Chiba, Japan, Online, 2009.


Researcher : Jhaveri A

List of Research Outputs

Jhaveri A. , Awarded ‘Certificate of Attendance’ for the Teacher Conference on ‘New Literacies in Action’, The University of Hong Kong, 2010.
Jhaveri A. , Awarded ‘Certificate of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Stage 1’ by the ‘Centre for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning (CETL) , 2009.
Jhaveri A. , Awarded ‘Certificate of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Stage 2’ by the ‘Centre for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning (CETL) , 2010.
Jhaveri A. , Invited as a ‘Special Guest Speaker’ for second language learners of English by the English Club of Hasbro, Inc. Hong Kong , 2009.
Jhaveri A. , Invited lecture on ‘Academic Writing’, The Open University of Hong Kong, 2010.
Jhaveri A. , Invited lecture on ‘Writing Educational Essays’, The Open University of Hong Kong, 2010.
Jhaveri A. , Journalism Education and Second Language Learners: A Systemic Functional Linguistics Perspective – Paper Presented at the Postgraduate Research Conference . Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, 2010.
Jhaveri A. , Linking Students’ Words with their Worlds in the Journalism Classroom: A Literature Review, Research Studies in Education . Hong Kong, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, 2009, 7: pp.107-112.
Jhaveri A. , Member of the ‘International Communication Association’ , 2009.
Jhaveri A. , Member of ‘International Bureau of Education, UNESCO’ , 2009.
Jhaveri A. , Peer Reviewer , Research Studies in Education . Hong Kong, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, 2009, 7.
Jhaveri A. , Peer Reviewer of the ‘Journalism Studies’, ‘Global Communication and Social Change’, and ‘Visual Communication Studies’ interest groups for the ‘International Communica tion Association Conference 2010’. , 2010.
Jhaveri A. , Selected / invited to participate in the ‘Research Skills Development Programme, The University of Hong Kong, 2009.
Jhaveri A. , ‘Impact of the Press Coverage of China and India relations in a Globalized Economy’. Paper presented for the preconference on ‘The Chindia Challenge to Global Communication’ at the ‘International Communication Association Conference 2010’ . Singapore, 2010.


Researcher : Kan FLF

Project Title: The functions of Hong Kong's Chinese History, from colonialism to decolonisation
Investigator(s): Kan FLF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 09/2008
Completion Date: 11/2009
Abstract:
In Hong Kong, history, particularly Chinese Hist ory, is unique among school subjects in the passions it arouses – public and private; political and bureaucratic; emotional and intellectual – as interest groups struggle to control development of the curriculum. The purpose and ownership of history teaching remain contentious because of the distinctive nature of Hong Kong as a post-colonial society. The region has inherited from the colonial era an unusual approach to the teaching of history, whereby Chinese History has become a separate subject from History, informed by its own philosophy and pedagogical assumptions, and viewed as a discipline with concerns entirely distinct from those of ‘World’ History, and indeed from the history of Hong Kong itself. Previous research has examined the historical origins of the split between History and Chinese History in the local school curriculum, and the influence of the politics of Hong Kong’s transition on curriculum development in this sensitive area (Vickers, 2005; Vickers, Kan and Morris, 2003; Kan 2007). This project aims at developi ng and extending this research, focusing particularly on the historiographical rationale underpinning the Chinese History curriculum. Chinese History is seen in some quarters as the prime curricular vehicle for educating (or re-educating) Hong Kong students as patriotic Chinese citizens, amidst perceptions among the Beijing leadership and their local supporters that under British rule, Hong Kong people lost their sense of national identity, and that to compensate for this need a substantial measure of “national education”. In recent years, there has been a strong voice advocating that Chinese History should be made a compulsory subject in secondary schools. However, notwithstanding the high political status given to Chinese History, the subject has frequently been criticised for being a boring and conservative subject, performing moralising and conservative functions in the service of the state and requiring students to memorise established views rather than encouraging them to use rational argument s to interpret history (see for example, Kan and Vickers 2002). As a result of the dichotomy in how Chinese History is perceived, this study aims to address the following research questions: - What have been the functions and roles of this subject since its introduction in schools in the 1940s? - Why has Chinese History been characterized with such functions and roles? - What has been the resulting impact of the curriculum on teaching, learning and examination during the colo nial period and in the subsequent post-colonial era?


Project Title: The Functions of Hong Kong's Chinese History, from Colonialism to Decolonization
Investigator(s): Kan FLF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 11/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
This study aims to address the following research questions: 1) What have been the functions and roles of the subject since its introduction in schools in the 1940s? 2) Why has Chinese history been characterized with such functions and roles? 3) What has been the resulting impact of the curriculum on teaching, learning and examination during the colonial period and in the subsequent post-colonial era?


Project Title: History education and national identity in postcolonial Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Kan FLF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
It has been twelve years since the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1997, and during this time, scholars have been interested in the impact of decolonisation on education in Hong Kong, and in particular, on the history curriculum, as previous research has shown that history is one of the vehicles used by the ruling authority to legitimise its administration (Sweeting, 1991; Kan & Vickers, 2002; Vickers et al, 2003). What makes the study of education in postcolonial Hong Kong especially interesting is that after the British administ ration ended, instead of becoming an independent state, Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Moreover, although the Sino-British joint declaration of 1984 guaranteed ‘One country, two systems’ and ‘No change for 50 years’, the PRC is a communist state, whereas Hong Kong has all along practised a capitalist economic system, and its legal system has always been based on English common law. These factors have created a quandary over the question of ‘national identity’: what are the characteristics of ‘national identity’ as it applies to people in Hong Kong? While the SAR government has stressed the formation of a ‘national identity’ through the school curriculum, particularly the Chinese History curriculum, there have been queries about whether the ‘national identity’ promoted in Hong Kong is equivalent to the ‘national identity’ being promulgated in China, or whether it is a kind of ‘national identity with Hong Kong character istics’, and, if so, what are these characteristics? If Chinese History has a special role to play in identity formation, what is the role played by the other history subject, History? Under ‘One country, two systems’, have the two history subjects assumed different roles in ident ity formation? All these questions will be addressed in this project.


List of Research Outputs

Kan F.L.F. and Vickers E., Hong Kong’s two history subjects: ‘History’ and ‘Chine se History’ in the school curriculum, 一個香港,兩科歷史: 香港中學課程中的「歷 In: Ren, SJ, History Teaching . 歴史教學, Tianjin, China, Classic Books Publication, 2010, No.4: 41-50.
Kan F.L.F. , Invited by the CDI to give a talk to curriculum officers on "Assessment for learning - Chinese History" , 為學習而評估-中史, 2009.
Kan F.L.F. , Review of P. Morris and B. Adamson, Curriculum Schooling and Society in Hong Kong, 《香港的課程、學校教育和社會》書評, In: Pai, YF, Journal of Curriculum Studies . 課程研究, Taipei, Higher Education Foundation, 2010, Vol. 4 No.3: 91-93.
Kan F.L.F. , The Functions of Hong Kong's Chinese History, from colonialism to decolonization, In: Ian Westbury, Journal of Curriculum Studies . UK, Journal of curriculum Studies, 2010, Vol 42, No.2: 263-278.


Researcher : Kan KY

List of Research Outputs

Tse S.K. and Kan K.Y. , A case study on students' ability to express emotion in his Chinese composition, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Journal . Hong Kong, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre, 2009, 8: 152-164.


Researcher : Katyal KR

Project Title: A Comparative Study Investigating the Development of Professional Knowledge of Principals in Hong Kong and India
Investigator(s): Katyal KR, Postiglione GA
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
The purpose of this research project is to apply, and refine further, a model of professional knowledge growth based on Popperian cycles, in order to investiga te how school principals in different cultural contexts build epistemically progressive problem solving practices. The investigation will focus on whether problems have a determinate structure in different contexts, and whether what counts as a solution, the incremental Popperian processes to solving these problems, are affected by cultural factors (or not). Reform movements designed to address the ills of school systems world -wide have placed educational leadership under the spotlight in the past few decades. Consequently, there are numerous studies that provide support for the notion that leadership theories, leaders and leadership practices are critical for setting and achieving organizational goals. Hoy and Miskiel, emphasizes, “Leaders are important because they serve as anchors, provide guidance in terms of change, and are responsible of the effectiveness of organizations.” (2001, p. 391). Paradoxically, a number of influential empirical studies while reporting on the effect size of school leadership on student learning outcomes have found it to be small (see for example, Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Witziers, Bosker & Kruger 2003). If leadership is indeed significant to schools and it has been endorsed by enough researchers, policymakers, educators to make it a common sense assumption, then surely leadership should have had a strong effect on school learning outcome, arguably the key organizational goal? Vivianne Robinson (2006) points out the fallibi lity of attempting to tie together leadership to expected student outcomes - “Questions about the impact of leadership on a range of student outcomes are difficult to answer because there is a very long causal chain between how a principal thinks and acts and student outcomes.” She goes on to note that school leadership is seen as ‘generic leadership’ and has little links to the day to day contextual contingencies of schools and classrooms. There is much truth in her argument as even a cursory glance at the voluminous literature on leadership, highlights that generalized theories of leadership fail to take into account the complexities of the particular contexts where they are applied. Phillip Hallinger, an influential scholar in educational leadership, iterates this point by stating that “it is virtually meaningless to study principal leadership without reference to the school context (2003, p. 346). Our view is that contingencies of application are sufficiently different to compromise the goal of producing a single leadership model. Instead, the role of the school leader in promoting learning, or other organizational outcomes, needs to be discerned from the leader’s own theory that guides their practice, at least where that theory is developed from epistemically successful problem-solving practices (Evers & Katyal, 2007, 2008). Leadership, thus viewed, is a dynamic process. For background, some earlier work by Prof Colin Evers (CI) revealed that it was feasible to see teachers developing their knowledge as a form of informed trial and error constrai ned by progress (or otherwise) in the solutions of problems in their professional practice (Chitpin & Evers,2005). The schema prescribes that we begin with a problem (P1), propose solutions or tentative theories (TT1), test the solutions for errors (EE1), and move on to a new or more refined problem (P2), although if no progress has been made on the original problem, the schema suggests that it be approached with a new tentative theory. In particular, it was theorized that such le arning could be modeled as a series of “Popper Cycles”, successive repetitions of a basic schema that Popper (1979) argued was at the core of the growth of scientific knowledge: P1 → TT1 → EE1 → P2. . Thus, the key to the growth of professional knowledge may be seen as the formal articulation of problems of practice, propose theories which can then be empirically tested, and in engaging in error elimination, or testing, to have clear standards as to what counts as a difficulty in the emergent theory. The proposed study expands and goes beyond this basic model by exploring whether the cultural context for finding solutions shapes the way these solutions are arrived at or never arrived at. The proposed research is aimed at the nature of problem specification (working with a constraint satisfaction model) and the nature of professional epistemic practices that are required for local theories to grow and develop into powerful problem-solving devices that are normally associated with good professional knowledge. A key aspect of testing this approach will be to look at the structural invariance in knowledge growth that is imposed by the structure of problems by comparing both problems and solutions in different cultural contex ts. Consequently, comparison forms a key dimension for this study which will involve principals from Hong Kong and India. India was chosen as a comparative partner as both countries share a common colonial heritage with very similar educational systems which are at the cusp of drastic reform designed to move focus away from examinations to critical learning. Also the PI on this project has worked in the education system in India for many years and has a network which will enable the access to research participants. It is believed that by adopting a comparative approach the model will have enhanced utility by comparing both problems and solutions across different educational contexts. The research aims to address these questions: 1. Is there structural invariance in knowledge growth that is imposed by the structure of the problems when comparing problems and solutions in educational contexts in diff erent cultures in terms of : (i) How do school leaders identify and formulate the nature of their problems? (ii) How do school leaders identify the nature of their professional epistemic practices, their assumptions and theoretical resources that they use to resolve problems? (iii) How do the leaders identify and explore the nexus between error elimination in one set of Poppe rian cycles and consequences that this has to shape the constraints that specify the construction of the following problem? 2. Is the trajectory of professional learning of school leaders similar in different cultures? (1000 words) Chitpin, S. & Evers, C.W. (2005) Teacher professional development as knowledge building: a Popperian analysis, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 11(4), 419-433 Evers, C.W. & Katyal, K.R. (2007) Paradoxes of leadership: Contingencies and critical learning, South African Journal of Education, 27(3), 377-390 Evers, C. W. & Katyal, K. R., (2008). Educational Leadership in Hong Kong Schools 1950 - 2000: Critical Reflections on Changing Themes Journal of Educational Administration and History, 40(3), pp.251-264 Hallinger, P. (2003) Leading Educational Change: Reflections on the Practice of Instructional and Transformational Leadership, Cambridge Journal of Education, 33, 329-351 Hallinger, P. & Heck, R. (1998) Exploring the Principal's Contributio n to School Effectiveness: 1980–1995. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 9, 157-191. Hoy, W. & Miskel, C. (2001) Educational Administration Theory Research, and Practice. Boston: McGraw Hill. Popper, K. (1979) Objective Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Robinson, V. (2006) Putting Education Back into Educational Leadership. Leading & Managing, 12 (1), 62-75. Witziers, B., Bosker, R. & Kruger, M. (2003) Educational Leadership and Student Achievement: The Elusive Search for an Association, Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(3), 398-425


Project Title: XIV World Congress of Comparative Education Societies Conducting Educational Research in Confucian Heritage Cultures: Methodological and Ethical Challenges
Investigator(s): Katyal KR
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2010
Completion Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Katyal K.R. , Conducting Educational Research in Confucian Heritage Cultures: Methodological and Ethical Challenges. , Paper presnted at the WCCES, Istanbul June, 2010 .
Katyal K.R. and Katyal K.R. , Sensitive Research or Sensitive Participants? Re-conceptua lizing Sensitivity in a Confucian Heritage Culture, WCCES, Istanbul, June 14th to June 18th, 2010 .


Researcher : Katyal Roy K

Project Title: A Comparative Study Investigating the Development of Professional Knowledge of Principals in Hong Kong and India
Investigator(s): Katyal KR, Postiglione GA
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
The purpose of this research project is to apply, and refine further, a model of professional knowledge growth based on Popperian cycles, in order to investigate how school principals in different cultural contexts build epistemically progressive problem solving practices. The investigation will focus on whether problems have a determinate structure in different contexts, and whether what counts as a solution, the incremental Popperian processes to solving these problems, are affected by cultural factors (or not). Reform movements designed to address the ills of school systems world-wide have placed educational leadership under the spotlight in the past few decades. Consequently, there are numerou s studies that provide support for the notion that leadership theories, leaders and leadership practices are critical for setting and achieving organizational goals. Hoy and Miskiel, emphasizes, “Leaders are important because they serve as anchors, provide guidance in terms of change, and are responsible of the effectiveness of organizations.” (2001, p. 391). Paradoxically, a numb er of influential empirical studies while reporting on the effect size of school leadership on student learning outcomes have found it to be small (see for example, Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Witziers, Bosker & Kruger 2003). If leadership is indeed significant to schools and it has been endorsed by enough researchers, policymakers, educators to make it a common sense assumption, then surely leadership should have had a strong effect on school learning outcome, arguably the key organizational goal? Vivianne Robinson (2006) points out the fallibility of attempting to tie together leadership to expected student outcomes - “Questions about the impact of leadershi p on a range of student outcomes are difficult to answer because there is a very long causal chain between how a principal thinks and acts and student outcomes.” She goes on to note that school leadership is seen as ‘generic leadership’ and has little links to the day to day contextual contingencies of schools and classrooms. There is much truth in her argument as even a cursory glance at the voluminous literature on leadership, highlights that generalized theories of leadership fail to take into account the complexities of the particular contexts where they are applied. Phillip Hallinger, an influential scholar in educational leadership, iterates this point by stating that “it is virtually meaningless to study principal leadersh ip without reference to the school context (2003, p. 346). Our view is that contingencies of application are sufficiently different to compromise the goal of producing a single leadership model. Instead, the role of the school leader in promoting learning, or other organizatio nal outcomes, needs to be discerned from the leader’s own theory that guides their practice, at least where that theory is developed from epistemically successful problem-solving practices (Evers & Katyal, 2007, 2008). Leadership, thus viewed, is a dynamic process. For background, some earlier work by Prof Colin Evers (CI) revealed that it was feasible to see teachers developing their knowledge as a form of informed trial and error constrained by progress (or otherwise) in the solutions of problems in their professional practice (Chitpin & Evers,2005). The schema prescribes that we begin with a problem (P1), propose solutions or tentative theories (TT1), test the solutions for errors (EE1), and move on to a new or more refined problem (P2), although if no progress has been made on the original problem, the schema suggests that it be approached with a new tentative theory. In particular, it was theorized that such learning could be modeled as a series of “Popper Cycles”, successive repetitions of a basic schema that Popper (1979) argued was at the core of the growth of scientific knowledge: P1 → TT1 → EE1 → P2. . Thus, the key to the growth of professional knowledge may be seen as the formal articulation of problems of practice, propose theories which can then be empirically tested, and in engaging in error elimination, or testing, to have clear standards as to what counts as a difficulty in the emergent theory. The proposed study expands and goes beyond this basic model by exploring whether the cultural context for finding solutions shapes the way these solutions are arrived at or never arrived at. The proposed research is aimed at the nature of problem specification (working with a constraint satisfaction model) and the nature of professional epistemic practices that are required for local theories to grow and develop into powerful problem-solving devices that are norma lly associated with good professional knowledge. A key aspect of testing this approach will be to look at the structural invariance in knowledge growth that is imposed by the structure of problems by comparing both problems and solutions in different cultural contexts. Consequently, comparison forms a key dimension for this study which will involve principals from Hong Kong and India. India was chosen as a comparative partner as both countries share a common colonial heritage with very similar educational systems which are at the cusp of drastic reform designed to move focus away from examinations to critical learning. Also the PI on this project has worked in the education system in India for many years and has a network which will enable the access to research participants. It is believed that by adopting a comparative approach the model will have enhanced utility by comparing both problems and solutions across different educational contexts. The research aims to address these questions: 1. Is there structural invariance in knowledge growth that is imposed by the structure of the problems when comparing problems and solutions in educational contexts in different cultures in terms of : (i) How do school leaders identify and formulate the nature of their problems? (ii) How do school leaders identify the nature of their professional epistemic practices, their assumptions and theoretical resources that they use to resolve problems? (iii) How do the leaders identify and explore the nexus between error elimination in one set of Popperian cycles and consequences that this has to shape the constraints that specify the construction of the following problem? 2. Is the trajectory of professional learning of school leaders similar in different cultures? (1000 words) Chitpin, S. & Evers, C.W. (2005) Teacher professional development as knowledge building: a Popperian analysis, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 11(4), 419-433 Evers, C.W. & Katyal, K.R. (2007) Paradoxes of leadership: Contingencies and critical learning, South African Journal of Education, 27(3), 377-390 Evers, C. W. & Katyal, K. R., (2008). Educational Leadership in Hong Kong Schools 1950 - 2000: Critical Reflections on Changing Themes Journal of Educational Administration and History, 40(3), pp.251-264 Hallinger, P. (2003) Leading Educational Change: Reflections on the Practice of Instructional and Transformational Leadership, Cambridge Journal of Education, 33, 329-351 Hallinger, P. & Heck, R. (1998) Exploring the Principal's Contribution to School Effectiveness: 1980–1995. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 9, 157-191. Hoy, W. & Miskel, C. (2001) Educational Administration Theory Research, and Practice. Boston: McGraw Hill. Popper, K. (1979) Objective Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Robinson, V. (2006) Putting Education Back into Educational Lead ership. Leading & Managing, 12 (1), 62-75. Witziers, B., Bosker, R. & Kruger, M. (2003) Educational Leadership and Student Achievement: The Elusive Search for an Association, Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(3), 398-425


Project Title: XIV World Congress of Comparative Education Societies Conducting Educational Research in Confucian Heritage Cultures: Methodological and Ethical Challenges
Investigator(s): Katyal KR
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2010
Completion Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs



Researcher : Kennedy DM

Project Title: A study of ubiquitous technologies in higher education in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Kennedy DM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 10/2008
Completion Date: 07/2009
Abstract:
1) develop a pedagogical model that highlights the affordances of mobile devices that support student learning; 2) generate data highlighting the impact on student learning; 3) generate data on the impact on student motivation using mobile devices; 4) gene rate a base of qualitative and quantitative data to support future work in the area; 5) establish guidelines for the use of mobile device s in higher education in Hong Kong; 6) establish guidelines for setting up technical frameworks to support mobile learning opportunities, in and out of the classroom; and 7) create a set of digital resources and exemplars of good practice to enable re-use of learning designs involving mobile devices in teacher education.


Project Title: Enhancing teaching, learning and community with technology
Investigator(s): Kennedy DM, Chigaeva S
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Leung Kau Kui Research and Teaching Endowment Fund - Teaching Grants
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
Introduction Developing communities of practice in teaching and learning is seen as an important step in the inclusion of information and communication technologies in schools and universities. The lack of collaboratio n has been shown to be a significant hindrance to developing and implementing innovative teaching practices that involve technology (Ellis & Phelps, 2001). In Hong Kong, the then Education and Manpower Bureau (2004) (now known as the Education Bureau or EDB) identified that the lack of a collaborative culture which had the effect of very limited sharing of resources and practices within and between schools was a key limitation in the dissemination and increased use of innovations involving technology in schools. In this context, innovations involving ICTs are defined as ‘pedagogical solutions and means supporting a shift from traditional educational paradigms towards emerging pedagogical approaches based on our current understanding of learning, such as fostering learner-centered and constructivist processes, and the acquisition of lifelong learning skills’ (Forkosh-Baruch, Nachmias, Mioduser, & Tubin, 2005, p. 205). However, in many institutions tasked with the responsibility of training the next generation of teachers the process of collaboration and community building commences during undergraduate studies (Sim, 2006). This teaching development project seeks to enhance the opportunities for community development by the creation of a technology-enhanced environment that incorporates Web 2.0 technologies to support undergra duate pre-service teachers during their studies. In addition, the platform of technologies is also expected to enhance the continuation of the community of practice once students graduate by providing access to resources developed by the students when they were undergraduates. Currently, approximately 600 online assessment items that incorporate text, photographs, video and audio are created by students as part of the coursework requirements in the module (EDUC2010) ‘The use of IT in Language Education’ per year. In addition, teams of students produce up to 30 language WebQuests per year. This rich set of resources would form the basis for ongoing discussion, reflection and re-use with an appropriately designed technological platform. Web 2.0 technologies have powerful features that support community building and social networking, and function in ways in which current students engage with technology (Kennedy et. al., 2006). It is expected that by providing a successful example of a community of practice in one subject domain, it could provide an exemplar to help disseminate good teaching and innovative practices. Project Objectives This TDG will: 1. Provide a platform for the development of social networks and communities of practice built on a raft of free and open source (FOSS) Web 2.0 technologies. 2. Create the technological infrastructure to support the hosting and dissemination of exemplar ICT-rich resources created by pre-service teachers enrolled in the faculty of education. 3. Establish a community of practice amongst students involved in the BA and BEd language programmes, by the creation, storage, evaluation and sharing of good practices in using ICTs to enhance language learning. 4. Conduct research focused on the sustainability and development of the communities of practice supported by Web 2.0 technologies. Project Background The group of individuals born since approximately 1982 are now entering institutions of higher education. These young people have been described as digital natives (Prensky, 2005) or the ‘Y’ or ‘Net Generation’ (Tapscott, 1998). They are the first generation to grow up with a deep familiarity and association with information and communication technologies (ICTs), having “spent their entire lives surrounded by and using computers, videogames, digital music players, video cams, cell phones, and all the other toys and tools of the digi tal age” (Prensky, 2001, p. 1). Tapscott (1998) suggests that the access to and use of digital media has fundamentally changed with way these young people think, particularly compared to their parents and more importantly in this context: the current generation of educators. A number of researchers and commentators claim (compared to previous generations) that this group of students: • expect information to provided very quickly and when needed; • prefer learning in highly interactive ways; and • use communication technologies to maintain social networks and access information. (Oblinger, 2003; Prensky, 2001a, 2001b) This project seeks to engage students by using social netw orking communication technologies to support the development of a community of practice amongst pre-service language teachers. Preliminary data from an associated project ‘An investigation of ‘digital natives’ and digital immigrants’, the technologies they use and the purposes they are used for’ currently underway indicates that significant numbers of students are already engaging in the use of Web 2.0 technologies of their own volition (Table 1). It would be remiss if as educators we did not work in ways more congruent with the practices of the students in our courses. Information and communication technologies have often been expected to change pedagogical practice and act as a level for change. However, the evidence for such outcomes is limited (Oliver, 2006). The reasons for this are varied and include: • the use of directed teacher-centred practices in which ICTs are used to reinforce traditional approaches to teaching and learning (Littlejohn, 2004; Fox, 2007); • limited support for teachers, both pedagogical, technical resulting in low levels of ICT adoption (Kearsley, 2005); and • very limited collegial support and engagement (Lakkala, Lallimo & Hakkarainen, 2005). In the current academic programme for all BEd and BA Education majors all students must undertake one compulsory half module that focuses on the use of information and communica tions in the teaching and learning of language. However, this is an isolated experience in what is often a sea of more traditional university education consisting of lectures and tutorials with only limited use of ICTs such as online forums. Rarely do the students get the opportunity to become creators of ICT-supported content or ICT-rich learning environments. Previous research has demonstrated that in higher education, even if the innovation is perceived as highly engaging, valuable and worthy of emulation in other facets of a curriculum by students, without continuity of experi ence any value in the innovation is lost (McNaught, Whithear & Browning, 1994).




Researcher : Ki WW

Project Title: International Federation for Inform ation Processing (IFIP) Working Conference (WG 3.1 and 3.3): ICT and the Teacher of the Future Teacher Empowerment and Minimalist Design
Investigator(s): Ki WW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 01/2003
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: 10th European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) Conference: Improving Learning, Fostering the Will to Learn Learning Cantonese Tones
Investigator(s): Ki WW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 08/2003
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: 14th International Conference on Computers in Education 2006 Computer-assisted Perceptual Learning of Cantonese Tones
Investigator(s): Ki WW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 11/2006
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Development of Learning and Teaching Resource Package for the Programming Modules of the Secondary 1-3 Computer Literacy (CL) Syllabus
Investigator(s): Ki WW, Kwan ACM, Siu FLC
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 02/2008
Abstract:
To provide: (1) interactive self-learning materials to help Computer Literary (CL) teachers gain ncessary knowledge to teach CL programming modules using LOGO and VIsual Basic; and (2) learning and teaching materials to help teachers to teach students critical thinking and problem solving skills through programming using LOGO and Visual Basic.


List of Research Outputs

Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. , van Aalst J.C.W. , Chan C.K.K. , Kwan A.C.M. , Lu J. and Ki W.W. , Using Web 2.0 Technology To Support Learning, Teaching And Assessment In The Nss Liberal Studies Subject, 《學習2.0》: 一個支援新高中通識教育及「專題探究」的學習及評估平台, In: 胡少偉、楊沛銘, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Journal . 香港教師中心學報, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre, 2009, 8: 43-51.
Tsung L.T.H. , Shum M.S.K. , Ki W.W. and Lam M., Accessing Chinese: For Ethnic Minority Learners In Hong Kong, Unit 1-3. . Hong Kong, Centre for Advancement of Chinese Language Education and Res, 2009, 135.
Tsung L.T.H. , Gao F. , Shum M.S.K. and Ki W.W. , Acquisition of Chinese as a second language in Hong Kong: Chinese language studies among ethnic minority students, Zaixianggang huanjingxia de zhongwen dier yuyan jiaoxue: Shaoshu zuyi xuesheng de zhongwen xide yanjiu, Butong huanjing xiade hanyu jiaoxue guoji xueshu yantao hui, 2009.
Tsung L.T.H. , Zhang Q. , Shum M.S.K. and Ki W.W. , South Asian learners of Chinese in Hong Kong, In: L. Tsung & K. Cruickshank, Teaching and learning Chinese in a Global Context . USA, The Continuum Publisher, 2009.


Researcher : King ME

Project Title: Self-identity and worldview of transgendered females in Thailand: a cross-cultural comparison
Investigator(s): King ME
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund
Start Date: 03/2004
Abstract:
To carry out a cross-cultural comparison on self-ide ntity and worldview of transgendered females in Thailand.


Project Title: Lived Experiences of Chinese Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ) People in Hong Kong: Implications for Strategic Public Policy & Public Health Policy and Practice
Investigator(s): King ME
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 08/2008
Completion Date: 12/2009
Abstract:
The aim of this Seed Funding Project is to study the experiences of prejudice of Chinese Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) people in Hong Kong. Guided by two Strategic Research Theme s (Social & Public Policy and Public Health Policy & Practice) this study forms the foundations for my appointment as a Research Assistant Professor in Sexual and Gender Diversity and will contribute to the development of a GRF application in 2009-2010. Lesbian (L) and gay (G) people are those who engage in same-sex sexual behaviour, have enduring emotional or sexual attractio ns to the same-sex, and/or claim a same-sex sexual identity. Bisexual (B) people are those who feel sexual attraction towards both men and women, although not necessarily to the same degree. Transgender (T) people are those who have the unalterable conviction that the gender they were assigned at birth was an inaccurate or inadequ ate account of their gender identification(s); whose characteristics and/or social presentations may transcend or move between traditional gender boundaries and corresponding sexu al norms, or even exist outside of these culturally defined possibilities. ‘Questioning’ (Q) people are those who are uncertain as to their particular sexual identities. LGBTQ people are those who have childhood and adolescent developmental periods during which they question their place along the spectrum of gender and/or sexual identities and orientations. As the sexual aspect of the self emerges and becomes increasingly more central to identity, questions of heteronormativity (the punitive rules that require individuals to conform to hegemonic, heter osexual standards of identity and behavior) invariably arise and may become the predominant focus for the individual, their families, and society. To date, few studies have been conducted in the Hong Kong context that allow LGBTQ people to describe their life experiences, in their own ways and using their own words. Further, few studies have administered psychometric instrumen ts within such populations that have been shown to be valid and reliable. Therefore, this project, using both qualitative and quantitative methods, aims to remedy these shortcomings in the indexed literature. The Seed Funding Project will provide insights into the unique experiences of Hong Kong Chinese LGBTQ people at personal, interpersonal, social/institutional and levels. The related research questions are as follows: 1. To what extent does the psychosexual development, “coming out” experiences, and identification with LGBTQ communities of Chinese LGBTQ people in Hon g Kong affect their psychological well-being? 2. What is the impact of the stigma associated with non-heteronormativity on the interpersonal relationships of LGBTQ people in Hong Kong? 3. To what extent do LGBTQ people experience social prejudice and institutional discrimina tion in Hong Kong? Background to the research questions are detailed below: 1. The Personal Experience of LGBTQ People in Hong Kong Gender identity, sexual identity, and sexual orientation are salient features of difference. However, it is a difference unlike race, class and other more visible factors, in that nonheterono rmativity can be revealed, partially revealed, or be kept effectively and totally hidden. To further complicate matters there are also degrees of positioning along a heteronormati ve-nonnormative continuum that individuals might feel compelled to place themselves. If this placement reflects a non-authentic representation of the self, there may be serious psychological, emotional, and social consequences. Indeed, it is clear that LBGTQ people have been shown to have a higher risk of depression, anxiety, hopelessness, and suicidality than heteronormative people (Rosario, Schrimshaw, & Hunter, 2005). • Psychosexual development – earliest feelings during the period from early childhood to early adolescence (Diamond, 2006); • Coming-out experiences – processes involved in and reactions to revealing one’s LGBTQ status to others (Wong & Tang, 2004); • Psychological distress – depression, anxiety, hopelessness, and suicidality as a manifestation of being perceived as socially discredited or flawed (Rosario, Schrimshaw, & Hunter, 2005); • Identification with LGBTQ communities – awareness of and involvement in advocacy, activist, or social groups for LGBTQ people (Schmitt & Branscome, 2002); 2. The Interpersonal Relationships of LGBTQ People in Hong Kong The literature suggests that LGBTQ people, especially youth, may be perceived as different or even as deviant. This perception may exist within the family, within the peer milieu, and within society (Herek, 2007). At the core of this perception is the construct of sexual stigma, or the negative regard, inferior status, and relative powerlessness that society collectively accords to any non-heterosexual behaviour, identity, relationship, or community (Herek , 2004). Sexual stigma is socially shared knowledge about LGBTQ’s devalued status in society, and is usually manifested in three distinct ways (i.e., enacted stigma, felt stigma, and internalized stigma). Sexual stigma is often the basis for the harassment and victimization of LGBTQ people, and has been shown to significantly impact individual’s social ties to friends and family (Herek, 2004). Thus, increased levels of victimizati on combined with decreased social support result in negative personal experiences that may result in significant risk factors for poor emotional and behavioural adjustment. 3. The Social/Institutional Experience of Prejudice and Discrimination of LGBTQ People in Hong Kong The literature suggests that LGBTQ people may be at increased risk for prejudice and discrimination across multiple areas of life, including education, employment, social services, credit, marriage, parenting, and law-enforcement, among others (Currah, 1997). It has been noted that LGBTQ people have been summarily excluded in many jurisdictions from legal and civil protections that are readily available to heteronormative people, not because of conceptual or philosophical failures in legal reasoning, but rat her because they have not been viewed as worthy of protection or, in some cases, even as human (Currah & Minter, 2005). The consequences for LGBTQ people are psychological stress, socio-economic disadvantage, and social isolation (Thompson, Noel, & Campbell, 2004). This study of prejudicial and discriminatory attitudes within the Hong Kong Chinese context will allow researchers, policymakers, and the public to become more fully cognizant of social problems that need to be addressed. Further, the research is expected to lead to initiatives to be used as future case studies in support of LGBTQ-related anti-discrimination legislation in Hong Kong (under a GRF or other grant).


Project Title: A Survey on the Implementation of Sex Education in Hong Kong Secondary Schools: Attitudes and Implications for Teachers
Investigator(s): King ME
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 11/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
The major focus to gain a better understanding of the needs of secondary school teachers and school social workers in the relevant areas of sex education and the impact of the culture of sexuality in Hong Kong Chinese society. An importance aspect of the study are the attitudes of teachers and school social workers towards sexuality education and their various approaches to sexuality education, especially within the context of same gender and coeducational schools, differing religious affiliations, and types and bands of schools.


List of Research Outputs

Li L., King M.E. and Winter S.J. , Sexuality Education in China: The Conflict between Reality and Ideology, Asia Pacific Journal of Education . Routledge, 2009, 29 (4): 469-480.
Li L., King M.E. and Winter S.J. , Chinese adolescent smoking, sexuality-related activities, and linkage to psychosocial profiles, Journal of Adolescent Health . Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2010, 42 (2): 74-75.
Sui S.G., Wu M.X., King M.E. , zhang Y., Li L., Xu J.M., Weng X.C., Duan L., Shan B.C. and Li L.J., Abnormal Gray Matter in Victims of Rape with PTSD in Mainland China: A Voxel-based Morphometry Study, Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 2010, 22(3): 118–126.
Winter S.J. and King M.E. , Entry for Hong Kong, In: Chuck Stewart , The Greenwood Encyclopedia of LGBT Issues Worldwide . Los Angeles, CA, 2009.


Researcher : King RB

List of Research Outputs

King R.B. and Watkins D.A. , Invited Colloqia at the Learning, Language, and Culture Laboratory, Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, Exploring the role of social goals in collectivist cultures: Filipino and Chinese societies . Manila, Philippines, De La Salle University, 2009.
King R.B. , Invited speaker at the Stella Maris College, Metro Manila, Motivating students: A psychological perspective . Philippines, 2009.
King R.B. and Watkins D.A. , Paper presented at the 46th Annual Convention of the Psychological Association of the Philippines, The role of mastery, performance, and social goals in academic motivation among Filipino students . Dumaguete, Philippines, 2009.
King R.B. and Watkins D.A. , Paper presented at the 8th Biennial Conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology, Exploring the role of social goals in motivating Chinese and Filipino students . New Delhi, India, 2009.
King R.B. and Du H. , Poster presented at the 22nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Broadening hopeful thinking: From the personal to the communal . Boston, U.S.A., 2010.
King R.B. and Watkins D.A. , Poster presented at the 8th Biennial Conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology, Why are some students happy and others not? The role of academic and social goals in well-being . New Delhi, India, 2009.
King R.B. and Watkins D.A. , Poster presented at the Hong Kong Psychological Society Annual Convention, Social goals and learning strategies among Hong Kong students: A longitudinal analysis . Hong Kong, 2010.
King R.B. , Research Studies in Education, Expanding achievement goal theory: The need for social goals . Hong Kong, 2009, pp.167-176.
King R.B. , The Third Park Jung-heun Young Scholar Award—awarded by the Asian Association of Social Psychology (AASP) at the 8th Biennial Conference . New Delhi, India, 2009.


Researcher : Kong J

List of Research Outputs

Kong J. and Yiu E.M.L. , A Study on Dynamic Phonation of Tones in Mandarin through High-speed Imaging, The 17th annual conference of the International Association of Chinese Linguistics, Paris, France . 2009.
Yiu E.M.L. , Kong J. , Fong R. and Chan K.M.K. , A preliminary study of a quantitative analysis method for high speed laryngoscopic images, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology . 2010, in print.


Researcher : Kong PA

List of Research Outputs

Hannum E., Kong P.A. and Zhang Y.P., Family sources of educational gender inequality in rural China: A critical assessment, International Journal of Educatio nal Development . 2009, 29: 474-483.


Researcher : Kong PH

Project Title: A Cantonese linguistic communication measure (CLCM) for analyzing aphasic narratives
Investigator(s): Kong PH
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund
Start Date: 03/2004
Abstract:
To develop a Cantonese linguistic communication measure (CLCM) for analyzing aphasic narratives.


List of Research Outputs

Lee A. .S.-.Y., Kong P.H. and Law S.P. , Acoustic analysis of prosody for normal and aphasic discourse, 13th International Conferences on the Processing of East Asian Languages, Beijing, China . 2009.
Weekes B.S. and Kong P.H. , Aphasia and Dementia, Hong Kong Alzeheimer Disease Conference . 2010.


Researcher : Kong PH

List of Research Outputs

Lee A. .S.-.Y., Kong P.H. and Law S.P. , Acoustic analysis of prosody for normal and aphasic discourse, 13th International Conferences on the Processing of East Asian Languages, Beijing, China . 2009.
Weekes B.S. and Kong P.H. , Aphasia and Dementia, Hong Kong Alzeheimer Disease Conference . 2010.


Researcher : Kwan ACM

Project Title: Provision of Services for Professional Development of Learning and Teaching Resource Packag es on the Elective Part of the New Senior Secondary Information and Communication Technology Curriculum
Investigator(s): Kwan ACM, Tam VWL
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
To develop learning and teaching resource packages on the elective part of the New Senior Secondary Information and Communication Technology Curriculum and to conduct brief seminars on the use of the packages to relevan t teachers.


Project Title: Professional Development for Teachers in Preparation for the School-based Assessment Compon ent of HKDSE Information and Communication Technology
Investigator(s): Kwan ACM, Ki WW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Hong Kong Examination and Assessment Authority - General Award
Start Date: 04/2009
Abstract:
To design professional development services for teachers in preparation for the school-based assessment component of HKDSE Information and Communication Technology


List of Research Outputs

Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. , van Aalst J.C.W. , Chan C.K.K. , Kwan A.C.M. , Lu J. and Ki W.W. , Using Web 2.0 Technology To Support Learning, Teachin g And Assessment In The Nss Liberal Studies Subject, 《學習2.0》: 一個支援新高中通識教育及「專題探究」的學習及評估 平台, In: 胡少偉、楊沛銘, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Journal . 香港教師中心學報, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre, 2009, 8: 43-51.
Tam V.W.L. , Liao Z. , Leung C.H. , Yeung L.K. and Kwan A.C.M. , An Interactive Simulation Game to Enhance Learners’ Experience on Ubiquitous Computing Devices, In: Aleksandar Lazinica, Advanced Learning . I-Tech Education and Publishing, 2009.


Researcher : Kwan TYL

Project Title: Evaluation of the learning effectiveness of portfolio building in the new structure of the full time PGDF programme
Investigator(s): Kwan TYL, Lopez-Real FJ, Pang MF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2004
Abstract:
To carry out systemic ongoing investigation and evaluation to see how student teachers benefit from the portfolio building during their course of study in the new PDGE programme.


Project Title: Conceptual Understanding of 'School-University Partnership'
Investigator(s): Kwan TYL, Lopez-Real FJ
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2007
Abstract:
The purpose of this project is to find out the conceptual understanding of the three major stakeholders, namely the schools, the Teacher Education Institutes (TEIs) and the government, on ‘partnership’. ‘School-University Partnership’ (SUP) has been strongly encouraged since year 2000 when the first consultative document of Hong Kong Educational Reform was published. Under the advocated reform, the school system and the tertiary sector is expected to work closely and collaboratively together. This is particularly the case when teacher education is involved in preparing the future new blood to join the teaching profession. The past school learning environment where pupils were mainly passive learners receiving loads of information and knowledge from the teachers who were used to the one-way didactic expository teaching. Nowadays, pupils in schools are expected to learn actively to develop a critical mind and ope n attitude and engage in lifelong meaningful learning in order to prepare them to cope with an expanding knowledge society. This also results in a very different expectation upon teachers to engage in meaningful and active student-centred teaching. Such a fundamentally different educational philosophy requires both teachers and pupils to adopt innovative teaching and learning methods in order to meet the new challenge. While pupil s are expected to live up to the motto of ‘learning to learn’, teachers are also charged with the important responsibility to learn how to teach with innovative ideas and pedagogies to meet new societal expectations. This involves teachers committing themselves to continuous professional development as emphasized by Advisory Committee on Teacher Education and Qualifications (ACTEQ , 2003) which describes teaching as a ‘learning profession’. While teachers are responsible to use innovative pedagogies and approaches to teach the pupils, it is the TEIs, who are charged with the prime responsibility to prepare new blood to join the teaching profession and to set a clear competency framework for student-teac hers (or beginning teachers) to attain. On top of that, TEIs need to place student teachers to do practical teaching in schools to enable them to demonstrate they are able to meet the minimal expectations on teacher performance of the new expectations upon them and to grant them the initial teacher education (ITE) professional qualification which is the first stage of teaching professional development. With this background in mind, one could see that TEIs are commonly seen as the sites of pedagogical teaching and training while schools are sites of practicum to actualize and practice what is learned from the TEIs. The Educational Reform intends to bring the work of the TEIs and schools much more closely together in order to prepare enough new blood to feed into the teaching profession. Hence the emergence and the demand for ‘SUP’ are required to enhance the success of ITE. The distinctive sites of teaching and learning in initial teacher preparation lead to several problems to make ITE a full success. 1. Despite we have four major TEIs (e.g. HKU, CUHK, BU and HKIEd) to take care of ITE programmes, not all schools are required or are willing to offer practicum placement to the TEIs. This is perhaps especially if the school s representing the other party feel they have no direct obligation that they must offer practicum places to entertain the TEIs. 2. Despite partnership collaboration has been much encouraged in the last decade since the announcement of Education Reform, there is often the tendency for one party (usually the TEIs) to take a more dominant role in collaboration with the other party (usually the schools) to offer practicum placement. The outcome could appear more likely that one party is imposing its ideas onto another party. 3. Because of the outcome of 2 above, it further generates the reluctant attitude of more schools to commit into this so call ‘SUP’ especially when schools are confronted with all the upfront pressures related to Educational Reform. Even if a partnership link is established, it is often seen to have grounded on a loose foundation with superficial commitment to bring about genuine benefits to members of all parties concerned. 4. The new expectations from the Educational Reform apply pressure onto schools and teachers that they may consi der themselves not fit to take up mentoring role to help student-teachers to before initial qualified teachers and hence reinforce their impression that they are ‘forced’ to offer practicum places because of TEIs imposing the demand onto the schools. As a result, several fundamental issues are identified here which are worth investigation by this small project. Fundamental Issue 1 – What is the conceptual understanding of ‘s chool-university partnership’? • By Schools and Teachers • By TEIs and University-tutors • By Government such as Education Bureau (EdB) and ACTEQ Fundamental Issue 2 – Which is the preferred mode for Initial Teacher Education Training? Mode 1 : Pre-service TEI Mode – full time training and learning at TEI, practicum site at schools. All new teachers must have undertaken ITE programme before they are qualified to teach in schools. Mode 2 : In-service TEI Mode – full time teaching in school before obtaining ITE qualification. Join TEI asap to undertake ITE. Mode 3 : In-service School-based and TEI mixed Mode – full time teaching in school and pro gressive learning with an onsite school-based experienced mentor and do modules at TEI intermittently to gain theories to inform practice. Mode 4 : Complete on-site school-based (pre-service) Mode – Schools recruit new beginning teachers and provide on-site school based training to equip the novice trainee to become qualified teacher. (May require external body to verify the initial onsite school-based training). Mode 5 : any other further suggested mode? Fundamental Issue 3 - How can schools and TEI work together to take care of practicum while existing ITE training are basically Modes 1 and 2(mentio ned above)? Scenario 1 – It is up to the schools to volunteer practicum placement offering to TEIs at their own discretion Scenario 2 – It is the TEI’s responsibility to approach schools to form partnership to take care of ITE jointly Scenario 3 – ACTEQ to recommend that every school has to offer a certain number of practicum placement to TEIs annually. Scenario 4 – EdB to stipulate that ALL schools have to work with TEIs by offering a minimum number of practicum placements annually. Scenario 5 – any other possible scenario? Fundamental Issue 4 – How may Schools and TEIs best actualize ‘School-University Partnership’ if practicum placement is largely confined to Scenarios 1 and 2? • What may Schools do? What may TEIs do? • What may teachers do? What may university tutors do? • What may government do? What may EdB and ACTEQ do?


Project Title: Developmental Reflection on Teaching Practice by Student Teachers and Mentor Teachers
Investigator(s): Kwan TYL
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 11/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
This project aims to find out the kind of developmental reflection that a student teacher as during his/her teaching practicum in a partnership or a placement school under the mentoring support provided by a mentor teacher. The developmental reflection can be / is used - to guide ongoing formative self-reflection of the student teacher - as ground for student-teacher and mentor teacher feedback - as peer discussion on teacher development and growth, and - as the basis for a final self-reflection and teacher-mentor reflection on the overall development of the student teacher throughout the teaching practice.


Project Title: Impact of 'Whole School Mentoring Support' Approach to Professional Learning of Studen t-Teachers and Mentor-Teachers
Investigator(s): Kwan TYL
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
The purpose of this project is to study out the professional learning and development of the student-teache rs and mentor-teachers who are put to work under two different School-University Partnership (SUP) environments, namely the current common practice of ‘Dyad Endeavour’ (DE) approach and the other innovative ‘Whole School Mentoring Support’ (WSMS) approach. SUP has been encouraged since 2000 when the first consultative document of Hong Kong Educational Reform was published. The reform encourages the school system and the tertiary sector to work closely together especially when teacher education is involved in preparing new blood to join the teaching profession. In reality, the actualization of SUP is often a problem when requiring practicum placement and mentoring support from the schools. Nowadays, pupils are expected to learn actively to develop cri tical mind and open attitude to engage in lifelong learning in order to cope with the expanding knowledgeable society to live up to the motto of ‘learning to learn’. This requires teachers to engage in meaningful student-centered teaching. This ‘new’ educational philosophy requires teachers and pupils to adopt innovative teaching and learning methods to meet the challenge of teaching being a ‘learning profession’. While schools are site of teaching practicum where teachers have to practice innovative pedagogies, Tertiary Education Institutes (TEIs) are site of ‘theoretical’ pedagogical learning. TEIs need to place student-teachers in schools to practicu m to demonstrate they are able to learn professionally on site and meet the baseline teacher performance to obtain the initial teacher education (ITE) professional qualification. Concurrently, teachers in schools are expected to take up mentoring responsibility to nurture student- and beginning-teachers to help them to meet the initial professional expectations. By so doing, mentor-teachers also have to undergo an extended learnin g process to enhance continuous professional growth in the profession. However, there are issues of concern emerging from this SUP background. 1. There is no policy from the Education Bureau to compel schools must offer practicum places to student-teachers from the TEIs. 2. It is usually the good will of individual schools to offer practicum places on a yearly (ad-hoc) basis to accommodate student-teachers to do teaching practicum. 3. There is the problem of sustainable development of a sound mentoring force in the school to take up nurturing responsibility. 4. There is no systematic co-ordination to bring together the mentoring experience of the mentor-teachers and they often see the mentoring responsibility an added burden out of their already heavy teaching load. There is hardly any shared communication among mentor-teachers in the same school to ensure professional learning gain. 5. It is often a matter of luck for a student-teacher to come across a committed responsible mentor-teacher to obtain valuable practicum experience to enhance meaningful professional learning. 6. Last but not least, there is no long term strategic direction for schools to uphold the way how schools should work wit h the TEIs. All these issues lead to the practice of what is called ‘Dyad Endeavour’ approach adopted by many schools in ‘discharging’ their responsibility in taking care of the student-teachers.The ‘DE’ Approach in mentoring basically involves the pairing up of a mentor- teacher and a student- teacher (through school assignment) from the same teaching subject to work on planning and pedagogical aspects but rarely extend to other related and holistic aspects of learning to becoming a novice teacher in the school. If lucky enoug h, there may be two to three pairs of such endeavour in the practicum school. However the working relationship is only confined to the pair. The interaction may be extended a little when the student-teacher is visited by the university-tutor(s). The interaction depends if the mentor-teacher is happy to form a tripartite conferencing opportunity for sharing teaching comments amongst the three parties. If the mentor-teacher or the student-teacher failed to click on with each other, the outcome of the practicum and mentoring experience can be a pain to both parties. ‘Whole School Mentoring Support’ (WSMS), on the other hand, is an advocated mentoring approach to school and teacher change. It has the potential to enhance professional learning of different parties (mentor-teachers, student-teachers and university-tutors) to increase school effectiveness. WSMS approach is not just a process, but also a philo sophy, of professional development through mentoring. It is characterized by: i) a commitment on the part of a school that all teachers, at one time or another, be engaged in mentoring responsibility; ii) a belief that mentoring is not just a dyad endeavor between mentor and mentee but is a process that is most effectively achieved through collaboration and sharing of experience s between all parties; and iii) a commitment on the part of a university that its university-tutors should be actively engaged in the mentoring process through the support of, and as partners with, the mentor-teachers. This approach contains salient features of change manageme nt principles, collaborative lesson planning, mentoring and co-mentoring, open class observation and sharing, and synergy and team work. The outcomes involve changes towards a collaborative culture, synergistic relations with one another, and the formation of professional communities of practice. In 2007-2008, the Partnership Office of the Faculty of Education has successfully collaborated with one school to practice WSMS approach in mentoring. The outcomes and experiences were shared and disseminated in the Partnership Forum in June 2008 and has successfully attracted five more schools to join the community and commit to the following terms: • a committed sustained period of three years of initial school-university collaboration, • be prepared to offer 6 to 8 practicum places across at least two to three core subjects. • be willing to share experience in annual partnership forum with other interested schools on this ‘whole school mentoring support’ approach. Hence the objectives of this study is to 1. investigate the professional learning of the student-teachers and the mentor-teachers (confined to Geography and Liberal Studies as subject case of study) through offering feedback to lesson planning and teaching; 2. compare the impact of professional learning under the two mentoring approaches; and 3. study the favourable conditions leading to the adoption of WSMS approach.


List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. , Faculty Distinguished Teacher Awards (2008-09), Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.
Kwan T.Y.L. and Lopez-Real F.J. , Identity formation of teacher–mentors: An analysis of contrasting experiences using a Wengerian matrix framework, Teaching and Teacher Education . New York, NY, Elsevier Ltd, 2010, 26(3): 722-731.
Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.


Researcher : Kwan Chen LLY

List of Research Outputs

Kwan Chen L.L.Y. , 帕金逊病会引起口吃吗?, 帕友新知, 2010.
Kwan Chen L.L.Y. , 手术会影响言语能力吗?, 帕友新知, 2009.
Kwan Chen L.L.Y. , 大叫治疗法, 帕友新知, 2010.
Whitehill T.L. , Yu K.K.M. , Kwan Chen L.L.Y. and Ho W.L. , Chaper: peer and Self Assessments, In: McAllister, L., Patternson, M., Higgs, J., Bithell,C., Book: Innovations in Allied Health Fieldwork Education: A Critical Appraisal. . Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Sense Publishers, 2010.


Researcher : Kwo OWY

Project Title: Building a learning profession: an initiative for fostering a learning force
Investigator(s): Kwo OWY, Chan CYY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 01/2007
Abstract:
To build a learning profession: an initiative for fostering a learning force.


Project Title: XIV World Congress of Comparative Education Societies Teachers as Learners: In Pursuit of Synergy between Learning and Teaching
Investigator(s): Kwo OWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2010
Completion Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Kwo O.W.Y. , A Moral Commitment Of Teachers As Learners, The Third National Conference on Foreign Language Teacher Education and Developmen . 2009.
Kwo O.W.Y. and Elbaz-Luwisch F., Accountability, Diversity and Culture: A Quest for Critical Issues in Teacher Development , Zhejiang University . 2010.
Kwo O.W.Y. , Constructing A Learning Community: Discovery Of Teacher Leadership, Zhejiang Normal University, China. . 2010.
Kwo O.W.Y. , Curriculum Innovation in Pursuit of Excellence in Learning and teaching, Association of Southeast Asian Institution of Hig her Learning (ASAIHL) . Taipei, Taiwan, 2010.
Kwo O.W.Y. , From SET to STELT: Seeking the Meaning of Learning as a Community for Curriculum Development, In: Ora Kwo, Teachers as Learners: Critical Discourse on Challenges and Opportunities . Hong Kong and Dordrecht, Springer, 2010, 153-176.
Kwo O.W.Y. , Integrating Research into Professional Practice: A Case of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning for Curriculum Innovation, Shanghai International Studies University . 2009.
Kwo O.W.Y. , Narrative Inquiry As A Dynamic Orientation For Professi onal Learning And Development, Hangzhou Normal University, China . 2010.
Kwo O.W.Y. , Riding On The Waves Of Curriculum Innovation: In Pursuit Of Synergy Of Learning And Teaching, UNESCO, Paris. . 2010.
Kwo O.W.Y. , Seeking The Meaning Of Learning As A Community For Curriculum Development, Shanghai Normal University, China . 2010.
Kwo O.W.Y. , Teachers as Learners: A Moral Commitment, In: Ora Kwo, Critical Discourse on Challenges and Opportunities . Hong Kong and Dordrecht, Springer, 2010, 313-333.
Kwo O.W.Y. , Teachers as Learners: Critical Discourse on Challenges and Opportunities, Hong Kong and Dordrecht: Springer, Springer, 2010, 349 pp.
Kwo O.W.Y. , Teachers as Learners, World Council of Comparative Education Societies XIV World Congress . Istanbul, Turkey, 2010.
Kwo O.W.Y. , Towards a World Without Poverty: Empowering Adolescent Girls as Agents of Social Transformation, UNESCO: Paris. . 2009, 130 pp.
吳 ...... and Kwo O.W.Y. , 港澳京滬四地教師活動時間及專業發展特點比較研究, 《澳門人文社會科學研究文選——教育卷》, 澳门, 社会科学文献出版社, 2009, 167-196.


Researcher : Kwong EYL

List of Research Outputs

Kwong E.Y.L. and Yiu E.M.L. , A preliminary study of the effect of acupuncture on salivary cortisol level in female dysphonic speakers., Journal of Voice . 2009.


Researcher : Lai C

Project Title: Does Foreign Language Learners Use Technologies Strategically to Meet Their Language Learning Needs?
Investigator(s): Lai C
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 02/2010
Abstract:
Purpose Language learning is a complex interaction of cognition and affect and between individual and context (Arnold, 1999; Hurd, 2008). The process of learning a second language requires the learners to orchestrate the multitude of resources available in the environment and within themselves and tailor strategies to meet various cognitive, social, metacognitive and affective needs involved in learning (Oxford, 1990; O’Malley & Chamot, 1990; Dörney, 2005). Understanding what internal and external resources learners actively utilize and how they coordinate these resources to support learning has significant implication on learner strategy development (Chamot, 2005; Ellis, 2004). Although technology is widely acknowledged for providing great resources and venues for foreign language learning (Ducate & Arnold, 2006; Levy & Stockwell, 2006; Zhao & Lai, 2008), its potential power in enriching learner s’ language strategy repertoire is not well explored (Hurd & Lewis, 2008; White, 2008). Whether and how students orchestrate various common information communication technologies (ICTs) around them to meet their cognitive, social, metacognitive and affective needs in the process of foreign language learning is a crucial question that awaits discovery. This study attempts to enhanc e our understanding on this issue. Specifically this study will examine the frequency and quality of learners’ use of technologies to meet their various language learning needs, and identify the support learners need to better utilize the potential of technologies for foreign language learning. Key Issues Information technologies are imposing revolutionary impact on the scope and the nature of education (Sefton-Green, 200 4). More and more educators are realizing the urgency of acknowledging the wider ecology of learning, where learning is happening intentionally or incidentally in a wide variety of physical and virtual spaces. To help students make the most of the wider ecology of learning, we need first and foremost to understand whether and how learners use technologies around them to support their cognitive, metacognitive, social and affective needs of language learning. This study aims at enhancing our understanding on this crucial issue. Decades of research on language learning strategies have revealed that language learners, effective or ineffective, are constantly making “active contribution to enhancing the effectiveness of his or her own learning” (Dörney & Skehan, 2003). Effective use of strategies is also found to be associated with better learning outcome (Chamot, 2005; Oxford, 2008; Williams & Burden, 1997). Researchers further found that the more effectiv e learners tend to have a wider range of strategies and are better at orchestrating strategies for effective use (Cohen, 1998; O’Malley & Chamot, 1990; Oxford, 1990; 1996). Learners’ strategic use of resources for foreign language learning are classified into the following four categories: 1) strategic use of resources to meet cognitive needs – use resources to “manipulate and transform learning materials/input”; 2) strategic use of resources to meet metacogitive needs – use resources to meet the needs for “analyzing, monitoring, evaluating, planning, and organizing one’s own learning process”; 3) strategic use of resources to engage in “interpersonal behaviors that increase the amount of L2 communication and practice that learner undertakes”; and 4) strategic use of resources to help “take control of the emotional (affective) conditions and experiences that shape one’s subjective involvement in learning” (Dörney , 2005, p. 169; Oxford, 2008). Technology has been widely acknowledged as having tremendous potentials for language learning (Ducate & Arnold, 2006; Kern, 2006; Levy & Stockwell, 2006; Zhao & Lai, 2008) and could potentially enhance learners’ strategic use of resources to meet the multitude of needs in the process of language learning. • Potential in facilitating cognitive needs: technology allows the manipulation of language learning materia ls (e.g., speech rate adjustor; corpus), enables interactive and multiple representations of the learning resources (e.g., movies and cartoons with caption) and facilitates the visual representation and object and situational association (e.g., pronunciation visualization tools; immersive 3-D learning environments), which conseque ntly enhances the comprehensibility of the learning material and eases its internalization and retrieval. • Potential in facilitating metacognitive needs: technology enables learners to engage in active reflection and monitoring of the learning process (e.g., blogs) and allows them to share learning strategies with each other (e.g., online learning communities). • Potential in facilitating social needs: technology provides learners with the genuine motives and opportunities for using the language for authentic social purposes (e.g., computer mediated communication; social networking tools). It also con nects foreign language learners with native speakers and peer learners and engages them in engaging, meaningful interactions. Technology further allows collaborative work among learners and between learners and native speakers (e.g., wiki). • Potential in facilitating affective needs: technology delivers engaging, motivating learning materials (e.g., movie) and richly mediated and engaging learning experience (e.g., digital game s; 3-D virtual worlds). It also enables learners to seek emotional support and help from peers (e.g., online community). With technology holding so much potential in meeting the multitude of needs in foreign language learning, it is important to explore whether learners are actively harnessing its power to serve their various needs in the process of language learning. Research that examines learners’ strategic use of resources in independent language learning contexts is accumulating (Lewis & Hurd, 2008). This line of research has mainly focused on how learners adjusted their learning strategies to adapt to and make the most of the learning experience in a particular technological learning context such as online courses or tandem language learning (Rowsell & Libben, 1994; White, 1995; Stella, 2008). This study approaches the issue from a direct angle: it proposes to look at whether and how students actively and strategically utilize the common ICTs that surround them in their daily life to facilitate their foreign language learning. This study aims to answer the following research questions: 1. Do foreign language learners actively use common ICTs to meet their various needs in the process of language learning? 2. If so, how do they use common ICTs strategically for the various needs in the process of language learning?


Project Title: AAAL 2010 Annual Conference Learner Strategy Training and Task-Based Language Teaching
Investigator(s): Lai C
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 03/2010
Completion Date: 03/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Lai C. and Yung B.H.W. , Important Learning of a Teacher in Learning to Teach Nature of Science , Paper presented in the First East-Asian Association for Science Education Biennial Conference held in Ta ipei, 21-23 October 2009. . 2009.
Lai C. , Outstanding Paper of the Year 2008-2009, In: Robert Fischer, CALICO Journal . 2010.
Yung B.H.W. , Yip D.Y., Day J.R. , Wong A.S.L. , Ho K.M. and Lai C. , Curriculum Resources for the Emphases on Nature and History of Biology and Scientific Inquiry in the Secondary Biology Curriculum. Hong Kong: Education Bureau, Hong Kong SAR Government. . 2009.
Yung B.H.W. , Yip W.Y.V. , Lai C. and Lo F.Y. , Towards a Model of Effective Use of Video for Teacher Professional Development, Effective professional development: International research and development seminar on continuing professional development for science teachers held in University of York, UK. . 2010.


Researcher : Lai C

List of Research Outputs

Lai C. and Yung B.H.W. , Important Learning of a Teacher in Learning to Teach Nature of Science , Paper presented in the First East-Asian Association for Science Education Biennial Conference held in Taipei , 21-23 October 2009. . 2009.
Lai C. , Outstanding Paper of the Year 2008-2009, In: Robert Fischer, CALICO Journal . 2010.
Yung B.H.W. , Yip D.Y., Day J.R. , Wong A.S.L. , Ho K.M. and Lai C. , Curriculum Resources for the Emphases on Nature and History of Biology and Scientific Inquiry in the Secondary Biology Curriculum. Hong Kong: Education Bureau, Hong Kong SAR Government. . 2009.
Yung B.H.W. , Yip W.Y.V. , Lai C. and Lo F.Y. , Towards a Model of Effective Use of Video for Teacher Professional Development, Effective professional development: International research and development seminar on continuing professional development for science teachers held in University of York, UK. . 2010.


Researcher : Lai M

List of Research Outputs

Lu J. , Lai M. and Law N.W.Y. , Knowledge Building in Society 2.0: Challenges and Opportunities, In: M.S. Khine and I. M. Saleh , New science of learning: Computers, cognition and collaboration in Education . New York, Springer, 2010, 165-196.


Researcher : Lai Au Yeung WYW

Project Title: 7th Annual Conference of the Secondary School Chinese Language Teaching Association The Impact of Bilingual Education on the Teaching of the Mother-Tongue Language
Investigator(s): Lai Au Yeung WYW
Department: Curriculum Studies
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 10/1999
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: The Role of Literature in Mother Tongue Education - Fourth International Conference Literature and the Development of Mother-Tongue Language Skills - The New Chinese Language Political Change and the First Language Curriculum Implications for Teacher Education the Case of Hong Kong (SAR), China
Investigator(s): Lai Au Yeung WYW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2003
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Florence 2004: Exploring Cultural Perspectives Mother-Tongue Language Curricula of the East and West - Indicators of Cultural Differences
Investigator(s): Lai Au Yeung WYW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2004
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: 12th International Study Association on Teachers and Teaching (ISATT) Conference The Literature Components in the Mother - Tougue Curriculum in the Chinese Speaking Regions- Implications for Teacher Education The Culture Components in the Chinese Mother-tongue Language Curricula - Implications for Teacher Education
Investigator(s): Lai Au Yeung WYW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2005
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: A tale of two cities - the impact of Cultural Values on Chinese Language education
Investigator(s): Lai Au Yeung WYW, Fang XY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 10/2005
Abstract:
Purpose of the research This research attempts to identify what are the cultural values included in the Chinese Language curriculum - the mother tongue curriculum of the Chinese in Hong Kong, a post colonial region and in China, as in the case of Guangzhou. The purpose is to provide information to front line education practioners of Hong Kong to help them to develop their school based Chinese Language curriculum. The background The mission of mother tongue language education is to develop students’ cultural identify as well as the love of their heritage culture other than the development of linguistic proficiency. Culture is most commonly viewed as that pattern of knowledge, skills, behaviours, attitudes, values and beliefs, as well as material artifacts etc. It is the sum total of what a particular group of people has created together, shared, and transmitted from one generation to another (Pai & Adler, 2001; Paige, Cohen, Kappler, Chi & Lassegard, 2002). In China , in a broad sense, the term ‘culture’ is commonly defined as all substances materialistic artifacts, institutional systems and spiritual values which are created and commonly accepted by a certain group of people; in a narrow sense, it refers mainly to spiritual values and behaviours which can be acquired through learning and are commonly possessed by a certain group of people (Zheng, 1996). The relationship between culture and language is well established (Kaplan, 2001). When language is used in contexts of communications, it is bound up with culture in multiple and complex ways (Kramsch, 1998). If language is seen as social practice, culture becomes the very core of language teaching, cultural awareness must then be viewed both as enabling language proficiency and as being the outcome of reflection on language proficiency (Kramsch, 1993). As the National Curriculum for English (Dept of Education and Employment & Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 1999) suggested the learning of English can contribute to promoting pupils’ spiritual, moral, social and cultural developmen t, then language learning should help pupils explore and reflect how language relates to national, regional and cultural identities. Chinese as a mother tongue language has also been assigned the mission to develop the students’ cultural identity as well as the love of their heritage culture other than the development of linguistic proficiency (Curriculum development Council, 2002). Based on the model proposed by Bachman (1990), and Bachman & Palmer (1996), a Four-Level Communications Model of Language Competency was proposed by Auyeung, Tong and Leung (2003) – the Principal and co-investigators of the proposed project – to explain the phenomenon. The problem In the recent curriculum reform in Hong Kong, culture has become one of the nine aspects of study of the Chinese Language curriculum (the nine areas are: the 4 skills – listening, reading, writing and speaking, thinking skills, culture, literature, moral education and self study). As far as the aims of study of culture is concerned, there is a big discrepancy between the old and new curriculum. In the old curriculum, which represents the Chinese Language curriculum under the colonial era, one of the aims stated in the Chinese Language curriculum was ‘to enhance students’ knowledge of Chinese culture, and enhance their sense of responsibility to society’ (Curriculum Development Council, HK, 1990) In the new curriculum developed after the return of sovereignty to China, the aim changed to ‘development of patriotic feelings’ (curriculum Development Council, HK, 2002). As majority of the teachers received their basic education under the colonial era, they have difficulty understanding and implementing what is expected from the new curricul um. Thus, by providing them with information about what has been taking place in China, as in the case of Guangzhou, a city very close to HK, will enable them to have some insight into what should be included in their school based curriculum. The key issues • This research will identify the cultural values, which may include both traditional Chinese values and the western values, stated in the official curriculum documents as well as those included in the teaching materials in the two cities; • Views of the teachers from Hong Kong and Guangzhou on the relevance and validity of these values in the Chinese Language curriculum will be sought; • Their views on the strategies to incorporate these values into the teaching will also be sought. Research Methodology The research methods to be used include literature review, questionnaire survey, interviews and document analysis.


Project Title: Assessment for Learning: The Portfolio for Chinese Language
Investigator(s): Lai Au Yeung WYW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Quality Education Fund
Start Date: 09/2006
Abstract:
To provide literature information on good practices on the use of langauge learning portfolios in differen parts of the world to HK educators; to develop a framewo rk for the learning portfolios for Ch Lang under the revised Ch Lang Curr for HK secondary schools; to survey the views of HK educators on the proposed framewrok for the Ch Lang learning portfolios; to pilot the effectivens of the protfolios developed; to provide a template of the framework to be used in schools.


Project Title: Understanding Level of Assessment Literacy of Secondary Chinese Language Teachers in Hong Kong: A Preliminary Study
Investigator(s): Lai Au Yeung WYW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 03/2009
Abstract:
Key issues and problems being addressed This study aims to answer the following questions before taking further step to develop a quantitative instrument to assess the level of assessment literacy of secondar y Chinese Language teachers: 1. How do secondary Chinese language teachers perceive 'assessment' in general? 2. What are the current assessment practices used by secondary Chinese language teachers? 3. Is there any discrepancy between secondary Chinese language teachers' perceptions on assessment and their actual assessment practices? 4. What factors contribute to the discrepancies/differences to secondary Chinese language teachers' perceptions and practices of assessment, if any? 5. What level of assessment literacy are Hong Kong secondary Chinese language teachers' currently at, according to the Standards as set out by AFT, NCME, and NEA? 6. How to relate the findings to the existing model of assessment literacy? Assessment Literacy Assessment literacy is defined as 'the ability to understand the different purposes and types of assessment in order to select the most appropriate type of assess ment to meet a specific purpose' (Ainsworth and Viegut, 2006). Early in 1990, American Federation of Teachers (AFT), National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) and National Education Association (NEA) developed seven standards of assessment ‘competency’ of teachers. (AFT, NCME & NEA, 1990) These standards are required to be embedded into initial and continuous teacher training courses because good teaching should include good student assessment (AFT, NCME & NEA, 1990). The need for teachers to be 'assessment literate' has also been stressed by a number of scholars (Stiggins, 1991, 1995, 2002; Schafer, 1993; Popham, 2004). They argue that teachers should equip themselves with the ability to understand and select appropriate assessment methods, as well as to be able to make use of the assessment data to analyze students’ achievement, teaching effect iveness, and to communicate assessment results with other teachers to design or modify the next teaching activities (Stiggins, 1995). There are also scholars working on developing instruments for measuring the level of teachers' assessment literacy (such as the 'Assessment Literacy Inventory' by Mertler & Campbell, 2005). Currently, training programmes for developing teachers' assessment literacy are offered by private as well as public bodies in the US, with systematic course structures covering different levels (elementary and high schools). In Taiwan, teachers are assessed under different domains, including how sophisticated they are to employ different assessment strategies in their teaching. To date, these measures/require ments still do not exist here in Hong Kong though one of the foci of the new secondary curriculum is 'Assessment for Learning'. Educational reform for Hong Kong Secondary School 'Assessment for Learning' is one of the major foci of the recent curriculum reform in Hong Kong (Curriculum Development Council, 2000, Ch. 4, p.54) which is put forth by Black & Wiliam (1998) through their extensive and thematic literature review into the area. The major similarity of assessment litera cy and the idea of 'Assessment for Learning' is that both of them regard assessment as an integral part of the whole teaching and learning process. In this way assessment literacy becomes a condition facilitating the successful implementation of 'Assessment for Learning' rather than being a separated component in the contemporary education scene. However, the fact that establishing/maintaining standards of assessment literacy is crucial to the successful implementation of 'Assessment for Learning' is rarely spelt out (LaMarca, 2006). The Chinese Language Curriculum The revised Chinese language curriculum for Hong Kong secondary students was first implemented in 2002 beginning from the newly admitted students (S.1), and the first HKCEE Chinese language syllabus based on the revised curriculum was implemented in September 2005 for students graduating in 2007. With the emergence of the 3-3-4 curriculum, the New Senior Secondary (NSS) Chinese language curriculum will be implemented in 2009, matching to the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) Examination to be held in 2012. The most stunning change to the 2002 Chinese language curriculum is its shift from a text-based approach which focus on students’ understanding of a piece of given text, to a competence-based approach with emphasis on students language abilities in different domains(Lau, 2007). To response to the new curriculum, some teachers have shown significant change in their instruction methods (Lau, 2007), while some remain to the traditional instruction style. These instruction methods are known to be common under the paradigm of ‘testing culture’characterised by promotion of rote learning (Baartman et al., 2007; Dochy, 2001; Kleinsasser, 1995; Wolf, Bixby, Glenn III & Gardner, 1991), usually compared to the prevailing ‘assessment culture’ in which change of teachers’ and students’ roles are expected in a more interactive classroom environment, and use of different assessment methods to fit the learning goals are encouraged. While teaching, learning and assessment are integrated, change of any one of thes e components would lead to change of the other two as well. It is noted that teachers’ understandings, perceptions, views and beliefs towards teaching, learning and assessment play an important role to what kind of instruction/assessment strategies they would employ (Aguirre & Speer, 2000). Carless (2005) also maintained that teachers should be able to understand the principles and practices of Assessment for Learning if they are to implement it. In follows that research into current views/perceptions of assessment is urgent as the NSS Chinese language curriculum is going to be implemented in the very near future. Unfortunately, Tam (2007) found that although the revised Chinese language curriculum has implemented in secondary schools in Hong Kong from 2002, teachers' dichotomous views on Chinese language teaching is still prevailing and influential to the successful implementation of the new curriculum. Similar situations in other subject areas have already been identified in HK (Hamp-Lyons,2007), as implementation of a new curriculum did not lead to the learning outcomes as expected by the stakeholders because teachers were under-equipped with assessment skills and knowledge. It is easily found that despite the current Chinese language curriculum has been implemented for 5 years, there are still secondary Chinese language teachers who fail to cope with the assessment culture brought about by the educational reform, as reflected by their reluctance in adopting 'alternative' forms of assessment (Lai, ongoing research), in particular those teaching S.4 and S.5 who are preparing students for the external examination (currently HKCEE). However, the emerging NSS Chinese language curriculum requires all teachers to be able to apply multiple methods in teaching and assessing students learning in relation to the learning targets, so to achieve the goal of 'Assessment for Learning'. As the implementation of the NSS Chinese language curriculum will start from 2009, it is necessary to understand the ability of secondary Chinese language teachers in assessing student learning. Not only understanding current level of teachers' assessment literacy is useful in predicting how successful the implementation of the NSS Chinese language curriculum would be, but thi s study can also help us develop a diagnostic tool for the performance of our teachers in different standards of assessment literacy, hence to develop relevant teacher training programmes for both pre-service and in-service teachers to equip them with necessary assessment knowledg e and skills.


List of Research Outputs

Pan F.C.N. , Lau H.Y.K. and Lai Au Yeung W.Y.W. , Sharing e-Learning Innovation aross Disciplines: an Encounter between Engineering and Teacher Education , In: Academic -Conferences.Ltd, Electronic Journal of e-Learning General topic papers . Academic - conferences Ltd, 2010, 8 Issue 1: 31-40.


Researcher : Lam CM

List of Research Outputs

Lam C.M. , A justification for children’s capacity to do philosophy, Children Philosophize Worldwide: Theoretical and Practical Concepts . Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Peter Lang, 2009, pp.569-581.
Lam C.M. , A sociological deconstruction of childhood for justic e, Creativity and the Child: Interdisciplinary Perspectives . Oxford, England, Inter-Disciplinary Press, 2009, 108: pp.15-24.


Researcher : Lam JWI

List of Research Outputs

Cheung W.M. , Tse S.K. , Lam J.W.I. and Loh E.K.Y. , Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2006(PIRLS): Pedagogical correlates of fourth-grade students in Hong Kong, In: Rhona Stainthorp, Journal of Research in Reading . Horsforth, Leeds, UK, Blackwell Publishing, 2009, 32(3): 293-308.
Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.
Lam J.W.I. and Li C.L.J. , Design and Implementation of Teaching of Chinese Reading for Non-Chinese Students, 非華語學生中文閱讀教學 的思考、設計與實踐, In: The Centre for Advancement of Chinese Language Education and Research, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, Conference on Enhancing the Chinese Learning and Teaching of Intercultural Learners: Theories, Strategies and School-Based Experiences . 面向跨文化學習者的中文學與教:理念、策略、校本實踐」研討會, 2009.
Lam R.Y.H. , Tse S.K. , Lam J.W.I. and Loh E.K.Y. , Does the gender of the teacher matter in the teachin g of reading literacy? Teacher gender and pupil attainment in reading literacy in Hong Kong, Teaching and Teacher Education . Elsevier Ltd, 2010, 26: 754-759.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Chan E.S.Y. , Cantonese Opera as Local Intangible Cultural Heritage: Constructing the Learning Experience in Formal Education in Hong Kong, Symposium on the Politics & Poetics of Asian Intangible Cultural Heritage (Hong Kong) . The University of Hong Kong, 2009.
Ng F.P. and Lam J.W.I. , Chinese Reading Ability Training - Reading, Understan ding And Strategies . 中文閱讀能力訓練--認讀、理解、策略, INSTEP, 2009.
Ng F.P. and Lam J.W.I. , Chinese Reading Ability Training - Reading, Under standing And Strategies (in Chinese) . 中文閱讀能力訓練--認讀、理解、策略, Hong Kong, In-service Teacher Education Programm, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Lo A.M.F. , Construction the Platform for Interactive Learning of Cantonese Opera in Secondary School Education: Supporting the NSS Curriculum Reform (in Chinese), 共同搭建中學粵劇教育 的互動學習平台 ──支援香港新高中課程改革, Drama and Education in Chinese Communities World Conference 2009 (Hong Kong) . Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts and TEFO, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Chung A.L.S. and Lam J.W.I. , Construing the Learning Community of Cantonese Opera Education: Supporting the New Senior Secondary Curricu lum Reform, 共同建構粵劇教育的學習社群──支援新高中課程改革, Legend of the Purple Hairpin Classroom . 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009, 14-20.
Ng F.P. , Chung A.L.S. and Lam J.W.I. , Legend of Purple Hairpin Classroom . 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Chung A.L.S. , Legend of the Purple Hairpin Classroom (in Chinese), 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009.
Ng F.P. and Lam J.W.I. , Teaching of Reading Cantonese Opera Scripts for Hong Kong Secondary Students - Story Schema Approach, Reading: Assessment, Comprehension and Teaching . NOVA Publishers, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Chung A.L.S. , The 3rd phase of the “Seed Project of Cantonese Opera --- Integrate Cantonese Opera in Education”: Hong Kong Arts Development Awards - Arts Education Awards, Non-school division (Bronze Prize), 香港藝術發展獎 藝術教育獎(非學校組)銅獎, Hong Kong Arts Development Council . 2010.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Choi K.K., The Application of Free Web Tools to E-Learning Platforms for Integrating Cantonese Opera into Hong Kong Chines e Language Education in the Era of Web 2.0, The 16th International Conference on Learning (Barcelona ) . 2009.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Choi K.K., The Application of Free Web Tools to E-learning Platforms for Integrating Cantonese Opera into Hong Kong Chinese Language Education in the Era of Web 2.0, The International Journal of Learning . Common Ground Publisher, 2010, 16.
Tse S.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam R.Y.H. and Lam J.W.I. , A comparsion of English and Chinese reading proficiency of primary school Chinese Students, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development . UK, Routledge, 2010, 31: 181-199.
Tse S.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam J.W.I. and Cheung W.M. , Factors affecting the outstanding performance of Hong Kong primary school students in PIRLS 2006, China Reading . China, China Books Publisher, 2009, 1: 247-261.
Tse S.K. , Yuen H.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam J.W.I. and Ng H.W. , The impact of blogging on the bilingual reading literacy of Chinese primary pupils, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education . Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary E, 2010, 26(2): 164-179.


Researcher : Lam RYH

List of Research Outputs

Lam R.Y.H. , Tse S.K. , Lam J.W.I. and Loh E.K.Y. , Does the gender of the teacher matter in the teaching of reading literacy? Teacher gender and pupil attainment in reading literacy in Hong Kong, Teaching and Teacher Education . Elsevier Ltd, 2010, 26: 754-759.
Tse S.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam R.Y.H. and Lam J.W.I. , A comparsion of English and Chinese reading proficiency of primary school Chinese Students, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development . UK, Routledge, 2010, 31: 181-199.


Researcher : Lau KL

List of Research Outputs

Shum M.S.K. and Lau K.L. , How International Mindedness Education Could Be Impleme nted In International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Chinese Classroom In Hong Kong Context., Education Development in Chinese Society . Macao, Macao University, 2009.


Researcher : Lau WF

List of Research Outputs

Lau W.F. and Yuen H.K. , Exploring the effects of gender and learning styles on computer programming performance: implications for programming pedagogy, British Journal of Educational Technology . 2009, 40(4): 696-712.
Lau W.F. and Yuen H.K. , Predictive validity of measures of the pathfinder scaling algorithm on programming performance: alternative as sessment strategy for programming education, Journal of Educational Computing Research . 2009, 41(2): 227-250.
Lau W.F. and Yuen H.K. , Promoting conceptual change of learning sorting algorithm through the diagnosis of mental models: The effects of gender and learning style, Computers and Education . 2010, 54(1): pp. 275-288.


Researcher : Law NWY

Project Title: An integrated approach to bridging the digital divide through supporting the development of e-Educational Leadership
Investigator(s): Law NWY, Fox RMK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: APEC Education Foundation - General Award
Start Date: 07/2001
Abstract:
To provide APEC member countries with the necessary knowledge and working methods to be able to develop national ICT policies and strategies that can be implemented at an institutional level.


Project Title: 10th European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) Conference Pedagogical Innovations and Use of ICT
Investigator(s): Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 08/2003
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Establishing a Scalable Network of Knowledge Building Schools
Investigator(s): Law NWY, Yuen HK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Quality Education Fund
Start Date: 09/2004
Abstract:
The main goal of this proposal is to build on the good foundation that has been laid to: (1) To promote and enhance primary and secondary school students’lifelong learning capacities through supporting schools and teachers in integrating computer-supported collaborative knowledge building activities in the school curriculum; (2) To provide opportunities for local teachers and students to interact with peers around the globe and to participate in collaborative knowledge building activities within and outside of their own classrooms to contribute towards the advancement of knowledge as participants in a global network; (3) To build up the resources necessary, including two online courses on knowledge building for teachers and students respectively, so as to facilitate effective dissemination of good practices to extend the network of schools engaged in knowledge building after the completion of this project; (4) Conduct research and development work through the process of achieving items 1, 2 & 3 above, to build up an international collaborative learning network and a model for the sustainable integration of computer-supported knowledge building in primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong such that the model for dissemination and support can be transferable to any agency or institution that is interested in providing such support structures.


Project Title: Design, analysis and reporting for SITES 2006
Investigator(s): Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) - General Award
Start Date: 01/2005
Abstract:
The Second Information Technology in Education Study 2006 (SITES 2006) is an international comparative study of ICT use in learning and teaching conducted under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). CITE, as represented by the Director Nancy Law, acting as the Principal Investigator, takes part in the International Study Consortium (ISC) formed by the University of Twente, the Data Processing Centre in Hamburg to undertake the contract research commissioned by IEA to design, analyze and report on the SITES 2006 study.


Project Title: Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Conference 2005 Assessing Learning Outcomes in CSCL Settings
Investigator(s): Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 05/2005
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Pedagogical Use of IT and Learning Outcomes: SITES 2006
Investigator(s): Law NWY, Yuen HK, Fox RMK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Quality Education Fund
Start Date: 09/2005
Abstract:
SITES 2006 is an international comparative study of pedagogical practices and use of ICT. The overarching goals of this project are to benchmark the implementation and outcomes of the Hong Kong IT in education policy against international data and to provide research-grounded insights for schools and teachers to evaluate their IT integration for teaching and learning. The specific objectives are: (i) to provide internationally benchmarked indicators on the extent of IT integration in schools and its impact on pedagogy and students’ learning outcomes in Hong Kong schools; (ii) to identify through an examination of the international data the strategic factors that are found to be most important in bringing about the effective integration of IT in education in different countries to provide input to policy-makers and school leadership for fine-tuning and improvement of policy and implementation strategies at the system and school level in Hong Kong; (iii) to evaluate students’ ability to make use of IT in complex problem solving. (iv) to disseminate the research findings in formats that would be most helpful to teachers, principals and policy-makes in the integration of IT in Hong Kong schools.


Project Title: SITE 2006 - 17th Annual Conference of the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education Supporting Bricolage as Leadership for Systemic Pedagogical Innovations
Investigator(s): Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 03/2006
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Educational innovations beyond technology: nurturing leadership and establishing learning organizations
Investigator(s): Law NWY, Fox RMK, Yuen HK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 01/2007
Abstract:
To study educational innovations beyond technology: nurturing leadership and establishing learning organ izations.


Project Title: Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning CSCL 2007 A Learnable Content & Participation Analysis Toolkit for Assessing CSCL Learning Outcomes and Processes
Investigator(s): Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2007
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Understanding conceptual, meta-conceptual and epistemological aspects of CSCL discourse through latent semantic analysis
Investigator(s): Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2008
Abstract:
Background of proposal Assessing students’ learning process and outcomes through analysis of online discourse is an important area of research in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) (Valcke & Martens, 2006). Within the theoretical framework of knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2003), formative, embedded and transformative assessment is one of the twelve knowledge building principles characterizing knowledge building communities (Scardamalia, 2002). Hence, methodologies and tools that can analyze CSCL discourse appropriately and efficiently for the assessment of learning progress of individuals and groups are of critical importance for pedagogical and research purposes. There is no lack of descriptions and reviews of methods or indicators for the assessment of online discourse. For example Gunawardena, Lowe, & Anderson’s (1977) discourse analysis scheme have successfully assessed the socio-metacogniti ve ability of collaborating group in different phases of knowledge co-construction. Jarvela & Hakkinen (2002), or Hakkarainen, Lipponen & Jarvela (2002) have designed analysis schemes to evaluate the epistemological level of discussions and explanations from the outcome of online discussions. Studies focused on CSCL learning processes, like scheme developed by Henri (1992) or Law & Wong’s (2003) scheme on knowledge building traje ctory have taken both qualitative and quantitative data to evaluate dynamics in the CSCL discourse at cognitive, metacognitive and socio-metacognitive levels to investigate participant’s learning or knowledge building processes. Other researches, like Lee, Chan & van Aalst (2005) have taken an embedded approach that engage students to reflect on their knowledge building processes through student reflection portfolios designed with the knowledge building principles. However, all these methods require time consuming qualitative text analysis, even though the analysis required is at the level of discourse structure such as whether the discourse involves argum entation, posing of questions, etc. Analyses of discourse data to assess students’ conceptual understanding involve semantic analysis of text, which is even more complex and labour intensive. Hence, pre- and post- knowledge tests are the most popular means of investigating con ceptual developments in CSCL. This approach, while pinpointing precisely students’ conceptions and misconceptions at the point of testing, it does not allow researchers to evaluate students’ cognitive understanding as an outcome during the discourse process and hence limits our ability to build theories linking learning outcomes with the learning process in CSCL setting. This situ ation is largely due to the tedium and complexity of conducting semantic analysis of discourse data. Finding a theoretically appropriate and non resource intensive set of instrume nts to evaluate conceptual development and learning outcomes in CSCL is hence an important challenge facing the CSCL research community (Law, et. al. 2007). The lack of an effective way to conduct qualitative data analysis with a fast turn-around time is also greatly limiting the possibility for teachers to understand the progress of students’ discussions and to provide facilitation and feedback appropriate to the status of the discussion on a day-to-day basis. Current status and on-going research efforts The principle investigator has, since 2001, led a series of research projects related to the implementation of and research on knowledge building in schools in Hong Kong, in collaboration with the co-Investigator and her team in the Institute for Knowledge Innovation and Technology in OISE (IKIT, http://ikit.org/). These projects were variously fun ded at different time periods, grouped under the title of Learning Community Projects (LCP) in CITE (http://lcp.cite.hku.hk). These projects moved to a new phase of development in September 2006 when the project received funding from the then Education and Manpower Bureau to provi de seven teachers on half-time secondment to establish the Knowledge Building Teachers Network (KBTN) Project. The project currently involves 6000 students in 50 schools participating in online collaborative knowledge building on the Knowledge Forum®. Hence a huge amount of student online discourse data has accumulated from the 06-07 academic year alone, and the project is still on-going. One of the research questions investigated through the KBTN project last year was to explore whether one can identify instances of conceptual change in students who had engaged in collaborative knowledge building online for some time on the topic of global warming, and to investigate whether different conceptual understanding were linked to difference epistemological orientations as suggested by Vosniadou & Kollias (2003). In-depth qualitative analysis of the data found that while the discourse as a whole covered a wide range of concepts, but each student tend to have a rather stable focus on a narrow range of related concepts (e.g. scientific, technological, political or economic aspects of global warming). Further, only a handful of students were interested in gaining a deep understanding of the nature and mechanism of global warming, and they appear to have a different epistemological orien tation from others who do not even notice the misconceptions that were clearly elaborated by them (Law and Yuen, 2007). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the occurrence of conceptual change requires corresponding epistemological change, which has very significant educational implications. However, this finding is based on a relatively small set of data resulting fro m the work of two classrooms over the period of 5 weeks. It would be much more convincing if similar findings can be found in the much larger set of discourse collected from all participating classrooms in the space of one academic year which would be an enormously daunting task to achieve if the data analysis were to be manually conducted. Specific research objectives Teplovs & Scardamalia (2007) have recently completed a latent semantic analysis (LSA) visualization tool which can work with an entire discourse database consisting of thousands of entries to identify semantic clusters at high speed, with the possibility of supporting use by researchers to interactively define semantic terms for the analysis. This tool has the potential of building on the current research of the Hong Kong team that would potentially lead to theoretical and pedagogical break-throughs. Hence, this proposal is a collaboration between the Hong Kong LCP project team and the OISE group under Scardamalia to achieve two objectives: 1. To explore whether the finding in the Law & Yuen (2007) paper can be replicated by applying LSA to the data collected by the KBTN project in 2006-2007; 2. To explore the pedagogical potential of the LSA tool if teachers are introduced to how it can be used for identif ying students’ conceptual development.


Project Title: Learning 2.0: An Online Platform and a Teacher Support Network for Curriculum and Assessme nt Innovation in Liberal Studies for the NSS Curriculum
Investigator(s): Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Quality Education Fund
Start Date: 09/2008
Abstract:
Developing a web-based enquiry learning and assessment system for supporting enquiry learning in Liberal Stu dies and setting up a teacher professional network for curriculum and assessment innovation.


Project Title: Teacher professional development through learning technology design for curriculum inno vation
Investigator(s): Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 04/2009
Abstract:
The aim of this project is to explore the changing concerns and competencies of teachers who are involved in a learning and assessment technology development project as co-designers and to explore whether such projects can offer an effective model of professional development for technology integration and pedagogica l innovation. Policy research and policy documents published since the 1990s point to major social changes associated with the advent of the knowledge economy, the associated new demands on citizenry and the consequent need for fundamental reforms in education involving changes in curriculum goals and pedagogical processes (ISTE, 1998, 2007; EMB, 2000; Partnership 21, 2005; UNESCO, 2008). In parallel to these calls for system wide changes in curriculum, many countries have also formulated IT in Education masterplans to support the achievement of the broad educational goals identified in the education reform policy documents (e.g. Singapore Ministry of Education, 1997, 2002; Tarragó, in press). These policies have generally been followed up in many countries by huge investments at national and local levels to implement the policy initiatives (Plomp, Anderson, Law & Quale, 2003). However, an international comparative studies of ICT implementation in education (Law, Pelgrum & Plomp, 2008) find that the actual percentage of teachers who make use of technology in their teaching practices are still relatively low despite high levels of access to computers and the internet in schools. Further, it is found that teachers’ technical compet ence is not a good predictor of teachers’ reported use of ICT in teaching or students’ learning Law & Chow, 2008a). The study found that teaching is still mainly traditional in all the participating countries. Moreover, in some countries the pedagogical orientation in teachers’ ICT-using practices may be even more traditional than their non-ICT-using practices, though the opposite is also observed in some other countries, indicating that ICT-use in classrooms is not necessarily linked with more innovative pedagogy as desired by many education policy-makers. The above observations are not entirely unexpected given the research findings on the challenges to successful school reform and ICT integration in education over the past two decades, not the least of which relates to professional development required of teachers. Mishra & Koehler (2006) propose technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) as a framework for conceptualizing the complex systems of knowledge underpinning expertise in teaching with digital technology. However, as Law (2008) argues, the challenge to teacher professional development for ICT integration in teaching and learning is not simply related to knowledge. As Holland (2001) points out, teacher learning should prepare teachers not only for any kind of ICT integration, but should equip teachers for “best practices” in ICT integration that contribute to improving existing teaching practice to achieve the goals of school reform. Hence it should contribute to the development of new, innovative teaching practices (Kirschner, Wubbels & Brekelmans, 2008; Davis, 2008). Teacher learning is dependent on the learning context and interactions they experience in the process (e.g. McDougall & Squires, 1997; Watson, 2001; Schlager & Fusco, 2003). There is a whole body of literature on conditions for successful reform an d innovation in schools (e.g. Fullan, 2001; Senge, 2000; Hargreaves 2003) which point to the importance of leadership and other institutional and system level factors in addition to teacher professional development provisions. In fact, for teacher learning to have impact on practi ce, the learning context needs to be integrated with a change initiative that is supported by the school leadership and aligned with the school development priorities. The context of this study is a Quality Education Fund support ed project undertaken by the Centre for Information Technology in Education (CITE) at The University of Hong Kong titled Learning 2.0: an Online Platform and a Teacher Support Network for Curriculum and Assessment Innovation in Liberal Studies for the NSS Curriculum. From 2009, all senior secondary students in Hong Kong will be required to take Liberal Studies (LS) as a core subje ct. LS will involve using enquiry methods in 6 areas of study, as well as in an independent enquiry study (IES) project. This presents an unprecedented emphasis on inquiry in Hong Kong’s educational system – for which teachers generally feel that they are not adequately prepared. This project was initiated by a school principal with strong participation from three other schools to address their perceived need for a learning and assessment support technology platform to help teache rs face with the difficulties they anticipate in facilitating, guiding and assessing students’ inquiry. The project comprises two components: (1) the design, development, implementation, evaluation and improvement of a web-based Enquiry Learning and Assessment System (ELAS) that provide instructional materials (content) for the de velopment of inquiry practices, promote interaction and reflection, as well as tools for teachers to manage the logistics of supporting, archiving, and assessing a large volume of assignments and projects; (2) the establishment of a team of seconded teachers to contribute to the design of ELAS and to pilot its use for the implemen tation in these schools by all LS teachers. While these seconded teachers play an important role in the design of technology as well as in the design and implementation of the professional development activities in their own schoo ls in order to implement the technology platform for the teaching of LS, their backgrounds are very diverse both in terms of technical skills and pedagogical expertise and beliefs. The specific research questions addressed in this study are: 1. What changes, if any, can be observed in the teachers’ concerns, knowledge and beli efs during the different stages of the technology design and field trial process? 2. What role(s) do the different seconded teachers play in the technology design and field trial process? 3. Is there evidence that the teachers’ roles in the technology design and development contribute to their learning and change observed? 4. Can learning technology co-design be an effective model for teacher professional development in ICT use for pedagogical innovation?


Project Title: The American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Conference 2009 Policy Impacts on Pedagogical Practice and ICT Use: An Exploration of the Results from SITES 2006
Investigator(s): Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 04/2009
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences Community knowledge advancement and individual learning Effects of On-line Collaborative Argumentation Processes on Justifications Knowledge Building International Project (KBIP): a Nested Network of Learning and Knowledge Creation
Investigator(s): Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Churchill D. , Salter Menzo D.J. , Law N.W.Y. and Tai B.Y.T. , Social bookmarking-Repository-Networking: Possibilities for Support of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Serial Records . 2009, 35(3): 142-148.
Laferriere T., Law N.W.Y. and Montan é M., An international Knowledge Building Network For Sustainable Curriculum And Pedagogical Innovation, The AERA Annual Meeting: Understanding Complex Ecologies in a Changing World, Denver, Colorado, 30 April - 4 May 2010 .
Laferriere T. and Law N.W.Y. , Keynote paper - Teacher Education for Knowledge Creation: The Knowledge Building International Project, The 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Teacher Education in Europe, Mallorca, Spain, 29 Aug - 2 Sep 2009 . 2009.
Law N.W.Y. , IEA Studies in ICT, In: B. McGaw, E. Baker & P. Peterson (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education . Oxford, UK, Elsevier, 2010, 3rd ed., Vol. 4: 644-649.
Law N.W.Y. , Invited keynote paper - Educational Innovations Beyond Technology: sustainable change through nested networks of learning and innovation, The 17th International Conference on Computers in Education, Hong Kong, 30 November - 4 December 2009 . 2009.
Law N.W.Y. , Invited keynote paper - Educational Innovations Beyond Technology: sustainable change through nested networks of learning and innovation, The International Baccalaureate Peterson Symposium, Cardiff, UK, 22 - 23 April 2010 . 2010.
Law N.W.Y. , Invited keynote paper - ICT-supported Networks of Innovation: a lever for sustainable educational transformation, The 13th UNESCO-APEID International Conference and World Bank-KERIS High Level Seminar on ICT in Education: ICT Transforming Education, Hangzhou, China, 15 - 17 November 2009 . 2009.
Law N.W.Y. , Mathematics and science teachers’ pedagogical orientations and their use of ICT in teaching, Education and Information Technologies . London, Kluwer Academic, 2009, 14 (4): 309-323.
Law N.W.Y. , On the Application of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching: A View of International Compar ison , 信息科技在教學中的應用: 國際比較研究, Educational Research . 教育研究, 北京, 敎育科學出版社, 2010, 2010 (1): 83-90.
Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. and Yuen H.K. , Online Performance Assessment of Students’ Information Literacy Skills in Science, Mathematics and Mother Tongue, The AERA Annual Meeting: Understanding Complex Ecologies in a Changing World, Denver, Colorado, 30 April - 4 May 2010 .
Law N.W.Y. and Lee Y. , Program Evaluation as a Change Process: The Journey of an "Innovative" School in Hong Kong, The AERA Annual Meeting: Understanding Complex Ecologies in a Changing World, Denver, Colorado, 30 April - 4 May 2010 .
Law N.W.Y. , Chow Y. and Pelgrum W...J., Scale and Indicator Construction for the School and Teacher Levels, In: R. Carstens & W. J. Pelgrum (Eds.), IEA SITES 2006 Technical Report . Amsterdam, IEA, 2009, 93-125.
Law N.W.Y. and Chow Y. , Teacher Questionnaire Development, In: R. Carstens & W. J. Pelgrum (Eds.), IEA SITES 2006 Technical Report . Amsterdam, IEA, 2009, 29-40.
Law N.W.Y. , Teacher Skills and Knowledge for Technology Integration, In: B. McGaw, E. Baker & P. Peterson (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education . Oxford, UK, Elsevier, 2010, 3rd ed., Vol. 8: 211-216.
Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. and Yuen H.K. , The Impact of ICT in Education Policies on Teacher Practices and Student Outcomes in Hong Kong, In: Friedrich Scheuermann & Francesc Pedró , Assessing the effects of ICT in education: Indicators, criteria and benchmarks for international comparisons . Luxembourg, European Commission, Joint Research Centre & OECD, 2009, 143-164.
Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. , van Aalst J.C.W. , Chan C.K.K. , Kwan A.C.M. , Lu J. and Ki W.W. , Using Web 2.0 Technology To Support Learning, Teaching And Assessment In The Nss Liberal Studies Subject, 《學習2.0》: 一個支援新高中通識教育及「專題探究」的學習及評估平台, In: 胡少偉、楊沛銘, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Journal . 香港教師中心學報, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre, 2009, 8: 43-51.
Law N.W.Y. , comparer les innovations p é dagogiques, In: M. Bray, B. Adamson & M. Mason (Eds.), Recherche comparative en é ducation: Approches et m é thodes . Bruxelles, de Boeck, 2010, 293-314.
Lu J. , Chiu M. and Law N.W.Y. , Effects of group argumentation processes on level of grounds, In: Kong, S.C., Ogata, H., Arnseth, H.C., Chan, C.K.K., Hirashima, T., Klett, F., Lee, J.H.M., Liu, C.C., Loo i, C.K., Milrad, M., Mitrovic, A., Nakabayashi, K., Wong, S.L., Yang, S.J.H., International Conference on Computers in Education . 2009.
Lu J. , Chiu M. and Law N.W.Y. , Effects of on-line collaborative argumentation processes on justifications, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences . ISLS, 2010, 1: 207-214.
Lu J. , Lai M. and Law N.W.Y. , Knowledge Building in Society 2.0: Challenges and Opportunities, In: M.S. Khine and I. M. Saleh , New science of learning: Computers, cognition and collaboration in Education . New York, Springer, 2010, 165-196.
Pelgrum W...J. and Law N.W.Y. , Reporting Data and Indicators, In: R. Carstens & W. J. Pelgrum (Eds.), IEA SITES 2006 Technical Report . Amsterdam, IEA, 2009, 186pp.
Yuen H.K. , Lee M.W. and Law N.W.Y. , School leadership and teachers’ pedagogical orientations in Hong Kong: A comparative perspective, Education and Information Technologies . London, Kluwer Academic, 2009, 14 (4): 381-396.


Researcher : Law SP

Project Title: The Science of Aphasia VIII (SoA) 2007 An ortho-phonological treatment for Chinese anomia (Paper at Science of Aphasia)
Investigator(s): Law SP
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 09/2007
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Executive inhibitory control across the adult life-span
Investigator(s): Law SP
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
Executive functions can be defined as a set of mental functions which enable humans to self-regulate, plan, and execute their behaviors and to solve problems in daily lives (Keil & Kasaniak, 2002). Among the various sub-components, the ability to inhibit irrelevant infor mation or prepotent or overlearnt responses is regarded as one of core elements (Miyake et al., 2000) and has been widely studied in the normal population and participants with different neuropsychological disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, dementia, and mild traumatic brain injury. Despite the increasingly accepted view that inhibitory control underlies fundamental cognitive systems such as attention (e.g., Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002), working memory and short-term memory (e.g., May, Hasher, & Kane, 1999), there is disagreement on whether it is a single mechanism or it can be differentiated into components processing different kinds of stimuli, namely, verbal vs. nonverbal. The former position is taken by Miyake et al. (2000) who found significant correlations among three inhibition tasks using verbal and nonverbal materials. Although the same view is held by Fan, Flombaum, McCandliss, Thomas, and Posner (2003), their findings from behavioral and neuroimaging data of an absence of relationship among inhibitory control tasks using linguistic and spatial stimuli have actually argued for a more differentiated system. This account is corroborated by performances from individuals with neuropsychological disorders. In particular, Hamilton and R. C. Martin (2005) reported a dissociation in performance between verbal and nonverbal inhibitory control tasks in a stroke patient with semantic STM deficits, M. L., which result in difficulties in maintaining semantic information temporarily. These researchers further observed an exaggerated proactive interference (PI) effect in M. L. on a verbal probe recognition task (Hamilton & R. C. Martin, 2007). He exhibited profound difficulties in inhibiting previously presented stimuli either semantic ally or phonologically similar to the target. Hamilton and R. C. Martin therefore propose that the pattern of verbal recall of M. L. as well as the nature of his semantic STM deficit can be accounted for by his impaired inhibitory control over previously presented verbal information rather than a rapid decay of semantic representa tions. Recently, Wong (2007) and Wong and Law (2008) reported a Cantonese-speaking aphasic participant who had severe semantic STM deficits and demonstrated an exaggerated conflict effect on a noverbal inhibitory control task, the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan et al., 2002), suggesting impaired inhibitory control of nonverbal material. However, her verbal inhibitory control was not assessed because of her naming deficits and there were no verbal inhibitory tasks that did not require oral output (resembling the recognition probe tasks in Hamilton & R. C. Martin, 2007) for Chinese speakers. Given the potential significance of inhibitory control in cognitive and psycholinguistic theories, there is strong motivation for a proper investigation of the mechanism. A study funded by the CRCG Seed Funding for Basic Research at the University of Hong Kong has recently been carried out with the aim to develop a set of tasks for assessing verbal and nonverbal inhibitory control of Chinese-speaking normal and aphasic speakers (Law, 2008). Normative data from 40 local college students was collected on three verbal and two non-verbal tas ks. The former included (i) the classic color-word Stroop task, (ii) a modified color-word Stroop task without overt verbal output to be used for aphasic participants with severe naming difficulties, and (iii) a recognition probe task with verbal stimuli adopted from Hamilton and R. C. Martin (2007) with special considerations given for the vast orthographic and phonological diffe rences between Chinese and English. The latter included the ANT and a newly-developed nonverbal equivalent of the verbal recognition task referred to as a visual-spatial recognition probe task employing abstract figures from the Aggie Figure Learning Test (Majdan, Sziklas, & Jones-Gotman, 1996). The overall results conform to expectations and are compatible with previous observati ons of the classic Stroop task and the ANT. In particular, significant effects were found of conflict in the ANT, the classic Stroop and modified Stroop tasks, and of proactive interference in the visual-spatial recognition probe task and on semantically-related same list trials of the verbal recognition probe task, all with large effect sizes. The exception was the absence of PI on phonologically-related same list trials in the verbal probe task. In light of the generally encouraging outcomes of the aforementioned project, the present study aims to investigate the inhibitory control mechanism underlying verbal and non-verbal processes in other age groups, i.e., middle-aged and elderly. The extensio n of observation to older age groups is partly motivated by the ample evidence in the literature showing that inhibitory functions deteriorate with age (see review in Van Gerven, Van Boxtel, Meijer, Willems, & Jolles, 2007). While the issue of the role of inhibition in working memory in older adults has been studied by many, results are inconclusive (e.g., See summary in Borella, Carretti, & Beni, 2008). More specifically, age-related decrease in inhibitory control may be selectiv e rather than general (Kramer, Humphreys, Larish, Logan, & Strayer, 1994; Van Gerven et al., 2007). Given that we now have developed a set of valid verbal and non-verbal inhibitory control tasks for Chinese subjects, the opportunity is ripe for examining this mechanism taking a life-span perspective. In addition, normative data from older age groups collected in the proposed study will provide important information for understanding how inhibitory control may be affected as a result of brain injury and how it may contribute to deficits in short-term memory in stroke patients.


Project Title: Processing Chinese nouns and verbs: A behavioral and fMRI study
Investigator(s): Law SP
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
1) This study investigates the neural substrates associated with nouns and verbs processing in Chinese using fMRI. We approach the subject matters from two perspectives. We will identify from normal participan ts those brain regions that are specifically associated with processing of each of these word classes. In addition, case studies of aphasic subjects with noun vs. verb dissociation will be carried out. Individuals with noun-specific or verb-specific deficits will be invited to participate. The observations will provide us clues about how impaired performance patterns are linked to lesions in particular brain areas. Results from these two subject groups will also reveal the degree of convergence from the two research directions. 2) We examine the issue at the conceptual, lexical form, and morpho-syntactic levels using comparable judgment and production tasks at each processing level. Differing from previous studies in which the exact nature of the differences was not clearly spelled out, this approach will better our understanding of the conflicting findin gs based on languages rich in inflectional morphology in the current literature. 3) We use the Chinese language as a medium of this investigation due to a distinct characteristic of the language, namely, its paucity of inflectional morphology. This allows us the rare opportunity to study the issue without the confound of obligatory inflections required in other languages examined thus far.


Project Title: 47th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Aphasia A multi-level and multi-modal framework for analyzing Cantonese aphasic discourse production: A preliminary proposal Acoustic analysis of prosody for normal and aphasic discourse of Cantonese speakers
Investigator(s): Law SP
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 10/2009
Completion Date: 10/2009
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Development of a multi-dimensional quantitative analysis of aphasic connected speech: A pilot study
Investigator(s): Law SP
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
Language impairment as a consequence of stroke can be characterized by compromised auditory comprehension, word retrieval difficulty, reduced length and comple xity of sentences, articulatory errors, disordered intonation and other prosodic disturbances, as well as improper use of gestures which may be overused, idiosyncratic or non-specific. These symptoms can have devastating effects on daily communication and conversational skills that can severely hamper the quality of life of speake rs with aphasia. Current language therapy service for Chinese-speaking language impaired individuals is greatly limited by the paucity of available assessment tools that can be used to reflect a comprehensive language profile of the client and to guide treatment design, planning, and monitoring. Existing assessments of language deficits in adults have focused mainly on structural analyses at the word and phrasal levels (Kong & Law, 2004; Law, 2001; Packard, 1990a, 1990b, 1993; Tzeng, 1993; Yiu, 1995). Despite the recognition that connected speech can provide additional information on the form and extent of language impairment, complementing that at the lexical and sentential levels, there is at present no quantitative system that captures cohesion of spe ech, including the use of lexical referents, global coherence (e.g., relationship of verbal contents with respect to the general theme of conversation), the use of coherence devices to express relationships across utterances, and the conceptual and pragmatic organization of a discourse. Atypical prosody has been reported in aphasic speech output and it has been considered as the most apparent feature for differentiating non-flue nt from fluent aphasia (Gandour & Dardarananda, 1984; Goodglass, Quadfasel, & Timberlake, 1964; Seddoh, 2000). Prosody refers collectively to the variations of stress, intonation, tone, length and rhythm (Ladefoged, 2006). Most previous acoustic studies on atypical prosody production in individuals with aphasia were conducted on English speakers. It has been found that individuals with Broca’s aphasia (a subtype of non-fluent aphasia) had differential performance in sentential intonation depending on syntax and utterance length. They showed normal declination (i.e., gradual decrease of fundamental frequency (F0) values from the beginning to the end of declarative sentences) and terminal F0 fall in short, syntactically simple sentences but abnormal declinat ion and increased F0 variability in long sentences as compared to normal individuals (see Baum & Pell, 1999; Seddoh, 2000, for review). Individuals with Wernicke’s aphasia (a subtype of fluent aphasia) also showed increased F0 variability but they had relatively normal patterns of declination (Baum & Pell, 1999). In terms of lengt h and rhythm, individuals with non-fluent aphasia tend to have slow speaking rate with segment, word and sentence durations being significantly longer than those of normal speakers (Gandour & Dardarananda, 1984), whereas individuals with fluent aphasia may have irregular speaking rate and deviant timing of final syllables in both short and long sentences (see Seddoch, 2007). In general, similar findings of intonation and speech timing problems have been reported in most studies on native speakers of lexical tone languages (e.g., Chinese, Thai) with aphasia. In addition, these spea kers may show errors in tone production, with the problem more evident in individuals with non-fluent aphasia, and the magnitude of the deficit seems to vary depending on aphasia severity (Gandour, 1998). Note that previous analytic approaches have focused on prosodic features at the sentential level; ideally, prosody evaluation should be based on connected sample (e.g., narrative , conversation) as it is considered the most sensitive speech task to different dimensions of atypical prosody (Leuschel & Docherty, 1996). Recently, Tseng, Pin, Lee, Wang, and Chen (2005) have proposed a framework for characterizing normal fluent speech prosody at the discourse level. This framework is the only system that considers all relevant levels that constitute discourse and it is the only system that has been developed for Chinese. It seems to allow a comprehensive evalua tion of prosody. It remains to be seen whether it will be adequate to reflect abnormality in prosody associated with aphasic narrative. Non-verbal means of communicative behaviors are commonly used by individuals with aphasia to act as an alternative to or a facilitator of verba l communications (Herrmann, Reichle, Lucius-Hoene, Wallesch, & Johannsen-Horbach, 1988). The use of gestures has been found to facilitate verbal expression among speakers with non-fluent aphasia (Code & Gaut, 1986). Even for severely-impaired aphasic individuals, the employment of spontaneous gestures that are meaningful, intentio nal, and communicative in naturalistic settings is still present (Rose & Douglas, 2003). Hadar, Burstein, Krauss, and Soroker (1998) have analyzed the pattern of gestural behaviors in four speakers with aphasia during free conversations and a task of describing sequential picture sets, and found that the aphasic group used significantly more gestures and at a faster rate than the control group. More recently, Rose and Douglas (2001) have specifically demonstrated how the employment of gestures may enhance naming performances in six aphasic speakers with varying etiologies and degree of word finding difficulties. The foregoing discussion has clearly highlighted the inadequacy of focusing exclusively on the linguistic properties of verbal output in reflect ing an aphasic speaker’s nature of language deficits. Rich and complementary information can be derived from analyzing the use of cohesive device in the discourse and the accompanying gestures, as well as the prosodic characterist ics of the speech. The main objective of this project is to develop a coding system that captures aphasic discourse production at these various levels using a transcription format that is well-established and widely accepted by developmental psycholinguists (Fletcher & MacWhinney, 1995). The system has been modified and used for documenting aphasic output in English (MacWhinney, 2000) as part of an effort to construct a shared database (MacWhinney, Holland, Forbes, Spector, & Fromm, 2008). Representing Chinese aphasic speech samples in this format will have the potential of performing cross-linguistic comp arisons at relative ease. The simultaneous consideration of linguistic, prosodic and non-verbal features will embody a new approach to aphasia research. More importantly, exploring the interrelatedness of measures among these dimensions will most likely lead to a new way of distin guishing and classifying major profiles of aphasic production, which will be valuable to speech/language therapists in assessing and rehabilitating adult language impairment.


List of Research Outputs

Cheung S.T.C., Su I.F. and Law S.P. , The locus of orthographic facilitation in speech production of Chinese: Evidence from picture-word naming paradigm. (Best Poster Award), Hong Kong Speech and Hearing Symposium 2010, Sha Tin, Hong Kong . 2010.
Law S.P. and Yeung H.Y.O. , Inhibitory control and aphasia treatment outcomes: Data from Cantonese anomic speakers, 13th International Conferences on the Processing of East Asian Languages, Beijing, China . 2009.
Law S.P. , Weekes B.S. , Wong W.S. and Chiu K., Reading aloud pseudo-characters by individuals with acquired dyslexia: Evidence for lexically-mediated processes in reading Chinese, Language and Cognitive Processes . UK, Taylor and Francis, 2009, 24: 983-1008.
Lee A. .S.-.Y., Kong P.H. and Law S.P. , Acoustic analysis of prosody for normal and aphasic discourse, 13th International Conferences on the Processing of East Asian Languages, Beijing, China . 2009.
Lui H.M. , Leung M.T. , Law S.P. and Fung R. .S.-.Y., A database for investigating the logographeme as a basic unit of writing Chinese, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology . USA, Informa Healthcare, 2010, 12: 8-18.
Su I.F. , Law S.P. and Weekes B.S. , Semantic Radical Processing in Chinese Character Identification: Evidence from ERP studies. (Invited Talk), Language Engineering Laboratory Seminars at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong . 2009.
Yeung H.Y.O. , Law S.P. and Yau M., Treatment generalization and executive control processes: Preliminary data from Chinese anomic individuals, International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders . USA, Informa Healthcare, 2009, 44: 784-794.
Yu X. , Law S.P. , Han Z., Zhu C. and Bi Y., Different neural correlates of conceptual processing of Chinese nouns and verbs, 16th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Barcelona, Spain . 2010.
Yu X. , Bi Y., Han Z. and Law S.P. , Revisiting neural representations of nouns and verbs in Chinese using fMRI, 17th Annual Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meetin g, Montréal, Canada . 2010.


Researcher : Law WW

Project Title: Education for Multileveled Citizenship in Secondary Schools in Shanghai
Investigator(s): Law WW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Wah Ching Centre of Research on Education in China - General Award
Start Date: 09/2002
Abstract:
The project is to study the meanings, practices and tensions in education for multileveled citizenship in Shanghai. The objectives are: (a) To study how the changes of official citizenship education are reflected in and translated into the official and hidden curriculums in school; (b) To investigate schools' meanings and interpretations of multileveled citizen ship and practices for equipping students with multileveled citizenship identity particularly from the 1990s; and (c) To investigate difficulties and tensions between citizenship components (e.g. between local and national dimensions, between national and global dimensions, between local and global dimensions) faced by (i) schools in equipping students with multileveled citizenship identity, and (ii) students in practicing.


Project Title: 16th International Conference on Learning Olympic Games and Multileveled Citizenship Education in a Global Age: The 2008 Beijing Olympics
Investigator(s): Law WW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2009
Completion Date: 07/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Ho W.C. and Law W.W. , The Struggle between Nationalism, Globalisation and Music Education in Hong Kong, In: Sarah Hennessy, Music Education Research . Routledge, 2009, 11: 439-456.
Law W.W. , Culture and School Leadership in China: Exploring School Leaders' Views of Relationship- and Rule-based Governance, In: Alexander Wiseman, Educational Leadership: Global Contexts and International Comparisons . Bingley, Emerald Publishing, 2009, 301-341.
Law W.W. and Ho W.C., Globalization, Values Education and Music Education in China, In: Stefan Hopmann, Journal of Curriculum Studies . Routledge, 2009, 41: 501-520.
Law W.W. and Pan S.Y., Legislation and Equality in Basic Education for All in China, In: I. Winchester, Interchange: A Quarterly Review of Education . Springer, 2009, 40: 337-373.
Law W.W. and Ho W.C., Popular Culture and Music Education in China, 2010 Conference of International Association for Intercultural Communication Studies, Guangzhou, China, June . 2010.
Law W.W. , School Leadership and Culture in China in a Global Age, 14th World Congress of Comparative Education Societies, Turkey, June . 2010.
Law W.W. , The Developmental State, Social Change, and Education: China and Japan, In: Robert Cowen, and Andreas Kazamias, The International Handbook of Comparative Education . Springer, 2009, 257-275.
Law W.W. , The Olympic Games and Multileveled Citizenship Education in a Global Age: The 2008 Beijing Olympics, 16th International Conference on Learning, University of Barcelona, Spain, July . 2009.
Ye W. and Law W.W. , School-based Curriculum Development and Moral Education in a Global Age: The Experiences of Three Schools in China, 5th Conference on Moral Education in Asia’s Globalising Societies: Concepts and Practice, Asia Pacific Network for Moral Education, Nagasaki University, Japan, June . 2010.


Researcher : Law YK

Project Title: Cooperative learning in high engagement classrooms
Investigator(s): Law YK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 09/2005
Abstract:
To investigate how second-grade students learn to read in cooperative groups in high engagement classrooms.


Project Title: Chinese children's cultural beliefs about learning and strategy use in text comprehension
Investigator(s): Law YK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 09/2007
Abstract:
To investigate Chinese children's cultural beliefs about learning and strategy use in text comprehension .


Project Title: Chinese Children’s causal knowledge and text comprehension
Investigator(s): Law YK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
The new Chinese language syllabus requirements (2004) has encouraged more Hong Kong primary school teachers to seek a better approach to teaching and assessing reading comprehension in Chinese language classrooms. Traditional Chinese reading comprehension tests emphasize the memorizing of factual knowledge and consist of questions that focus on literal compre hension. More innovative studies (e.g., Chan & Law, 2003; Law, Chan, & Sachs, 2008) have assessed how Chinese students comprehend a text by asking them to perform various tasks such as underlining the main sentence, recalling, summarization and inference generation. Thus far, thes e reading tasks have mostly been related to text-based meanings and have seldom been used to assess Chinese students’ cognitive processes in understanding various types of sentences. To understand Chinese children’s reading problems in text comprehension, assessment may focus on measuring how they approach complex sentences. This study aims to investigate how fifth-grade students understand causal sentences. The following objectives will be carried out to achieve the present study purpose. Objectives (1) Investigate Chinese students’cognitive processes in understanding causal sentences in the context of a text. (2) Develop rating schemes and rubrics for evaluating Chinese students’different levels of understanding causal sentences in learning from text. (3) Develop on-line cognitive tools for diagnosing learners’comprehens ion of causal sentences in the context of a text.


Project Title: Effect of text presentation on students’ motivation and reading proficiency
Investigator(s): Law YK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
Key issues The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) on reading proficiency carried out in 2001 found that Hong Kong primary teachers adopted a traditional approach to teaching reading which over-emphasis ed, and was limited to, the teaching of vocabulary and the main ideas of texts (Tse, Lam, Lam, & Loh, 2005). As a result of concerns over the ineffective methods of teaching reading of Chinese in Hong Kong, reading has been one of the four key areas of focus in the curriculum reforms in Hong Kong in recent years (Education Commission, 2001). Since PIRLS, a Quality Assurance Inspection summary report (Education Bureau, 2007) has indicated that many schools have achieved some success in motivating students to read and improve their reading proficiency through the efforts of the Education Department and various “extensive” reading activities, in which students are provided with opportunities to read by themselves. The Chinese Language Primary Guide (Curriculum Development Council, 2004), which came into effect in 2006, recommends that teachers use more effective methods to develop their students’ reading ability. According to the Guide, teachers should help primary students develop not only basic reading skills, such as recognition of Chinese characters and vocabulary building, but also higher-order reading skills such as inferring, analysing, integrating and evaluating the meaning of texts. The Guide further states that teachers should pay more attention to motivating students and promoting their use of reading strategies, critical thinking and creativity. The latest report of PIRLS 2006 (Mullis, Martin, Kennedy, & Foy, 2007) indicated that the overall reading scores of Hong Kon g Primary 4 students in PIRLS had risen from fourteenth out of 35 countries and provinces in 2001 to second out of 40 countries in 2006. The study also showed that Chinese teachers adopted a variety of strategies to teach students to read. However, there was a lack of evidence to demonstrate the relationship between teachers’ instructional practices and students’ reading proficiency. In particular, the differences of reading performance between Hong Kong high achievers and low achievers were increased in PIRLS (2006) compared with the results of PIRLS (2001). There is a need to investigate how best to adopt an effective instructional approach to develop low achievers’ motivation and reading proficiency. Textbooks play an important role in Hong Kong reading classrooms. In the traditional Hong Kong Chin ese reading classroom in primary school, teachers mainly use textbooks containing articles and exercises to teach students how to read, and use oral answer questions, worksheets and written assignments to assess students’ reading performance. In general, there are two reading textbooks for each grade in primary schools, and teache rs usually take three to five lessons to teach one passage. The usual practice is for teachers to teach students new words first and then explain the content of the passage. Students are required to learn how to write the new words and make some short sentences after learning the passage. The main focus is on learning characters and words in Grade 1 to Grade 3, and on learning var ious genres in Grade 4 to Grade 6. Comprehension of the main ideas of paragraphs and texts is emphasised in all grades. This study aims to investigate how to use various formats of a text to improve students’ reading proficiency. A number of studies have shown that less skilled readers’ limited working memory may affect their reading process and learning outcomes (McCrudden, Schraw, Hartley, & Kiewra, 2004). According to Cognitive Load Theory, cognitive load may vary due to the learning materials’ complexity, with increased complexity increasing intrinsic demands made on readers (Kalyuga, 2009). For example, readers find difficulties understanding complex relationships in scientific text. To reduce learners’ intrinsic cognitive load, various formats of presentation of a text can be manipulated to redu ce cognitive load demands on readers (Lagrou, Burns, Mizerek, & Mosack, 2006; McCrudden, Schraw, Lehman, & Poliquin, 2007). Previous studies have shown that visual display such as visual signals (e.g., Lagrou, Burns, Mizerek, & Mosack, 2006) and graphic organizers (e.g., McCrudden et al., 2007) can represent and explicitly indicate the relationships between the main ideas of a text. The findings of the above studies have provided evidence that readers can improve their comprehension through explicit presentation in such visual formats. The present study aims to examine whether two types of text presentation, namely, visual signals, and graphic organizers can facilitate Grade 5 students’ reading comprehension and their motivation. It is expected that various forms of visual display can reduce a text’s complexity and help students to understand the text, with the result that students’ motivation and reading proficiency will be enhanced. References: Lagrou, R. J., Burns, M. K., Mizerek, E. A., & Mosack, J. (2006). Effect of Text Presentation on Reading Fluency and Comprehension: An Exploratory Analysis. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33(2), 100-109. Lemarie, J., Eyrolle, H., & Cellier, J.-M. (2008). The segmented presentation of visually structured texts: Effects on text comprehension. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(3), 888-902. McCrudden, M. T., Schraw, G., Lehman, S., & Poliquin, A. (2007). The effect of causal diagrams on text learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(3), 367-388. McCrudden, M., Schraw, G., Hartley, K., & Kiewra, K. A. (2004). The influence of presentation, organization, and example context on text learning. Journal of Experimental Education, 72(4), 289-306.


List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.
Lam S.F. , Law Y.K. and Shum M.S.K. , Classroom discourse analysis and educational outcomes in the era of education reform: An analysis of whole classroom discourse in writing lessons and educational outcomes, British Journal of Educational Psychology . United Kingdom, The British Psychological Society, 2009, 79: 617-641.
Law Y.K. , Faculty Early Career Research Output Award, Faculty of Education, HKU . 2010.


Researcher : Lee AMS

List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.
Leung F.K.S. , Lee A.M.S. , Lopez-Real F.J. , Leung A., Mok I.A.C. and Wong K.L. , What Can We Teach Mathematics Teachers? Lessons From Hong Kong, In: F.K.S. Leung & Y. Li (Eds.), Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia: Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices . Rotterdam, Sense Publishers, 2010, 153-168.
Sangwin C., Cazes C., Lee A.M.S. and Wong K.L. , Micro-level automatic assessment supported by digital technologies, In: Hoyles, C., Lagrange, J.B., Mathematics Education and Technology-Rethinking the Terrain: The 17th ICMI Study . Springer, 2009, 13: 227-250.


Researcher : Lee MW

List of Research Outputs

Yuen H.K. , Lee M.W. and Law N.W.Y. , School leadership and teachers’ pedagogical orientations in Hong Kong: A comparative perspective, Education and Information Technologies . London, Kluwer Academic, 2009, 14 (4): 381-396.


Researcher : Lee SL

Project Title: The role of knowledge estimation in social interaction
Investigator(s): Lee SL, Law NWY, Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2004
Abstract:
To study how knowledge estimation mediates interpersonal communication and affects the effectiveness of team work.




Researcher : Lee WSW

List of Research Outputs

Leung Y.P. and Lee W.S.W. , Dimensionality of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-E S) among a sample of Chinese Teachers, The First Asia-Pacific Conference on Health Promotion and Education, Makuhari Messe, Japan . 2009.
Tafarodi R.W., Shaughnessy S., Lee W.S.W. , Leung Y.P. , Ozaki Y., Morio H. and Yamaguchi S., Disregard for outsiders: A cultural comparison, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology . 2009, 40(4): 567-583.


Researcher : Lee Y

List of Research Outputs

Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. and Yuen H.K. , Online Performance Assessment of Students’ Information Literacy Skills in Science, Mathematics and Mother Tongue, The AERA Annual Meeting: Understanding Complex Ecolog ies in a Changing World, Denver, Colorado, 30 April - 4 May 2010 .
Law N.W.Y. and Lee Y. , Program Evaluation as a Change Process: The Journey of an "Innovative" School in Hong Kong, The AERA Annual Meeting: Understanding Complex Eco logies in a Changing World, Denver, Colorado, 30 April - 4 May 2010 .
Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. and Yuen H.K. , The Impact of ICT in Education Policies on Teacher Practices and Student Outcomes in Hong Kong, In: Friedrich Scheuermann & Francesc Pedró , Assessing the effects of ICT in education: Indicators, criteria and benchmarks for international comparisons . Luxembourg, European Commission, Joint Research Centre & OECD, 2009, 143-164.
Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. , van Aalst J.C.W. , Chan C.K.K. , Kwan A.C.M. , Lu J. and Ki W.W. , Using Web 2.0 Technology To Support Learning, Teaching And Assessment In The Nss Liberal Studies Subject, 《學習2.0》: 一個支援新高中通識教育及「專題探究」的學習及評估平台, In: 胡少偉、楊沛銘, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Journal . 香港教師中心學報, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre, 2009, 8: 43-51.


Researcher : Lei C

List of Research Outputs

Chan C.K.K. , Chan Y.Y. and Lei C. , Technology-Enhanced Innovation and Knowledge-Building Teacher Community (Poster, CSCL Practices in Schools in Asia, International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE 2009) . 2009.


Researcher : Leung AYL

Project Title: Developing an Instrument to Assess Students' Conceptions of Geometry by Means of Manipulative tasks in a Dynamic Geometry Environment
Investigator(s): Leung AYL, Lee AMS, Wong KL
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 10/2005
Abstract:
This project further refines an instrument to quantify students’ responses to certain manipulative tasks in a dynamic geometry environment, which can in turn reflect students’ understanding of geometry.


Project Title: Exploring the teaching and learning of school geometry in dynamic geometry environments
Investigator(s): Leung AYL, Lee AMS, Lopez-Real FJ, Wong KL
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2008
Abstract:
Geometry is a key dimension in the Hong Kong Secondary School Mathematics Syllabus that Hong Kong students find difficult to master. Traditionally, the teaching of the subject focuses on the development of deductive proof and places less emphasis on the spatio-graphical nature of geometry. This approach undermines students’ potential to reason visually in realistic geometrical situations. The development of dynamic geometry environments beginning in the early 90’s (in particular, Cabri-Geometry II; Geometer’s Sketchpad) made available an information technology platform in which geometry could be taught and learnt in a visual explorative and spatio-graphical manner. This project explores how Hong Kong secondary school students conceptualize geometry in this platform that might shed light on how to teach the subject more effectively. No big project of this kind has yet bee n done in the Hong Kong context. In dynamic geometry environments, geometric objects can be constructed with prescribed intrinsic invariant properties and can be manipulated via dragging that keeps the invariant properties intact. This allows students to explore geometrical concepts through interaction with the feedback from the virtual interface on the geometric objects that they have constructed and hence gives rise to the possibility of a “new type of geometry” (at least pedagogically) that might differ from the traditional axiomatic school geometry. A large body of qualitative research (oversea) has been done on how dynamic geometry (in particular, the drag-mode) can foster students’ abilities to make geometrical conjectures, solve geometrical problems and even produce proofs. However, there is yet a deep understanding on how students learn geometry in this environment. In particular, the transition from students’ dragging activities to mathematical conceptualization is still a black box that has yet been fully opened. In this connection, an innovative quantitative instrument has been created by the principal investigator and co-investigators, trying to probe deeper into students’ geometrical understanding in dynamic geometry environments. The instrument is designed that numerical data representing students’ dragging patterns can be collected and correlated on a large scale. This differs completely from the usual qualitative dynamic geometry research practice which has focused mainly on interpreting case studies. The proposed study will utilize this instrument aiming to open up a new research arena where quantitative and qualitative descriptions can be matched in accessing and assessing students’ understanding of geometry in the school curriculum. In addition, the theory of variation and the theory of instrumental genesis will be used as interpretative frameworks to explore both quantitative and qualitative data obtained in this project. The phenomenographic theory of variation is concerned with categorizing how learners experience the variations of certain phenomenon in different ways while the theory of instrumental genesis studies the evolution of how tools (or artifacts) could be transformed into personal or institutional instruments. In this proposed study, the main overall objective is to investigate how students perceive (experience) school geometry and develop geometrical thinking via quantitative and qualitative instruments (an evolution of tool usage) in dynamic geometry. Thus a synthesis of these two frameworks could contribute significantly to the development of a new interpretative theory fo r dynamic geometry which could bring about new pedagogical knowledge related to learning geometry.




Researcher : Leung CS

Project Title: Teaching/learning aid for Cantonese child language development
Investigator(s): Leung CS
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Run Run Shaw Research and Teaching Endowment Fund - Teaching Grants
Start Date: 02/2005
Abstract:
To provide teaching and learning resources on Ca ntonese child language development for students enrolled in courses in speech and language pathology and other related disciplines such as education, psychology and linguistics.


Project Title: Use of Cantonese in Peer talk by bilingual children in Britain
Investigator(s): Leung CS
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 07/2006
Abstract:
Recent years have seen an upsurge of research on bilingual children's language development in different languages and ethnic groups. However, most of the studies focus on bilinguals in western languages. One issue with such studies is that western languages share a lot of similarities in linguistic and cultural aspe cts. (e.g. English and French, English and Spanish). Findings from such studies may not provide good data for universal trends in language use and language development in bilingual children. Another issue with previous research is that data elicitation mainly comes from child-adult data, ie. child interacting with adults. Recent research by Blum-Kulka at al (2004) has shown that data from children engaged in peer talk can be quite revealing and is extremely useful for our unde rstanding of the ability of children's language development. To date, relatively little research on Chinese-English bilinguals has been carried out. (For one major study, see Matthews and Yip 2000). To fill the gap of research in this area, it will be interesting to investigate the use of Cantonese by English-Cantonese children who are learning two typologically different languages (i.e. Cantonese and English) in an English-dominant environment. Aim The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of Cantonese by bilingual children who speak both English and Cantonese. We aim to explore the use of different grammatical patterns in Cantonese by these children in play contexts. Key iossues addressed: The main objectives of this project are: (a)examine the use of Cantonese structures in peer talk by bilingual (English-Cantonese) children, and (b)compare the differences of grammatical structures of monolingual and bilingual children in the use of Cantonese.


Project Title: Parental views on childhood bilingu alism in China
Investigator(s): Leung CS
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 12/2006
Abstract:
Purpose The main purpose of the project is to explore the issue of bilingualism from the parents' point of view. It specifically investigate the teach ing of English and Putonghua in pre-schools in two cities in China, namely, Beijing and Kunming. Key issues and problems Similar to other countries, the issue of teaching English as well as Putonghua has become popular in pre-schools in big cities in China. This study aims to examine the views of the parents on the issue of bilingualism and bilingual education from a sociolinguistic perspective. It specifically addresses the following questions: 1) What are the perceived roles and functions of Putonghua, English and the home dialect in society? 2) What are the expectations of the parents in terms of bilingual development in their children? 3) How do parents contribute to the development of bilinguality of the children? What specific activitie s do they provide at home?




Researcher : Leung FKS

Project Title: An inquiry into the characteristi cs of East Asian mathematics classrooms through international comparison
Investigator(s): Leung FKS, Park K.
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2004
Abstract:
To identify the common features in the mathematics classrooms of China (Hong Kong and Shanghai), Japan and Korea in contrast to the non-East Asian countries in the Learner's Perspective Study project (Australia, Germany, Israel, the Philippines, South Africa, Sweden, and USA) that contribute to high achievement in accordance with Marton's theory of variation.


Project Title: The Hong Kong Component of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007
Investigator(s): Leung FKS, Yung BHW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 11/2006
Abstract:
The study will address the following research questions: (1) What is the prevailing level of mathematics achievements in Hong Kong? (2) What is the prevailing level of science achievements in Hong Kong? (3) With the implementation of the policy of teaching in the mother tongue as from the 1998/99 school year, whether there is any change in the achievements in mathematics and science at the junior secondary level, and to what extent is such change caused or affected by the medium of instruction policy? (4) Has any change occurred towards a wider interpretation of the meaning (e.g. including attitudes of students and teaching and learning processes on top of syllabus and achievement) of mathematics and science education in Hong Kong as compared with previous TIMSS studies and the other participating countries / regions? (5) Have factors affecting achievements in mathematics and science changed to any significant extent compared with results from previous studies? (6) Have attitudes (e.g. learning attitudes) towards mathematics and science education among students and attitudes (e.g. teacher expectation) towards mathematics and science teaching by subject teachers changed since previous studies, and what are some of the possible reasons for such changes? (7) What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Hong Kong students in mathematic s and science and what are the recommendations for the learning and teaching in addressing students’ weaknesses, in particular, what are some of the more practicable and effective teaching strategies relating to mathematics and science education in Hong Kong?


Project Title: Professional competence of future mathematics teachers in Germany and Hong Kong: a comparative study
Investigator(s): Leung FKS
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Germany/Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
To develop instruments (questionnaires and interview schedules) for measuring mathematics knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and belief in mathematics and mathem atics learning and teaching of future teachers; to measure mathematics knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and belief in mathematics and mathematics learning and teaching of future teachers in Hong Kong and Germany; to identify the patterns of relationships among mathematics knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and belief in mathematics and mathematics learning and teaching; to identify strengths and weaknesses of future mathematics teachers in Hong Kong and Germany, and to propose further development of mathematics teacher education in the two places.


Project Title: 33rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME-33) The Infouence of Language on the Conception of Geometric Figures
Investigator(s): Leung FKS
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2009
Completion Date: 07/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Leung F.K.S. , IEA Studies in Mathematics and Science, In: Barry McGaw, Penelope Peterson and Eva Baker (Eds), The International Encyclopedia of Education . Elsevier, 2010, 3rd Edition: 650-655.
Leung F.K.S. and Li Y., Reforms and Issues in School Mathematics in East Asia - Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices. , Rotterdam, Sense Publishers, 2010, 250pp.
Leung F.K.S. and Li Y., Sharing and Understanding Mathematics Education Policies and Practices in East Asia: An Introduction, In: F.K.S. Leung & Y. Li (Eds.), Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia: Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices . Rotterdam, Sense Publishers, 2010, 1-8.
Leung F.K.S. and Park K., The Influence of Language on the Conception of Geometric Figures, 33rd Conference of the International Group for the Pyschology of Mathematics Education (PME33) . Thessaloninki, Greece, 2009.
Leung F.K.S. , The Mathematics Classroom in Beijing, Hong Kong and London, In: A.J. Bishop (Eds.), Mathematics Education . London, Routledge, 2010, Volume 4: 133-156.
Li Y. and Leung F.K.S. , Practices and Changes in Mathematics Curriculum and Teacher Education in Selected Education Systems in East Asia: What can we Learn?, In: F.K.S. Leung & Y. Li (Eds.), Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia: Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices . Rotterdam, Sense Publishers, 2010, 233-244.


Researcher : Leung MT

Project Title: The effect of induced misarticulat ion on speech perception
Investigator(s): Leung MT
Department: Speech & Hearing Sciences
Source(s) of Funding: Other Funding Scheme
Start Date: 01/1994
Abstract:
To investigate whether a tongue loading in the vertical plane will result in position perception shift and thus an articulation error; to study whether this induced articulation error would result in speech perception changes. The finding of this study will make interesting impact on the current arguement about the significance of "motor theory of speech perception" in the process of perceiving speech.


Project Title: The writing development of prima ry school students and an improved way of marking writing-to-dictation exercises
Investigator(s): Leung MT, Law SP
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Quality Education Fund
Start Date: 08/2006
Abstract:
To establish an easy to use, theory driven framework for writing error analysis so that teachers can make best use of the errors obtained through writing-to-dictation tasks; to establish a writing development norm which can serve as a basis for assessing the writing abilities of individual students and the planning of individualized programme for remediation.


Project Title: The development of morphological processing in reading Chinese
Investigator(s): Leung MT
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 04/2008
Abstract:
The investigation of the development of morphological awareness has attracted considerable attention in studies of different languages around the world as morphological awareness plays a critical role in the development of word reading and reading comprehension (Carlisle, 2003; Nagy, Berninger & Abbott, 2006). It is assumed that morphological awareness is essential to reading acquisition that it facilitates children to develop morphological processing while reading, i.e. to decode complex words into smaller meaningful units and to relate the meanings of these units to that of the complex words. This was demonstrated in children learning to read alphabetic scripts (e.g. Carlisle & Stone, 2005). Studies of morphological processing in children reading Chinese words, however, were very limited (e.g. Chu & Leung, 2005). The aim of the current study is to investigate the development of morphological processing in reading Chinese. Morphemes are the smallest units in words that carry meanings. Words can be categorized into monomorphemic, consist of one morpheme only (e.g . lady in English; 狗 /gau2/ [dog] in Chinese), and multi-morphemic, consist of more than one morpheme (e.g. salesman in English; 耳環 /ji5 waan4/ [earring] in Chinese). Free morphemes can be used alone as word (e.g. cry in English; 雨 /jyu5/ [rain] in Chinese) while bound morphemes cannot (e.g. re- in English; and機 /gei1/ in Chinese). Morphemes serve as the basic building-blocks to construct words. Multi-morphemic words are constructed in terms of inflect ions, derivations and compounding (Carlisle, 2003). Inflectional and derivational morphology are highly productive word forming rules in English while compounding is highly productive in forming new words in Chinese (Kuo & Anderso n, 2006). The current study will only focuses on the processing of Chinese compound words. It is generally accepted that the mental lexicon of matured readers are organized morphologically (Taft, 2003; Zhou & Marslen-Wilson, 2000). In modeling morphological processing, it is often suggested that orthographic, phonological unit s (form units) and meaning (semantic features) were organized in three different levels of representation (e.g. Zhou & Marslen-Wilson, 2000). A triangular relation between orthographic, phonological and semantic representations was assumed, in which activation can be sent from one representation directly to another or indirectly via a third representation (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989). In order to explain results obtained from different experiments, Taft (2003) proposed the Interactive-Activation Model and suggested a set of modality-free lemma units that capture the correlation between form and meaning. According to his description, the ease of activation of a lemma unit depends on the frequency of co-occurrence of the forms and semantic features. The distinctiveness of a lemma representation decreases as the number of the meanings associated with the corresponding morpheme increases. Thus, morphemes with concrete meanings will be recognized easier, and morphemes with few meanings will be processed easier than morphemes with many meanings. The lemma units are proposed to be hierarchically structured such that the lemma unit for a multi-morphemic word has to be activated via the lemmas of its constituent morphemes. Therefore, when a multi-morphemic word is being processed, the orthographic units in the orthographic representation will be activated which then send activations to the lemma of the constituent morphemes which in-t urn activate the lemma of the whole word and finally, the semantic features of both the whole word and its constituent morphemes will be activated. He hypothesized that common semantic features shared by both the whole word and its constituent morphemes facilitate word recognition while unshared features compete with each other and inhibits word recognition. Hence, multi-morphemic words with transparent morphemes will be recognized more readily. Since the forms and meanings of free morphemes co-occur frequently, a lemma unit will be developed for each free morpheme. On the other hand, the clarity of the lemma unit of a bound morpheme depends on the concreteness of its meaning and the number of words that can be formed using that particular morpheme (produc tivity of the morpheme). Thus, the representations of bound morphemes that occur in large number of different semantically related words will be more distinct compared with those only occur in limited number of words or those occur in many semantically unrelated words. The effect of boundness of morphemes, morpheme productivity and number of meanings associated with morphemes on reading Chinese compound words will be investigated in the current study. The current study only targets on investigating the effect of each morphological factor on reading separately. Since the strength of association between units and the clarity of lemma units will vary as the exposure of prints increase, the effect of each factor will be explored in children from different levels of education. To summarize, the current study aims at examining the developmental changes of the effect of the following factors on reading Chinese compound words: 1) boundness of morphemes, 2) morpheme productivity, and 3) number of meanings associated with morphemes. And the Interactive-Activation model will be verified through the data obtained from children. Reference Carlisle, J.F. (2003). Morphology matters in learning to read: a commentary. Reading Psychology, 24, 291-322. Carlisle, J.F., & Stone, C.A. (2005). Exploring the role of morp hemes in word reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 40(4), 428-449. Chu, M.M.K., & Leung, M.T. (2005). Reading strategy of Hong Kong school-aged children: the development of word-level and character-level processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26(4), 479-504. Kuo, L., & Anderson, R.C. (2006). Morphological awareness and learning to read: a cross-language perspective. Educational Psychologist, 41(3), 161-180. Nagy, W., Berninger, V.W., & Abbott, R.D. (2006). Contributions of morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and middle-s chool students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 134-147. Seidenberg, M.S., & McClelland, J.L. (1989). A distributed, developmental model of word recognition and naming. Psychological Review, 96, 523-568. Taft, M. (2003). Morphological representation as a correlation between form and meaning. In E. Assink, & D. Sandra (Eds.), Reading complex words (pp. 113-137). N.Y.: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (2000). Lexical representation of compound words: Cross-linguistic evidence. Psychologia, 43, 47-66.


Project Title: School-based Remedial Program to Accelerate the Reading Ability of Students with Dyslexia
Investigator(s): Leung MT
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Quality Education Fund
Start Date: 10/2008
Abstract:
Establishing a school-based remedial program for P2 and P3 students with special reading difficulties in Chinese, developing a teacher-friendly manual and an e-learning centre to enhance the reading ability of 40 students with Dyslexia of two primary schools.


Project Title: International Dsylexia Association (IDA) 59th Annual Conference The basic unit of and the development of writing skills in Chinese
Investigator(s): Leung MT
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 10/2008
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: The developmental changes of the effect of the positional consistency and the combinability of logographemes on writing Chinese characters
Investigator(s): Leung MT
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 04/2010
Abstract:
Writing plays an important role in the literacy development. In the past, writing development was generall y supposed to be dependent on reading development (e.g., Perfetti & Bell, 1991; Van Orden, Jansen op de Harr, & Bosman, 1997). Based the reports of the dissociation between the performances in reading and writing of different languages (e.g. Cossu & Marshall, 1985; Cossu, Gugliotta, & Marshall, 1995; Law, Yeung, Wong, & Chiu, 2005; Law, Wong, & Kong, 2006), writing is believed to be independent of reading. Studies of writing in Chinese, however, are very limited. The aim of the current study is to investigate the cognitive process ing in writing Chinese. Structurally, Chinese character can be analyzed into three levels sub-character units: stroke, logographeme and compound logographeme. Stroke is a line made between the points at which the pen touches and leaves the paper. Multiple strokes combine to form a logographeme, the basic writing unit (Han, Zhang, Shu, & Bi, 2007; Law & Leung, 2000) comparable to letters in alphabetic scripts. Adjacent logograph emes combine to form compound logographemes which finally combine to form a character. For example, there are 13 strokes in the character絹 /gyun3/ [a kind of cloth]. Some of the strokes combine to form logographemes , , 口 and月. Adjacent logographemes combine to form compound logographemes 糹 and 肙, which further combine to form the character. Different from alphabetic script, Chinese character is not a linear contractual lining of letters. Instead, the corresponding writing units are assigned into a two-dimension square with specific configurations. For example, the logographemes in明 /ming4/ [bright] are arranged in a left-right configuration, whereas, another character, 另 /ling6/ [another] are arranged in a top-down configuration. A writing process can be represented by a three-level processing model. It starts with the message level when a person has an idea to express himself through writing. According to the errors produced by dysgraphic patients (Law, 2004; Law et al., 2005) and the writing errors of children, the overall configurations of the target characters were almost always retained though the components were incorrect. Therefore, we suggest that the next level is the retrieval level where the person retrieves th e configuration of the target character and the corresponding logographemes, the basic unit of writing in Chinese (Han, Zhang, Shu, & Bi, 2007; Law & Leung, 2000). The third level is the assignment level where the retrieved logographemes are assigned into slots of the retrieved configuration. The resultant representation will then enter the graphemic buffer for preparation of later motor process of writing (Fig 1) According to the processing model, deletion, addition, substitution and transposition errors observed in writing can be explain by problems occur at the retrieval level and/or the assignment level. Much research has been done on the functioning of the graphemic buffer (e.g., Badecker, Hillis, & Caramazza, 1990; Han et al, 2007; McCloskey, Badecker, Goodman-Schulman, & Ajiminosa, 1994). In contrast, the investigation on the retrieval and ass ignment of the basic writing unit to configuration is far less profuse. Only the frequency effect of logographemes has been demonstrated that a dysgraphic patient made more errors on the logographemes with low frequencies (Han et al, 2007). The present study aims at investigating the influence of the positional consistency and the combinability of logographeme at the assignment level of the writing process. A logographeme is likely to be assigned a position which it always occurs in a configuration. In other words, logographemes of high positional consistency (HPC) would be assigned a correct position than logographmes of low position consistency (LPC). Therefore, pseudocharacters composed of HPC logographemes would be copied better than those with LPC logographeme when the frequencies of the logographe mes are matched. Another factor that may affect the logographeme assignment is their combinability, a concept similar to bigram in alphabetic scripts. The combinability of a logographeme refers to the number of logographemes that can exist at its adjacent position to form a compou nd logogarpheme in real characters. It is expected that logographemes with smaller number of possible adjacent logographemes (high combinability [HCom]) would be assigned correct than those with larger number of possible adjacent logographemes (low combinability [LCom]). Therefore, pseudocharacters composed of HCom logographemes would be copied better than pseudocharacters compose d of LCom logographemes when the frequency is controlled. The developmental changes of the effect of each factor on writing characters would be investigated in the present study.


List of Research Outputs

Lui H.M. , Leung M.T. , Law S.P. and Fung R. .S.-.Y., A database for investigating the logographeme as a basic unit of writing Chinese, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology . USA, Informa Healthcare, 2010, 12: 8-18.


Researcher : Li CLJ

List of Research Outputs

Lam J.W.I. and Li C.L.J. , Design and Implementation of Teaching of Chinese Read ing for Non-Chinese Students, 非華語學生中文閱讀教學 的思考、設計與實踐, In: The Centre for Advancement of Chinese Language Education and Research, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, Conference on Enhancing the Chinese Learning and Teaching of Intercultural Learners: Theories, Strategies and School-Based Experiences . 面向跨文化學習者的中文學與教:理念、策略、校本實踐」研討會, 2009.


Researcher : Li H

Project Title: Longitudinal Study of the Impacts of the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme
Investigator(s): Li H, Rao N
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
Purpose The Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme (PEVS), as soon as it was announced, has generated a massive amount of controversy. Though the PEVS at least represents a positive effort to support families with young children and improve the quality of early childhood education in Hong Kong, how the policy is actually implemented and how it would affect the landscape of early childhood education still need further study. Hence, the present research aims to investigate the impacts of the PEVS and the changes it brings to the school administration and development, teachers’ qualifica tion, affordability of education, parental choices, as well as examine effects of the scheme on the actual school performances of students. An investigation into the public’s specific concerns on the voucher scheme could generate suggestions for the policy makers to improve the system and contribute to theory development. Key Issues and Problems Being Addressed Problems of early childhood education in Hong Kong. Early childhood education in Hong Kong has been neglected by the education authorities for years (Opper, 1993; Rao and Li, in press). In 2005 for example, only 2.7% of the education budget was put into early childhood education, versus 22% into primary and 30% into secondary education, in which education is mandatory by law. As a result, the operational costs of kindergartens rely heavily on parents and private investors. Parents, especially those of low-income families, have often found it difficult to afford the high tuition fees charged by private independent kinderg artens. On the other hand, parents are often insensible of how and where their money was spent. The problem of poor financial transparency appears to be related to the operation modes of kindergartens. In Hong Kong all kindergartens are run by non-government organizations (NGOs) or private investors. More than 80% of these kindergartens are non-profit making (NPM), whereas 20% of them are private independent (PI) kindergartens1 (Office of the Chief Executive, 2006). Even though NPM kindergartens are subjected to the government’s Quality Assurance Inspection, PI kindergartens do not need to report their financial details to the government as they are not receiving any subsidy from the government. The government, therefore, has no way to discern the financial situations of these kindergartens. The accountability and financial transparency of kindergartens, particularly of those that are private independent, thus, are of major concerns (Li, Wong & Wang, in press). The foremost problem of early childhood education in Hong Kong, in addition, is the quality of education itself. Former Secretary for Education and Manpower Professor Arthur Li pointed out that 80% of the PI kindergartens and 35% of the NPM kindergartens failed to achieve the minimum quality standard (Tai Kung Pao, 2006). Qualification of teachers in Hong Kong is also significantly behind those of nearby regions such as Taiwan, Shanghai and Tianjing, where preschool teachers have to receive at least college level of education and formal teacher’s training (Hong Kong Professional Teacher’s Union, 2006). The problem of poor quality is more serious among those PI kindergartens. Study has found that PI kindergartens commonly offer lower teachers’ salary, use fewer teach ing aids, and provide fewer snacks to children in order to minimize their costs (Li, 2006). To attract parents, these kindergartens often overload their curriculum to meet some parents’ demand of having their children start vigorous academic training early. Clearly, such practice violates the aim of early childhood education, that is to “provide children with a relaxing and pleasu rable learning environment to promote a balanced development of different aspects necessary to a child's development such as the social, cognitive, physical, emotional and aesthetic aspects” (Education Bureau, 2008). Under the great pressure to reform the pre-primary education sector, as well as in concordance with the policy goal of “strengthening support for families”, the Chief Executive announced a new “education vouche r” scheme to subsidize parents with kindergarten children in his 2006 policy address (Office of the Chief Executive, 2006). The scheme was later named as the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme and implemented in September 2007. Lack of local studies on the PEVS. However, as the PEVS has only been implemented for one academic year, only a few studies have been conducted locally to explore the possible impacts of the scheme. For example, Li, Wong, and Wang (in press) analyzed the public views presented in both Chinese and English Internet communities to investigate how well the PEVS was adapted to the local needs and context. They found that there was overwhelming support for the PEVS, yet the public voiced a range of opposing or supporting opinions and rationales towards the two implicit goals of the government. In a follow up study on the impacts of the PEVS during its first year of implementation from the views of stakeholders, Wong (2008) surveyed over 300 parents, kindergarten principals and teachers and discovered that the PEVS was effective in enhancing the affordability of kindergarten education, accessibility to quality education, and accountability of kindergartens in the opinions of the respondents. Though both studies conclude the PEVS is a rational localized adoption of Friedman’s (1962, 1997) theory, their results and analyses were based on self-reports of research participants. In other words, there is still a dearth of objective measure of the actual impacts of the PEVS. Moreover, as both studies adopted a cross-sectional design and their data collections were conducted at a very earl y stage of the implementation of the PEVS, they were unable to cover any longitudinal changes caused by the implementation of the PEVS. Further research is therefore a necessity to assess the ongoing development of impacts of the PEVS. Thus, the present longitudinal research is proposed to investigate the ongoing impacts of the PEVS and the specific concerns of different stakeholders, therefore to generate suggestions for the policy makers to improve the voucher scheme.


Project Title: Early Childhood Mandarin: Commonaliti es and Distinctions among Beijing, Hong Kong and Singapore
Investigator(s): Li H, Tse SK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
1) The objectives of the proposed investigation are: (i) To collect the Mandarin speech produced by preschoolers in Beijing, Hong Kong and Singapore to establish a large public-access corpus; 2) To identify the similarities and differences in linguistic forms and functions of early childhood Mandarin among the three cities; and 3) To examine the relationships among language policy, language environment, home language input, and children's language performance in varying Chinese contexts.


List of Research Outputs

Li H. , A Vista of Hong Kong Early Childhood Education in the 2010s. , Hong Kong Kindergarten Association Newsletters. . Hong Kong, Hong Kong Kindergarten Association, 2010, 17: 3.
Li H. , Wong M.S. and Wang X..., Affordability, Accessibility, and Accountability: Perceived Impacts of the Pre-primary Education Vouchers in Hong Kong., Early Childhood Research Quarterly . USA, Elsevier, 2010, 25: 125-138.
Li H. and Masters J., E-learning and Knowledge Management in the Early Years: Where Are We and Where Should We Go. , Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal . Hong Kong, HKU, 2009, 1: 245-250.
Li H. , Hong Kong Early Childhood Education Voucher and Its Impacts , International Child Development and Education Forum (ICDEF). . Chna, East China Normal University, 2009.
Li H. , Kindergarten in China., In: David Pong, Encyclopedia of Modern China . USA, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2009, 4: 476-479.
Li H. and Rao N. , Multiple Literacies: Beliefs and Related Practices among Chinese Kindergarten Teachers. , Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An Internationa l Journal . Hong Kong, HKU, 2009, 1: 269-284.
Wong M...N...C... and Li H. , From External Inspection to Self-Evaluation: A Study of Quality Assurance in Hong Kong Kindergartens., Early Education & Development, . USA, Taylor & Francis, Inc., 2010, 21: 205–233.
Yuen M.T. , Li H. , Siu A.C.K. , Wong M.Y.P. , Sun R.C.F. and Chung Y.B. , Understanding and guiding whole-person development. Learning Guide Part 1. pp.67 . Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education, 2010.
Yuen M.T. , Li H. , Siu A.C.K. , Wong M.Y.P. , Sun R.C.F. and Chung Y.B. , Understanding and guiding whole-person development. Learning Guide Part 2. pp.45 . Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education, 2010.


Researcher : Li X

List of Research Outputs

Woo M. , Chu S.K.W. , Ho A.W.Y. and Li X. , Collaborative Writing with a Wiki in a Primary Five English Classroom., Chu S., Ritter W. and Hawamdeh S. (Eds.), Series on Innovation and Knowledge Management - Vol. 8, Mana ging Knowledge for Global and Collaborative Innovations . Singapore, Singapore: World Scientific, 2009, 8: 193-206.


Researcher : Li Y

Project Title: Textual borrowing across discipl ines: Negotiating the boundary of acceptability
Investigator(s): Li Y
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 02/2010
Abstract:
In the past two decades an anti-plagiarism discou rse has been largely concentrated in English-speaking countries. Yet although a comparable track of interest in the issue of plagiarism is not consistently found in the rest of the world, the issue does increasingly gain prominence in higher education on a global scale. In Hong Kong, where English is used as the predominant medium of instruction in higher education and where the academy demonstrates a high level of internationalis ation, university policies against plagiarism have long existed while in recent years, efforts have been increasingly made to meet the new challenges that the electronic age brings to the scene of combating plagiarism. Given the central place of writing and learning to write in university education, the way in which the issue of plagiarism is conceptualised and hence the policies to be made and educational measures to be taken will be intimately linked to a university’s participation in international academia. Extensive research and discussions have highlighted the complexity of the issue of plagiarism and suggested that a deepened understanding of the complexity should valuably feed into university plagiarism policies. In contrast to the term plagiarism which has a strong negative connotation, a variety of “neutral” terms, such as textual borrowing (Casanave, 2004; Shi, 2004) and language re-use (Flowerdew & Li, 2007a; Li, 2007), have been used by researchers in re-examining and re-conceptualising the issue of plagiarism. In the present project we will start from an acknowledgem ent of the complexity of the issue of plagiarism, and thus will favour the use of the more neutral term, textual borrowing, rather than sticking to the negative term of plagiarism. Discussions on plagiarism/textual borrowing have generated the following insights: - A prominent theme in the recent discussion is that textual borrowing is a necessary learning strategy commonly used by anyone new to a discourse community, and indeed, a common phenomenon in human interactions including writing, which is socially constructed and mediated through intertextuality and interdiscursity (Fairclough, 1992; Vygotsky, 1978). - Textual borrowing, often in the form of patchwriting (Howard, 1995), has been used by student learners as both survival strategies and ways of learning the discourse new to them as novices in the academia (Casanave, 2004; Currie, 1998). - Calling for going beyond plagiarism, researchers have suggested that failure to follow proper textual practices manifests students’ struggle in identity construction (Chandrasoma, Thompson, & Pennycook, 2004; Ivanič, 1998). - In the case of ESL students, it has been suggested that meeting the criteria of proper textual practices in the Western academia poses as much a cultural hurdle as a linguistic barrier (Pennycook, 1996; Shi, 2006); nevertheless, attributing plagiarism to cultural differences is simplistic and can lead to bias and wrong conclusions (Casanave, 2004; Flowerdew & Li, 2007b). - In line with the situated nature of writing, it has been pointed out that discussion of plagiarism should include a discipline/profession-specific dimension, e.g. by obtaining disciplinary writers’ perspective as to what is acceptable and what is unacceptable textu al appropriation, in a variety of scenarios that involve different tasks and genres (Flowerdew & Li, 2007a; Li, 2007; Pecorari, 2008). - Text-matching softwares such as Turnitin can identify materials “copied” from source texts, but it is up to the instructor to decide whether any piece of “copied” material constitutes a case of plagiarism; Turnitin provides an opportunity to design pedagogies to facilitate the learning of proper textual practices (McGowan, 2005a). The present study is a response to two research gaps in the previous literature. The first gap is of particular local relevance: there is generally a lack of research on the issue of textual borrowing in the context of higher education in Hong Kong. The second gap is most salient, given the growing popularity of Turnitin in higher education on a global scale: there is a shortage of investigat ion into the pedagogical potential of Turnitin. Aimed to fill these two gaps, the present study will inform the development of university plagiarism policies, facilitate the use of Turnitin for educational purposes, and contribute to the teaching and learning in general at the tertiary level in Hong Kong.


List of Research Outputs

Flowerdew J. and Li Y. , The globalization of scholarship: Studying Chinese scholars writing for international publication, In: R. M. Manchón , Writing in foreign language contexts: Learning, teaching, and research . Bristol, Multilingual Matters., 2009, 156-182.
Li Y. and Flowerdew J., International engagement versus local commitment: Hong Kong academics in the humanities and social sciences writing for publication. , In: Liz Hamp-Lyons, Paul Thompson, Journal of English for Academic Purposes . Elsevier, 2009, 8: 279-293.


Researcher : Lian JM

Project Title: 2003 TASH Conference of the Associat ion for Persons with Severe Handicaps Curriculum Integration for Students with Significant Disabilities in Hong Kong and Taiwan
Investigator(s): Lian JM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 12/2003
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Provision of service for conducting a consultancy project of the new senior secondary (intellectually disabled) mathematics curriculum
Investigator(s): Lian JM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 06/2007
Abstract:
To develop Learning Outcome Frameworks (LOFs) for new senior secondary curriculum (Math) for students with intellectual disabilities.




Researcher : Liang X

List of Research Outputs

Liang X. , Investigating Mediations in Student Activities in an English Immersion Context in Mainland China., Canada, ELT, 2009, V12 N4: pp.38-50.
Liang X. , Investigating salient features of peer talk in an English immersion context in Mainland China, US (Atlanta), AAAL 2010, 2010.
Liang X. , Investigating the nature of activities in an English immersion context in Mainland China, Research Studies in Education . Hong Kong, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, 2009, 7: pp.57-75.
Liang X. , Postgraduate scholarship from Hong Kong Association of University Women . 2009.
Liang X. , Research Studies in Education . Hong Kong, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, 2009, 7.
Liang X. , The nature of activities makes a difference: A comparativ e study between an English immersion class and a non-English immersion class in Mainland China, US (Denver), AERA 2010, 2010.


Researcher : Lo AMF

List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Lo A.M.F. , Construction the Platform for Interactive Learning of Cantonese Opera in Secondary School Education: Suppo rting the NSS Curriculum Reform (in Chinese), 共同搭建中學粵劇教育 的互動學習平台 ──支援香港新高中課程改革, Drama and Education in Chinese Communities World Conference 2009 (Hong Kong) . Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts and TEFO, 2009.


Researcher : Lo FY

List of Research Outputs

Lo F.Y. and Yung B.H.W. , Teachers’ Affective Learning in Teacher Professional Development Activities Using Classroom Videos as the Mediating Artifact, Paper presented in the European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) conference (Istanbul, Turkey), August 31st - September 4th, 2009. . 2009.
Lo F.Y. and Yung B.H.W. , The recursive nature of teacher learning: Implications for teacher professional development, Paper presented in the First East-Asian Association for Science Education Biennial Conference held in Taipei, 21-23 October 2009. . 2009.
Lo F.Y. and Yung B.H.W. , Why is density equal to mass over volume and not vic e versa? Teacher learning arising from asking this question. , International Conference on Science Education for the Next Society, held at Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, October 31 – November 3, 2008. . 2009.
Yung B.H.W. , Yip W.Y.V. , Lai C. and Lo F.Y. , Towards a Model of Effective Use of Video for Teacher Professional Development, Effective professional development: International research and development seminar on continuing professional development for science teachers held in University of York, UK. . 2010.


Researcher : Lo MM

List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.
Lo M.M. , Appropriating new literacies in English language education in Hong Kong primary schools, Faculty of Education, Postgraduate Research Conference, 29 May 2010 .
Lo M.M. , Distinguished Teacher Award, 2008-09, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong . 2009.
Lo M.M. , External assessor for Cambridge ESOL, YL Extension to CELTA, The British Council Hong Kong . 2009.
Lo M.M. and Clarke M.A. , Practicing or preaching? Teacher educators and student teachers appropriating new literacies , In: Darren L. Pullen & David R. Cole, Multiliteracies and technology enhanced education: Social practice and the global classroom . Hershey, PA, IGI Global., 2009, 147-166.


Researcher : Loh EKY

List of Research Outputs

Cheung W.M. , Tse S.K. , Lam J.W.I. and Loh E.K.Y. , Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 200 6(PIRLS): Pedagogical correlates of fourth-grade students in Hong Kong, In: Rhona Stainthorp, Journal of Research in Reading . Horsforth, Leeds, UK, Blackwell Publishing, 2009, 32(3): 293-308.
Lam R.Y.H. , Tse S.K. , Lam J.W.I. and Loh E.K.Y. , Does the gender of the teacher matter in the teaching of reading literacy? Teacher gender and pupil attainment in reading literacy in Hong Kong, Teaching and Teacher Education . Elsevier Ltd, 2010, 26: 754-759.
Loh E.K.Y. , How to use the results of the "Territory-wide System Assessment" (TSA) to enhance the teaching and learning of Chinese language in primary schools, 如何運用「全港性系統評估」 的結果提高中文 Journal of Primary School Chinese Language Teaching and Research . 朗文小學中文科教研通訊, Hong Kong, Pearson Longman Hong Kong, 2010, May: 2-5.
Loh E.K.Y. , A case study of the teaching and learning of Chinese as a second language for non-Chinese speaking primary school students in Hong Kong, School of Education, San Francisco State University . 2010.
Loh E.K.Y. , School-based Chinese language curriculum for non-Chinese speaking students, Hong Kong Taoist Association School . 2009.
Tse S.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam R.Y.H. and Lam J.W.I. , A comparsion of English and Chinese reading proficiency of primary school Chinese Students, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development . UK, Routledge, 2010, 31: 181-199.
Tse S.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam J.W.I. and Cheung W.M. , Factors affecting the outstanding performance of Hong Kong primary school students in PIRLS 2006, China Reading . China, China Books Publisher, 2009, 1: 247-261.
Tse S.K. and Loh E.K.Y. , How to enhance primary school students' reading ability, Section of Primary and Secondary School Teachers' Professional Training, Ningbo Education Bureau . 2009.
Tse S.K. and Loh E.K.Y. , Reading makes you smart, Education Bureau, Hong Kong SAR Government . 2010.
Tse S.K. , Loh E.K.Y. and Wong M.Y. , Teaching and learning of children with speical educational needs, National Taitung University, and Yung-Ling Research Center for Reading Instruction, Taiwan . 2010.
Tse S.K. , Yuen H.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam J.W.I. and Ng H.W. , The impact of blogging on the bilingual reading literac y of Chinese primary pupils, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education . Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary E, 2010, 26(2): 164-179.
Tse S.K. and Loh E.K.Y. , The teaching and learning of Chinese characters, Greenfield Educational Fund . 2010.
Tse S.K. and Loh E.K.Y. , he teaching and learning of Chinese reading for secondary school students, Section of Primary and Secondary School Headmasters' Professional Training, Ningbo Education Bureau . 2009.


Researcher : Lopez-Real FJ

List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. and Lopez-Real F.J. , Identity formation of teacher–mentors: An analysis of contrasting experiences using a Wengerian matrix framework, Teaching and Teacher Education . New York, NY, Elsevier Ltd, 2010, 26(3): 722-731.
Leung F.K.S. , Lee A.M.S. , Lopez-Real F.J. , Leung A., Mok I.A.C. and Wong K.L. , What Can We Teach Mathematics Teachers? Lessons From Hong Kong, In: F.K.S. Leung & Y. Li (Eds.), Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia: Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices . Rotterdam, Sense Publishers, 2010, 153-168.


Researcher : Lu J

Project Title: Advancing knowledge of collaborative learning processes with evidence-based data mining tools
Investigator(s): Lu J
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 03/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
With the increasingly using of online computer-based tools to support teaching and learning in educational settings, large amount of data of learners, including the log data and online discourse, has been generated without been carefully examined and interpreted. There is the potential that mining these data will help us better understand students learning processes and outcomes so as to design better online learning tools. This proposed study aims at developing a data mining tool to understand the cognitive processes in computer-supported collaborative knowledge building situation. Educational data mining is the process of converting raw data from educational systems to useful information that can be used to inform design decisions and answer research questions. Data mining encompasses a wide range of research techniques that includes more traditional options such as database queries and simple automatic logging as well as more recent developments in machine learning and language technology. Educational data mining techniques are now being widely used in the research on technology-rich learning environments, such as intelligent tutoring system (ITS), artificial intelligence in education (AIED), or computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). For example, researcher s have used educational data mining to (a) guide student learning efforts, (b) develop or refine student models, (c) measure the effect of individual interventions, (d) improved teaching support, (e) detect affect and disengagement, (f) detect attempts to circumvent learning called "gaming the system", and (g) predict student performance and behavior. Knowledge Forum (KF) has been widely used by quite a few elementary and second ary schools in Hong Kong region in the form of various activities, from fostering teachers’ network building to facilitating students collaborative knowledge building, from discussing topics on humanities to topics on science, from knowledge construction to problem solving. Result s from previous research showed KF has substantial impact on motivating students’ collaborative learning (Chow & Law, 2005) and helping teachers network development (Chan & van Aalst, 2006). However, little effort has been invested in order to understand the cognitive processes in such CSCL environments due to lacking of appropriate tools to analyze huge amount of online discourse. This proposed study will investigate some KF database so as to develop a theoretical framework of students’ cognitive processes during collaborative knowledge building. The theoretical framework will later be used as the bases for the development of data mining tools to explore database in broader contexts. Reference: Chan, C. K. K., & van Aalst, J. (2006). Computer-supported knowledge building in teacher education: Experience from Hong Kong and Canadian teachers. Teaching Education, 17, 75-90. Chow, Y., & Law, N. (2005). Measuring motivation in collaborative inquiry-based learning contexts. In T. Koschmann, D. D. Suthers & T. W. Chan (Eds.), Proceedings of the International conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005 (pp. 68-75). Mahwan: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Project Title: Scaffolding collaborative problem solving with cognitive tools
Investigator(s): Lu J, Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 10/2009
Abstract:
1) Describe students' problem solving processes in IES; 2) Design cognitive tools to scaffold problem solving and communicative activities in IES; 3) Desc ribe and understand if and how cognitive tools promote problem solving and communication; 4) Translate results into better design of cognitive tools to facilitate problem solving in the same domain and other areas


Project Title: 2010 American Education Research Association Annual Meeting Scaffolding Medical Problem Solving with Simulation-based PBL Effects of Group Argumentation Processes on Justification
Investigator(s): Lu J
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 04/2010
Completion Date: 05/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Lajoie S... .P..., Genevieve G... and Lu J. , Convergence of data sources in the analysis of complex learning environments, Research and Practice in Techno logy Enhanced Learning . 2009.
Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. , van Aalst J.C.W. , Chan C.K.K. , Kwan A.C.M. , Lu J. and Ki W.W. , Using Web 2.0 Technology To Support Learning, Teaching And Assessment In The Nss Liberal Studies Subject, 《學習2.0》: 一個支援新高中通識教育及「專題探究」的學習及評 估平台, In: 胡少偉、楊沛銘, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Jou rnal . 香港教師中心學報, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre, 2009, 8: 43-51.
Lu J. , Chiu M. and Law N.W.Y. , Effects of group argumentation processes on level of grounds, In: Kong, S.C., Ogata, H., Arnseth, H.C., Chan, C.K.K., Hirashima, T., Klett, F., Lee, J.H.M., Liu, C.C., Loo i, C.K., Milrad, M., Mitrovic, A., Nakabayashi, K., Wong, S.L., Yang, S.J.H., International Conference on Computers in Education . 2009.
Lu J. , Chiu M. and Law N.W.Y. , Effects of on-line collaborative argumentation processes on justifications, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences . ISLS, 2010, 1: 207-214.
Lu J. , Lai M. and Law N.W.Y. , Knowledge Building in Society 2.0: Challenges and Opportunities, In: M.S. Khine and I. M. Saleh , New science of learning: Computers, cognition and collaboration in Education . New York, Springer, 2010, 165-196.
Lu J. , Lajoie S... .P... and Wiseman J..., Scaffolding collaboration in simulated medical emergencies, In: Kong, S.C., Ogata, H., Arnseth, H.C., Chan, C.K.K., Hirashima, T., Klett, F., Lee, J.H.M., Liu, C.C., Looi, C.K., Milrad, M., Mitrovic, A., Nakabayashi, K., Wong, S.L., Yang, S.J.H., 17th International Conference on Computers in Edu cation . 2009.
Lu J. , Understanding computer supported collaborative medical problem solving: diverse perspectives and multiple methods, In: E. Luzzatto and G. DiMarco, Collaborative learning: Methodology, types of intera ctions and techniques . Hauppauge, NY, Nova Science Publishers, 2009, 165-196.


Researcher : Lu L

List of Research Outputs

Lu L. , Teacher Raters’ Reaction to the Use of Metadiscourse in Chinese EFL Learners’ Argumentative Essays, 2009 Symposium on Second Language Writing . 2009.
Lu L. , The guiding role of metadiscourse in high-rated and low-rated Chinese EFL learners’ argumentative essays: A relevance-theoretic account, Research Studies in Education . Hong Kong, 2009, 7.


Researcher : Lui HM

List of Research Outputs

Lui H.M. , Leung M.T. , Law S.P. and Fung R. .S.-.Y., A database for investigating the logographeme as a basic unit of writing Chinese, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology . USA, Informa Healthcare, 2010, 12: 8-18.


Researcher : Luk JCM

Project Title: 5th Asia TEFL International Conferen ce Analyzing form-focused ESL classroom discourse: Issues of intertextuality, intercontextuality, and intersubjectivity
Investigator(s): Luk JCM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2007
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: 42nd Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics Orchestrating forms of participation in an activity approach to language learning – The case with board-gaming
Investigator(s): Luk JCM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 09/2009
Completion Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Luk J.C.M. , Differentiating Speech Accents and Pronunciation Errors – Perceptions of TESOL Professionals in Hong Kong, Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics . Hong Kong, University of Hong Kong, 2010, 12(2): 25-44.
Luk J.C.M. , Orchestrating forms of participation in an activity approach to language learning – The case with board-gam ing, The 42nd Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics, 'Language, Learning, and Context', . 2009.
Luk J.C.M. , Preparing EFL Students for Communicative Task Performance: The Nature and Role of Language Knowledge, In: R. Adams and J. Newton, Asian Journal of English Language Teaching . Hong Kong, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2009, 19: 67-90.
Luk J.C.M. and Wong R.M.H., Sociocultural Perspectives on Teacher Language Awareness in Form-Focused EFL Classroom Instruction, Linguistics and Education . New York, ScienceDirect, 2010, 21(1): 29-43.
Luk J.C.M. , Talking to Score: Impression Management in L2 Oral Assessment and the Co-construction of a Test Discourse Genre , Language Assessment Quarterly . USA, Mahwah, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2010, 7(1): 25-53.


Researcher : Lykins CR

Project Title: 54th Annual Conference of the Compa rative and International Education Society (CIES Conference 2010) Cross-national comparisons of the quality of education research
Investigator(s): Lykins CR
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 03/2010
Completion Date: 03/2010
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Education Research in Elite Universities in the United States
Investigator(s): Lykins CR
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 05/2010
Abstract:
Purpose The aim of this project is to empirically examine the qualities and activities of education research ers in twenty highly ranked research universities in the United States. Key issues and problems The quality of education research is related to the overall quality of education. Perhaps more than other fields, the relationship between educational inputs and educational outputs tends to depend heavily on numerous and complic ated contextual factors. Even when nations reach a degree of consensus over the desired ends of education, they face enormous difficulties finding appropriate means. Education policy and practice stands to benefit from high quality research into the processes by which individual s and organizational teaching and learning take place. Policymakers, practitioners, and researches have raised concerns about the quality of education research. The “troubled history” (Lagemann, 2000) and “awful reputation” (Kae stle, 1993) of education research have been chronicled in great detail (G. Sroufe & Haughey, 2000; Travers, 1983; Vinovskis, 2000). Education researchers have been unfavorably compared to medical researchers in terms of training, objectivity, and usefulness (Biesta, 2007) . The former director of the Institute of Education Sciences (United States) suggests that education researc hers are more inclined to “postmodern musings” than serious reflection upon genuinely important educational problems (Whitehurst, 2003). Another policymaker once remarks that education research simply repeats what any fourth-grad e teacher already knows (Kaestle, 1992). Researchers themselves have questioned their colleagues’ capabilities for answering the questions that matter most to teachers and students (Baez & Boyles, 2009; Hyslop-Margison & Naseem, 2007). A wide variety of strategies have been employed to improve the quality of education research . Governments have employed a number of strategies to improve the quality of education research. These strategies have been targeted at different times at the supply, demand, and dissemination of education research. Among the recent attempts are: shifting research funds away from “educationists” to discipline-based scholars; specifying the topics, questions, designs, and method s eligible for government funding; specifying the kinds of research which program providers can use to justify government support or accreditation; requiring specific coursework for government supported doctoral students; and creating a larger public platform for research deemed to be of the highest quality. Efforts to improve education research are controversial. Central govern ments supply a significant amount of the total funds available for education research. Researchers have become increasingly dependent both on government grant money and on the large databases maintained by government agencies. Thus, government policy on education research has the potential to affect the topics, questions, method s, and even the conclusions at which researchers arrive. Government policy may be among the strongest levers by which significant changes can be effected (for better or worse) in the rigor and relevance of education research. Government interventions have brought to the forefron t many tensions, such as that between scientific autonomy and public accountability (Hess, 2008); “big” and “small” science (Lagemann, 2000); qualitative and quantitative (Howe, 2003); theoretical and empirical; and development and evaluation. These controversies remain largely uninformed by empirical evidence. We know precious little about the people employed in the most highly ranked schools of education—their educational background, the topics they choose, the questions they ask, the way they get answers, and who funds their work. Simply put, current debates over whether the government should pursue policies to correct certain “imbalances” in the field do not have an adequate understanding of the field itself. Thus, controversies remain polemical rather than empirical. Possible outcomes of the research project Policymakers frequently vow to place education policy on a sound body of evidence rather than a shaky pile of hunches. However, they continue to bemoan the alleged lack of rigor and relevance of education research. This allegation is partly responsible for a number of efforts on the parts of governments to improve research quality. Some argue that many of these efforts have had the opposite of their intended effect. There is currently little empirical evidence to help distinguish policies which support rigor and relevance and those that undermine it. This project endeavors to help establish a basis of evidence to guide future improvements in research policy.


List of Research Outputs

Lykins C.R. , Cross-national comparisons of the quality of education research, Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference . Chicago, IL, USA, 2010.
Lykins C.R. , Dogs barking at a moving caravan? On the role of philosophers and social scientists in education policy and practice, Invited lecture at Beijing Normal University . Beijing, PRC, 2010.
Lykins C.R. , Investigating causal questions: Is there a gold standard for education research? , In: Mark King, Pre-conference workshop on research methods for research postgraduate students at the University of Hong Kong . Hong Kong SAR, 2009.
Lykins C.R. , Philosophy with children: Because the unexamined curriculum is not worth learning, Workshop at the University of Hong Kong for faculty and teachers . Hong Kong SAR, 2010.
Lykins C.R. , Values and education research, In: Mark King, Research seminar for faculty and students at the University of Hong Kong . 2010.


Researcher : Ma EPM

Project Title: Effects of relative frequency of terminal feedback on motor learning of a "relaxed phonati on" task
Investigator(s): Ma EPM
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2008
Completion Date: 11/2009
Abstract:
OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL: This project aims to determine the effects of relative frequency of terminal feedback on motor learning of a "relaxed phonation" task. Specifically, the study investigates whether a less frequent feedback paradigm facilitates better "relaxed phonation" learning, as measured by long-term retention and transfer tests, when compared to a more frequent feedback paradigm. BACKGROUND AND KEY ISSUES: Voice disorders affect at least 6% of the general population (Marge, 1991). The impacts of voice disorders not only exhibit at the impairment level, but also significantly in the dysphonic individual's occupation, emotion, daily and social communication aspects (Ma & Yiu, 2001; Ma, Yiu & Verdolini Abbott, in press; Smith et al., 1996; Yiu & Ma, 2002). Hyperfunctional voice disorder, which is primarily caused by an exces sive muscle tension in perilaryngeal area during phonation, is the most common type of voice disorder in Hong Kong and worldwide (Andrews, 1996; Redenbaugh & Reich, 1989; Yiu & Ho, 1991; Yiu & Ma, 2001). Voice training that aims at reducing muscle tension in perilaryngeal area during phonation, or "relaxed phonation", has been widely accepted as an effective approach for treating hyperfunctional voice disorder (Greene & Mathieson, 1989; Ramig & Verdolini, 1998). Recently, attention has been focused on the learning aspects of relaxed phonation. Studies have attempted to apply general motor learning principles in understanding learning aspects of relaxed phonation. The ultimate goal is to understand how manipulation of different practice variables can maximize learning of this voice motor task. In the general motor learning area, "learning" is defined as a process which leads to relatively permanent changes in motor performance, as the result of practice or exposure (Schmidt & Lee, 1999). Thus, learning shou ld be assessed using a long-term follow-up test rather than short-term tests during training sessions. Feedback is one of the most frequently investigated practice variables in motor learning studies. It is generally believed that providing learners with more frequent feedback enhances their learning. Nevertheless, studies in general motor learning area show that frequent augmen ted feedback can adversely affect the performance (Winstein & Schmidt, 1990; Wulf & Schmidt, 1989). Schmidt and Lee (1999) advocate that providing feedback frequently degrades learning as the subjects rely too heavily on the information provided and do not process the necessary information in learning the task in a permanent way. Moreover, learners who receive high feedback freque ncy do not attend to their intrinsic feedback and hence fail to develop error detection ability. Previous studies in the general motor learning realm reveal that manipulating timing, schedule and relative frequency of feedback can adversely influence acquisition and performance during training sessions, but facilitates learning when evaluated by long-term retention test. Presenting feedback after the trial of practice as terminal feedback promotes better learning than presenting concurrently with the trial (Schmidt & Lee, 1999). Feedback schedule has also been shown to influence motor learning. In the study by Winstein and Schmidt (1990), two groups of subjects participated in a motor task for attaining a goal movement pattern. One group of subjects received 100% continuous feedback and the other group received 50% fading feedback. The authors showed that presenting feedback less frequently and in a fading manner (50% fading group) enhanced motor learning as shown in the retention test. Recently, attempts have been made in applying the motor learning principles to voice motor learning. Yiu, Verdolini and Chow (2005) investigated the effects of timing of feedback (concurrent versus terminal) on learning the "relaxed phonation" task. However, results showed neither of the feedback type was superior to the other in facilitating learning. In another study by Yiu and Cheung (submitted), the effects of feedback schedule (fading versus continuous, both at 50% relative frequency) on learning a similar phonation task was investigated. Results showed that, again, contrary to the motor le arning principle, providing feedback in a fading manner did not significantly facilitate learning of the relaxed phonation task. These studies suggest that general motor learning principles may not be applicable in voice motor learning. Therefore, validations are warranted before applying the principles in the voice motor learning area. AIM AND HYPOTHESIS: The present study looks into one of the central practice variables in voice therapy, namely the relative frequency of feedback. The aim of this proposed project is to examine the effects of relative frequency of terminal feedback on the motor learning of a "relaxed phonation" task. It is hypothesized that subjects who receive lower relative frequency of feedback would demonstrate more effective learning than those receive higher relative frequency of feedback, as measured by long-term retention and transfer tests.


Project Title: Effects of self-controlled feedback paradigm on motor learning of a "relaxed phonation" task
Investigator(s): Ma EPM, Yiu EML
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 09/2008
Abstract:
1) To evaluate whether self-controlled feedback paradigm facilitates better learning when compared to external, clinician-controlled feedback paradigm, in the learning of a voice motor task "relaxed phonation", as measured by long-term retention novel-stimulus test. 2) To validate and develop a voice training protocol which explicates more effective training methods and practice strategy on the acquisition and the learning of "relaxed phonation" task.


Project Title: Frequency and risk factors for voice problems in children
Investigator(s): Ma EPM
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2009
Completion Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL: This project has two objectives. The first objective is to investigate the prevalence of voice problems in school-age children. The second objective is to identify factors that are associated with voice problems in school-age children. BACKGROUND AND KEY ISSUES BEING ADDRESSED: Voice disorders affects 6% of the general population (Marge, 1991). Similar high prevalence figures of voice disorders have also been reported in the pediatric population - with a rate of at least 6% (Carding, Roulstone, Northstone, & the ALSPAC study team, 2006; McNamara & Perry, 1994). Compared to vocally healthy children, children with voice problems are perceived more negatively by their peers (Lass, Ruscello, Harkins Bradshaw, & Blankenship, 1991; Lass, Ruscello, Stout, & Hoffman, 1991) and by university students (Blood, Mahan, & Hyman, 1979; Ruscello, Lass, & Podbesek, 1988) on their personality and physical appearance traits. The negative and unfavorable stereotyping can adversely impact on the child's self-image and social development. The functional impacts of voice problems on the child's physical, emotional and social well-being can be significant and should not be under-e stimated. The existing prevalence figures of voice problems in children reported in the literature are mainly reports from foreign countries namely the United States (Duff, Proctor, & Yairi, 2004), Sweden (Sederholm, 1995) and United Kingdom (Carding et al., 2006). Some of these reports focus only at a narrow age range (8-year-old children in Carding et al., 2006; 10-year-old in Sederholm 1995). Unfortunately, there has been no similar information available in Hong Kong. Whether the findings from these previous studies can be generalized to the highly urbanized Hong Kong has yet to be proved. At present, the prevalence of voice problems in children in Hong Kong is underestimate d. Without these information, allocating resources to the assessment, treatment and prevention of voice problems in children would be difficult and not cost-effective. Voice problems is multi-factorial in nature (Deary, Wilson, Carding, & Mackenzie, 2003). Multiple factors have been suggested to be the predisposed factors of voice problems in children. For example, medical and health conditions such as hearing loss, asthma are found to be associated with an increased risk of voice problems in children. Family background such as number of siblings and family dynamic have also been reported as potential risk factors. Currently, there is only one study which investigated the association of risk factors for voice problems in children (Carding et al., 2006). However, that study focused at only children of 8 years old. Systematic analysis of risk factors with respect to a group of children across different age groups has not been carried out. AIMS OF STUDY The present study aims to 1) investigate the prevalence of voice problems in school-age children, and 2) identify variables that may be associated with increased risk of voice problems in children.


Project Title: The 8th Pan European Voice Conference Teachers' attitudes towards children with voice problems
Investigator(s): Ma EPM
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 08/2009
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Voice motor learning in children
Investigator(s): Ma EPM
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL This project aims to determine the effects of relative frequency of feedback on the learning of resonant voice production in a group of children. BACKGROUND AND KEY ISSUES Voice problems, or dysphonia, are common in children. High prevalence figures of voice disorders have been reported in this population with at a rate of at least 6% (McNamara & Perry, 1994). In a recent study by the applicant (Ma & Mo, in preparation), 445 parents were surveyed for the presence of voice problems in their children. Results revealed 4.3% of the children (19 out of 445 children) reported having a voice problem currently; with another 3.1% of the children (14 out of 445 children) reported having a voice problems previously. Children with voice problems suffer from significant functional limitations in their daily and social voice activities. They are also being negatively stereotyped by listeners (Connor et al., 2008; Ma & Yu, 2009). Hyperfunctional voice disorder is the most common type of voice disorder in school-age children. It is usually caused by phonotrauma (Colton, Casper & Leonard, 2006). Children with voice hyperfunction are described as exhibiting excessive muscle force and physical effort in the respiratory, phonatory and resonatory systems (Boone, McFarlane & Von Berg, 2005). Resonant voice therapy is a therapeutic approach that has been widely implemented for treating hyperfunctional voice disorders (Stemple, Glaze & Gerdeman Klaben, 2000). This treatment emphasizes a relatively strong and clear voice quality that provides protection against the injury on vocal fold tissue. In resonant voice therapy, motor learning is involved as the individual learns how to control and coordinate laryngeal muscles to produce the strong and clear resonant voice. Children and adults differ in their information processing speeds (Emanuel, Jarus & Bart, 2008). Children tend to process information slower than adults. They also have relatively poorer capabilities in retaining and organizing informat ion (Chiviacowsky, Wulf, Laroque de Medeiros, Kaefer & Wally, 2008; Kail, 1991). Therefore, unlike adults one would expect that children need more guidance to facilitate them learn the skill (Sullivan et al., 2008). One way to provide more guidance is to prescribe more frequent feedback for the child. In the general motor learning realm, studies have documented different effects of relative frequency of feedback on the acquisition of motor skills in children and adults. These studies compared the motor learning abilities in children and adults. The results generally reveal that children and adults respond differently to different relative frequencies of feedback on skill acquisition. In the study by Sullivan and colleagues (2008), participants were required to perform a coordinated arm movement task. Each of the child and adult group of participants was randomly assigned to either a 100% feedback or a reduced, fading feedback group. Participants in the 100% feedback condition would receive augmented feedba ck after every practice trial during the acquisition phase while participants from the reduced, fading feedback group would receive progressive, fading feedback across four 50-trial sessions. The results indicate that adults who receive reduced relative feedback arranged in a fading manner show higher accuracy during the retention test than those who receive 100% feedback. Conversely, children perform with decreased accuracy and consistency when they receive fading feedback than those children who receive 100% feedback (Sullivan et al., 2008). Recently, attention has been focused on the learning aspects of voice therapy tasks from the motor learning perspective exclusively with adult participants (Wong , Ma, & Yiu, 2009; in press). These studies aim to understand how manipulation of different learning variables can maximize patients learn of a voice therapy task. Wong, Ma and Yiu (2009) investigated the effects of relatively frequency of feedback on the learning of a voice produ ction task in a group of adult voice-disordered patients. Their results showed that as predicted, patients who received 0% feedback during training achieved significantly better voice performance than patients who received 100% feedback. Given the difference in information processing between children and adults, whether the above-mentioned results can be generalized to children remains to be validated. The present study represents the first attempt to investigate the effects of relative frequency of augmented feedback on the learning of resonant voice in children. AIM AND HYPOTHESIS The aim of this study is to examine the effects of relative frequency of feedback on the learning of resonant voice production in children. It is hypothesized that children who receive higher relative frequency of feedback will demonstrate more effective learning than those who receive lower relative frequency of feedback.


List of Research Outputs

Chen F. , Ma E.P.M. and Yiu E.M.L. , Effect of pitch and vowels on the quality of resonant voice production. , The Voice Foundation's 39th Annual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice . 2010.
Chen F. , Ma E.P.M. and Yiu E.M.L. , Measuring bone vibration in resonant voice, The Inaugural Hong Kong Speech and Hearing Symposiu m, Hong Kong, 8 May 2010 .
Law I.K.Y., Ma E.P.M. and Yiu E.M.L. , Speech intelligibility, acceptability and communication-related quality of life in alaryngeal speakers, Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery . Chicago, American Medical Association, 2009, 135(7): 704-711.
Ma E.P.M. and Love A.L., Electroglottographic evaluation of age and gender effects during sustained phonation and connected speech, Journal of Voice . Philadelphia, 2010, 24(2): 146-152.
Ma E.P.M. and Yu C.H.Y., Teachers' attitudes towards children with voice problem s, The 8th Pan-European Voice Conference, Dresden, Germany, Aug 26-29 . 2009.
Tse A...C...Y., Masters R.S.W. , Whitehill T.L. and Ma E.P.M. , Investigating the use of analogy in speech motor learning (Best poster presentation award), The 3rd Hong Kong Association of Sports Medicine and Sports Science Student Conference, Hong Kong, 19 June 2010 .
Whitehill T.L. , Ma E.P.M. and Tse F...C...M., Environmental barriers to communication for individuals with dysarthria, The Conference on Motor Speech, Savannah, Georgia, 4 - 7 March 2010 .


Researcher : Ma SF

Project Title: Computer-supported collaborative knowledge building in changing the conceptions of teaching and learning among Chinese learners
Investigator(s): Ma SF, Law NWY, Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2006
Abstract:
Background of the Proposed Study: A review of the literature in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has shown its great potential in promo ting quality teaching and learning (Stahl, 2005). Exciting research-based evidence has pointed to teacher change in adopting more affective, student-centred approaches towards teaching (Katyal & Evers, 2004; Shell et al., 1996; Yoon, 1998). It has also contributed to increased autonomy and motivation in learning as well as enablin g collaborative cognitive and metacognitive growth in students (Chow, 2005; Hakkarainen et al,. 2003; Schrire; 2006).Theoretically, CSCL has been located in the constructivist ideology, with special emphasis on the Vygotskian trad ition of mediation of learning through the use of scaffolding in a socio-cultural environment supported by the advancement of ICT in education (Scardamalia, 2002; Sherin et al., 2004; Wever et al. 2006). Since 2001, the Learning Community Project (LCP) located at the HKU Centre for Information Technology in Education (CITE) has pioneered online collaborative knowledge building pedagopgy in Hong Kong primary and secondary schools. Over 40 schools have installed the Knowledge Forum software needed for approximately 5,000 students' online knowledg building work. About 600 teachers have attended various profe ssional development events. Numerous retrospective anecdotal accounts from participated teachers and students echo the research findings discussed above (http://lcp.cite.hku.hk/re sources/KBSN/intro/default.html). Despite all these encouraging results and strong theoretical underpinning, there remains a lack of empirical research which taps into the actual mechanism of change, i.e. how, if any, the online collaborative knowledge building approach brings about change in teachers' beliefs and behaviours. Similarly, how online collab orative learning harnesses the actual mechanism of learning in students (e.g. learning strategies used) is largely unexplored. More importantly, the effect these changes have in formal academic performance is seldom measured or explained. It is against this backdrop of developmen t of online collaborative knowledge building and its intricate relationship to pedagogical change and potential impact on learning that the proposed study sets out to explore. Objectives of the Research Proposal The main aim of the proposed study is to track the longitudinal trajectory of teachers' pedagogical change, in terms of beliefs and behaviours, alongside the longitudina l trajectory of student learning, in terms of learning strategies and academic performance, through the implementation of online collaborative knowledge building paradigm. The objectives of the study entail: 1. to track the change in teachers' conception of teaching and their teaching behaviour over time through the process of online collaborative knowledge building; 2. to track the change in students' perception of their teacher's teaching approach over time through the process of online collaborative knowledge building; 3. to track the change in students' learning strategies and motivation over time through the process of online collaborative knowledge building; 4. to investigate the effect of online collaborative knowledge building on students' academic performance


Project Title: The attendance of the Summer Institut e (SI) hosted annually by the Institute for Knowledge Innovation and Technology (IKIT) at the University of Toronto
Investigator(s): Ma SF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 12/2006
Abstract:
To attend Summer Institute (SI) hosted annually by the Institute for Knowledge Innovation and Technology (IKIT) at the University of Toronto.




Researcher : Ma WKW

List of Research Outputs

Ma W.K.W. and Yuen H.K. , Understanding Online Knowledge Sharing: An Exploratory Theoretical Framework, In: Philip Tsang, Simon K.S. Cheung, Victor S.K. Lee & Ronghuai Huang, Hybrid Learning . Berlin Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 2010, 239-248.


Researcher : Mak YK

List of Research Outputs

Chu S.K.W. , Kennedy D. and Mak Y.K. , MediaWiki and Google Docs as online collaboration tools for group project co-construction. , Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM]. . 2009.
Chu S.K.W. , Mak Y.K. and Wong P.T.Y., WiseNews database for upper primary students and teachers?, International Conference on Primary Education . The Hong Kong Institute of Education, 2009.


Researcher : Mason MB

Project Title: 1) Special issue of Educational Philosophy and Theory (one of the top three journals in philosophy of education), "Complexity Theory and Education", edited by Mark Mason; 2) Blackwell monograph, "Complexity Theory and Education", edited by Mark Mason
Investigator(s): Mason MB
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 09/2006
Abstract:
To investigate: 1) Special issue of Educational Philosophy and Theory (one of the top three journals in philosophy of education), "Complexity Theory and Education", edited by Mark Mason; 2) Blackwell monograph, "Complexity Theory and Education", edited by Mark Mason.




Researcher : McPherson B

Project Title: Neonatal hearing screening: impr oving OAE performance
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Speech & Hearing Sciences
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 10/2001
Abstract:
To investigate TBOAE screening in neonates and compare this to conventional TEOAE test results.


Project Title: Screening Systems for Newborns: The Complete Perspective
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 12/2007
Abstract:
To produce a publication that can provide an up-to- date reference source for university students, clinicians, researchers and policymakers concerned with the whole field of neonatal screening. By drawing on the knowledge and expertise of numerous experts from varying fields, not only at the clinical level but also at the research level, the book will provide the only comprehensive text that details the entire collection of screening programs routinely delivered to newborns and that prescribes direction for future endeavours in this area.


Project Title: Central auditory processing disorder in children with nonsyndromic clefts of the lip and/or palate
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 12/2008
Abstract:
Oral clefts comprise a significant proportion of human birth defects. Oral clefts are developmental craniofacial abnormalities that result, at least in part, from a failure of embryonic neural crest cells to migrate properly. As a group, 70% of cleft disorders are composed of those that are isolated to facial clef ts only (nonsyndromic), and 30% are those in which the facial cleft is part of a well-defined syndrome with additional anomalies (Jones, 1988). In addition to the facial cleft, many patients also suffer from cognitive impairment. In syndromic clefts, this impairment is often severe. In nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP), the cognitive impairment is less severe but the functional consequences of these deficits should not be under-estimated. Children with NSCLP have been shown to have a lower IQ compared with matched contr ols (Kommers & Sullivan, 1979; Richman & Eliason, 1980). In addition to this generalized deficit, many patients also have abnormalities in language and learning abilities (Richman, 1993). That language and learning disabilities occur in NSCLP has been well documented. Almost all reports focus on the effects of middle ear disease in NSCLP, because otitis media with effusion is widely prevalent among children with cleft lip and/or palate (Gould, 1990; Schonweiler et al., 1996; Richman & Eliason, 1984). Many reports have considered the mild cognitive abnormalities associated with NSCLP as “secondary” to factors such as hearing deficits, speech deficits, or both. Indeed, some studies have demonstrated a re lationship between language proficiency and peripheral hearing loss (Broen et al., 1998). Yet other reports have suggested that cognitive skills are not significantly affected by deficiencies in peripheral hearing or speech. A recent study found that even though hearing status at 12 months of age in infants with CLP correlated with some language measures at the age of 24 months, hearing status did not account for all detected lang uage delays (Jocelyn et al., 1996). Similarly, Hubbard and colleagues (1985), in a retrospective study of two groups of children with palatal clefts closely matched in all ways except for the incidence of otitis media, demonstrated that even though enduring middle-ear infection may result in hearing impairment, it does not necessa rily lead to language and cognitive disabilities. Therefore, the issue of how much conductive hearing loss contributes to the cognitive disabilities of children with oral clefts remains controversial. Another possibility is that cognitive impairment is not secondary to external factors but primary to abnormal brain structure. In the case of NSCLP, recent studies have shown abnorma lities in brain development. Nopoulos and her research group (2000) found the presence of a specific midline brain anomaly (enlarged cavum septi pellucidi). Furthermore, in another study by Nopoulos the noted abnormalities in a NSCLP group included abnormally enlarged anterior regions of the cerebrum, and decreased volumes for the posterior cerebrum and cerebellum. Overall, the most severely affected region was the left temporal lobe (Nopoulos et al., 2002). As the auditory cortex is located in this area, these structural abnormalities may directly lead to auditory dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that the cognitive dysfunction of patients with isolated facial clefts is likely to be directly related to brain pathology. Reports of specific types of cognitive dysfunction have varied, with some studies showing language deficits (Kommers, 1979; Richman, 1993) and others showing visual perceptual problems (Brennan & Cullinan, 1974). The fact that there is a close relationship between craniofacial maldevelopment and concomitant brain maldevelopment should not be surprising, for a close relationship exists between the development of the face, the craniofacial skeleton and the brain, under both normal and pathologic conditions (Winter, 1996). The systematic study of cortical auditory processing in patients with NSCLP (and the functional consequences thereof) has not been carried out. Hearing is a complex process, which includes the perceptual registration and cognitive elaboration of the acoustic signal by the brain as well as conscious perception of sound. Therefore, it is possible that auditory processing disorders accompany abnormal brain development in children and adults with NSCLP. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a perceptual dysfunction not caused by peripheral (outer, middle or inner ear) hearing impairment. It has been defined as “an observed deficiency in one or more of the followin g behaviors: Sound localization and lateralization, auditory discrimination, auditory pattern recognition, temporal aspects of audition, including temporal resolution, masking, integration, and ordering, auditory masking with competing acoustic signals, and auditory performance with degraded acoustic signals” (ASHA, 1996). The Bri tish Society of Audiology (BSA) CAPD group has recently put forward an alternative working definition, characterizing CAPD as “a hearing disorder resulting from impaired brain function and characterized by poor recognition, discrimination, separation, grouping, localization, or ordering of nonspeech sounds” (Vanniasegaram et al., 2004). Our initial small scale studies at HKU suggest that NSCLP children and adolescents do have structural abnormalities of the auditory cortex (Yang & McPherson, 2008) and indications of CAPD (McPherso n, Cheuk & Yeung, 2007). Children and adults with auditory processing disorders appear to be uncertain about what they hear, and may have difficulties listening in background noise, following oral instructions, and understandin g rapid or degraded speech, despite normal peripheral hearing. Hearing impairments arising from pathology of the brain may have detrimental consequences language development and learning if untreated. This study, therefore, aims to (a) develop and trial a behavioural CAPD assessment battery for groups of Chinese children and adolescents and (b) obtain normative data for CAPD tests from a control group of non-NSCLP children and adolescents. This will be the essential first step in a major project to investigate central auditory processing function in children and adolescents with cleft lip/palate.


Project Title: Communication Disorders
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding for Strategic Research Theme
Start Date: 05/2009
Completion Date: 09/2012
Abstract:
n/a


Project Title: Visiting Research Professors Scheme 2009-10
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Visiting Research Professors Scheme
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
To support the appointment of Professor Bruce E. Murdoch as Visiting Research Professor in the Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences.


Project Title: Auditory processing disorders in children with cleft lip/palate
Investigator(s): McPherson DB, Whitehill TL
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
1) Compare behavioural auditory processing test results of children with NSCL/P to results obtained from children with no craniofacial disorder; 2) Compare the electrophysiological auditory processing test res ults of children with NSCL/P to results obtained from children with no craniofacial disorder; 3) Determine the prevalence of abnormal auditory processing findings in children with NSCL/P; 4) Determine the pattern(s) of abnormal auditory processing findings that can be detected in children with NSCL/P; 5) Use the research findings as a foundation on which to plan further studies in this area and to consider appropriate clinical assessment and treatment strategies for children with NSCL/P with auditory processing disorders.


Project Title: Neuroplasticity of the auditory system in older adults
Investigator(s): McPherson DB, Wong LLN
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
The long-term objective of this research program is to investigate neuroplasticity of the auditory system in older listeners by detailing relations among behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroanatomical changes. At this pilot phase, we seek seed funds for conducting a first auditory training experiment to demonstrate that behavioral changes in the auditory system are possible even in older adults. In addition to producing an empirical study to be submitted to an international journal of broad impact, results from this pilot research will provide strong justifications for an external grant application requesting funds to conduct research addressing the neural phases of this research program . The question of neuroplasticity penetrates virtually all subdisciplines of biological and system sciences. The possibility of neuroplasticity in older adults certainly bears clinical and educational implications on our aging population. Research in neuroplasticity has received much attention in the past decades (e.g., Wiesel & Hubel, 1963, examining visual neuroplasticity in cats). Although early research has focused on anima l models, human investigations have gained momentum (e.g., Tsushima et al., 2006). However, such human research often focuses on the visual system. Key differences among sensory systems limit the generalizability of findings in the visual system to other sensory systems such as the auditory system. For example, while multiple relay centers are present in the brainstem along the auditory pathway, the optic nerve connects directly to the diencephalon without making major connections in the brainstem (Nolte, 2009). The proposed research program is among the first efforts to directly examine the auditory system and its plasticity in humans. In addition to primarily focusing on the visual system, research concerning neuroplasticity in humans often relies on younger subjects. Although there are certainly similarities between younger and older adult brain functions, assuming their neuroplastic mechanism to be identical can be problematic, as older and younger adults differ in basic sensory (e.g., Humes & Christopherson, 1991), cognitive (e.g., Craik & Salthouse, 2008), and neural (e.g., Cabeza et al., 2004) functions. Therefore, in order to gain an understanding of auditory neuropl asticity in older human subjects, we must conduct empirical studies directly on this population as they perform auditory tasks, without reliance on interpolating findings from cognate fields. Our research program seeks to conduct such experiments. Our research on auditory neuroplasticity in older adults consists of two phases, covering the range of expertise of the investigators . The first phase will involve an examination at the behavioral level. Once robust findings at the behavioral level are established, we will be in a strong position to seek external funds to perform the second, neurological phase of this research program, using functional neuroi maging (e.g., Wong et al, 2008). In the first phase, we ask whether changes in auditory functions can occur even in older adults. We choose an area of auditory perception that older adults show marked deficits, namely speech perception in noise (McPherson & Wong, 2005; Wong and Cheng, 2009; Wong, Hickson & McPherson, 2009, 2004). We will develop a training paradigm aimed at improving their speech perception in noise abilities.


List of Research Outputs



Researcher : McPherson DB

Project Title: Neonatal hearing screening: improving OAE performance
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Speech & Hearing Sciences
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 10/2001
Abstract:
To investigate TBOAE screening in neonates and compare this to conventional TEOAE test results.


Project Title: Screening Systems for Newborns: The Complete Perspective
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 12/2007
Abstract:
To produce a publication that can provide an up-to-date reference source for university students, clinicians, researchers and policymakers concerned with the whole field of neonatal screening. By drawing on the knowledge and expertise of numerous experts from varying fields, not only at the clinical level but also at the research level, the book will provide the only comprehensive text that details the entire collection of screening programs routinely delivered to newborns and that prescrib es direction for future endeavours in this area.


Project Title: Central auditory processing disorder in children with nonsyndromic clefts of the lip and/or palate
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 12/2008
Abstract:
Oral clefts comprise a significant proportion of human birth defects. Oral clefts are developmental craniofacial abnormalities that result, at least in part, from a failure of embryonic neural crest cells to migrate properly. As a group, 70% of cleft disorders are composed of those that are isolated to facial clefts only (nonsyndromic), and 30% are those in which the facial cleft is part of a well-defined syndrome with additional anomalies (Jones, 1988). In addition to the facial cleft, many patients also suffer from cognit ive impairment. In syndromic clefts, this impairment is often severe. In nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP), the cognitive impairment is less severe but the functional consequences of these deficits should not be under-estimated. Children with NSCLP have been shown to have a lower IQ compared with matched controls (Kommers & Sullivan, 1979; Richman & Eliason, 1980). In addition to this generalized deficit, many patients also have abnormalities in language and learning abilities (Richman, 1993). That language and learning disabilities occur in NSCLP has been well documented. Almost all reports focus on the effects of middle ear disease in NSCLP, because otitis media with effusion is widely prevalent among children with cleft lip and/or palate (Gould, 1990; Schonweiler et al., 1996; Richman & Eliason, 1984). Many reports have considered the mild cognitive abnormalities associated with NSCLP as “secondary” to factors such as hearing deficits, speech deficits, or both. Indeed, some studies have demonstrated a relationship between language proficiency and peripheral hearing loss (Broen et al., 1998). Yet other reports have suggested that cognitive skills are not significantly affected by deficiencies in peripheral hearing or speech. A recent study found that even though hearing status at 12 months of age in infants with CLP correlated with some language measures at the age of 24 months, hearing status did not account for all detected language delays (Jocelyn et al., 1996). Similarly, Hubbard and colleagues (1985), in a retrospective study of two groups of children with palatal clefts closely matche d in all ways except for the incidence of otitis media, demonstrated that even though enduring middle-ear infection may result in hearing impairment, it does not necessarily lead to language and cognitive disabilities. Therefore, the issue of how much conductive hearing loss contributes to the cognitive disabilities of children with oral clefts remains controversial. Another possibility is that cognitive impairment is not secondary to external factors but primary to abnormal brain structure. In the case of NSCLP, recent studies have shown abnormalities in brain development. Nopoulos and her research group (2000) found the presence of a specific midline brain anomaly (enlarged cavum septi pellucidi). Furthermore, in another study by Nopoulos the noted abnormalities in a NSCLP group included abnormally enlarged anterior regions of the cerebrum, and decreased volumes for the posterior cerebrum and cerebellum. Overall, the most severely affected region was the left temporal lobe (Nopoulos et al., 2002). As the auditory cortex is located in this area, these structural abnormalities may directly lead to auditory dysfunction. Recent evide nce suggests that the cognitive dysfunction of patients with isolated facial clefts is likely to be directly related to brain pathology. Reports of specific types of cognitive dysfunction have varied, with some studies showing language deficits (Kommers, 1979; Richman, 1993) and others showing visual perceptual problems (Brennan & Cullinan, 1974). The fact that there is a close relationship between craniofacial maldevelopment and concomitant brain maldevelopment should not be surprising, for a close relationship exists between the development of the face, the craniofacial skeleton and the brain, under both normal and pathologic conditions (Winter, 1996). The systematic study of cortical auditory processing in patients with NSCLP (and the functional consequences thereof) has not been carried out. Hearing is a complex process, which includes the perceptual registration and cognitive elaboration of the acoustic signal by the brain as well as conscious perception of sound. Therefore, it is possible that auditory processing disorders accompany abnormal brain development in children and adults with NSCLP. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a perceptual dysfunction not caused by peripheral (outer, middle or inner ear) hearing impairment. It has been defined as “an observed deficiency in one or more of the following behaviors: Sound localization and lateralization, auditory discrimination, auditory pattern recognition, temporal aspects of audition, including temporal resolution, masking, integration, and ordering, auditory masking with competing acoustic signals, and auditory performance with degraded acoustic signals” (ASHA, 1996). The British Society of Audiology (BSA) CAPD group has recently put forward an alternative working definition, character izing CAPD as “a hearing disorder resulting from impaired brain function and characterized by poor recognition, discrimination, separation, grouping, localization, or ordering of nonspeech sounds” (Vanniasegaram et al., 2004). Our initial small scale studies at HKU suggest that NSCLP children and adolescents do have structural abnormalities of the auditory cortex (Yang & McPherson, 2008) and indications of CAPD (McPherson, Cheuk & Yeung, 2007). Children and adults with auditory processing disorders appear to be uncertain about what they hear, and may have difficulties listening in background noise, following oral instructions, and understanding rapid or degraded speech, despite normal peripheral hearing. Hearing impairments arising from pathology of the brain may have detrimental consequences language development and learning if untreated. This study, therefore, aims to (a) develop and trial a behaviour al CAPD assessment battery for groups of Chinese children and adolescents and (b) obtain normative data for CAPD tests from a control group of non-NSCLP children and adolescents. This will be the essential first step in a major project to investigate central auditory processing function in children and adolescents with cleft lip/palate.


Project Title: Communication Disorders
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding for Strategic Research Theme
Start Date: 05/2009
Completion Date: 09/2012
Abstract:
n/a


Project Title: Visiting Research Professors Scheme 2009-10
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Visiting Research Professors Scheme
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
To support the appointment of Professor Bruce E. Murdoch as Visiting Research Professor in the Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences.


Project Title: Auditory processing disorders in children with cleft lip/palate
Investigator(s): McPherson DB, Whitehill TL
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
1) Compare behavioural auditory processing test results of children with NSCL/P to results obtained from children with no craniofacial disorder; 2) Compare the electrophysiological auditory processing test results of children with NSCL/P to results obtained from childre n with no craniofacial disorder; 3) Determine the prevalence of abnormal auditory processing findings in children with NSCL/P; 4) Determine the pattern(s) of abnormal auditory processing findings that can be detected in children with NSCL/P; 5) Use the research findings as a foundation on which to plan further studies in this area and to consider appropriate clinical assessment and treatment strategies for children with NSCL/P wit h auditory processing disorders.


Project Title: Neuroplasticity of the auditory system in older adults
Investigator(s): McPherson DB, Wong LLN
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
The long-term objective of this research program is to investigate neuroplasticity of the auditory system in older listeners by detailing relations among behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroanatomical changes. At this pilot phase, we seek seed funds for conducting a first auditory training experiment to demonstrate that behavioral changes in the auditory system are possible even in older adults. In addition to producing an empirical study to be submitted to an internation al journal of broad impact, results from this pilot research will provide strong justifications for an external grant application requesting funds to conduct research addressing the neural phases of this research program. The question of neuroplasticity penetrates virtually all subdisciplines of biological and system sciences. The possibility of neuroplasticity in older adults certainly bears clinical and educational implications on our aging population. Research in neuroplasticity has received much attention in the past decades (e.g., Wiesel & Hubel, 1963, examining visual neuroplasticity in cats). Although early research has focused on animal models, human investigations have gained momentum (e.g., Tsushima et al., 2006). However, such human research often focuses on the visual system. Key differences among sensory systems limit the generalizability of findings in the visual system to other sensory systems such as the auditory system. For example, while multiple relay centers are present in the brainstem along the auditory pathway, the optic nerve connects directly to the diencephalon without making major connections in the brainstem (Nolte, 2009). The proposed research program is among the first efforts to directly examin e the auditory system and its plasticity in humans. In addition to primarily focusing on the visual system, research concerning neuroplasticity in humans often relies on younger subjects. Although there are certainly similarities between younger and older adult brain functions, assuming their neuroplastic mechanism to be identical can be problematic, as older and younger adults differ in basic sensory (e.g., Humes & Christophers on, 1991), cognitive (e.g., Craik & Salthouse, 2008), and neural (e.g., Cabeza et al., 2004) functions. Therefore, in order to gain an understanding of auditory neuroplasticity in older human subjects, we must conduct empirical studies directly on this population as they perform auditory tasks, without reliance on interpolating findings from cognate fields. Our research program seeks to conduct such experiments. Our research on auditory neuroplasticity in older adults consists of two phases, covering the range of expertise of the investigators. The first phase will involve an examination at the behavioral level. Once robust findings at the behavioral level are established, we will be in a strong position to seek external funds to perform the second, neurological phase of this research program, using functional neuroimaging (e.g., Wong et al, 2008). In the first phase, we ask whether changes in auditory functions can occur even in older adults. We choose an area of auditory perception that older adults show marked deficits, namely speech perception in noise (McPherson & Wong, 2005; Wong and Cheng, 2009; Wong, Hickson & McPherson, 2009, 2004). We will develop a training paradigm aimed at improving their speech perception in noise abilities.


List of Research Outputs

Chan C.Y.J. , Wong L.L.N. and McPherson D.B. , Comparison of speech perception in noise and localizati on abilities in young and middle-age adults, Research Conference of the American Academy of Audiolog y . San Diego, 2010.
Danermark B., Cieza A., Gagné J.-.P., Gimigliano F., Hickson L., Kramer S.E., McPherson D.B. , Möller C., Russo I., Strömgren J.-.P., Stucki G. and Swanepoel D., International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for hearing loss: A discussion paper and invitation, International Journal of Audiology . New York, Informa, 2010, 49: 256-262.
Driscoll C.J. and McPherson D.B. , Glossary, In: Driscoll, CJ and McPherson, B, Newborn Screening Systems: The Complete Perspective . San Diego, USA, Plural Publishing, 2010, 213-221.
Driscoll C.J. and McPherson D.B. , Newborn Screening: History, Principles and Analysis, In: Driscoll, CJ and McPherson, B, Newborn Screening Systems: The Complete Perspecti ve . San Diego, USA, Plural Publishing, 2010, 3-22.
Driscoll C.J. and McPherson D.B. , Preface, In: Driscoll, CJ and McPherson, B, Screening systems for newborns: The complete perspective . San Diego, USA, Plural Publishing, 2010, ix.
Laperle N., Marchese S., Smith A. and McPherson D.B. , Affordable hearing health care needs and initiatives in developing countries, Programme and Abstract Book, XXXth International Congress of Audiology . Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Society of Audiolog y, 2010, 109.
McPherson D.B. , Associate Editor, International Journal of Audiology . Stockholm, Informa Healthcare, 2010.
McPherson D.B. , Cost effectiveness of screening, Intercountry Consultative Meeting for Developing Guidelines Regarding Infant Hearing Screening in the Region. Society for Sound Hearing/World Health Organization, South East Asian Region . 2009.
McPherson D.B. , Editorial Board Member, Asia Pacific Journal of Speech Language and Hearing . San Diego, USA, Plural Publishing, 2010.
McPherson D.B. , Editorial Consultant, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Audiology . Brisbane, Australia, Australian Academic Press, 2010.
McPherson D.B. , Hearing for the whole world: Affordable hearing health care needs in developing countries, Inauguration Ceremony for WHO Collaborating Centre for the Prevention and Rehabilitation of Hearing Impairmen t . Beijing, 2009.
McPherson D.B. , Law M.M.S. and Wong M.S.M., Hearing screening for school children: Comparison of low-cost, computer-based and conventional audiometry, Child: care, health and development . Chichester, UK, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 36: 323-331.
McPherson D.B. , McMahon K., Wilson W.J. and Copland D., Neural correlates of feigned hearing loss: An fMRI study, Final Programme and Abstract Book, XXXth International Congress of Audiology . Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Society of Audiology, 2010, 40.
McPherson D.B. , Round Table Discussion: Hearing health care and latest technologies, Final Programme and Abstract Book, XXXth International Congress of Audiology . Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Society of Audiology, 2010, 20.
McPherson D.B. , McMahon K., Wilson W.J. and Copland D., “I know you can hear me”: Neural correlates of feigned hearing loss, XIXth National Conference of the Audiological Society of Australia, Embarking on a Hearing Future . 2010.
Swanepoe D., Clark J.L., Koekemoer D., Hall J.W., Krumm M., Ferrari D.V., McPherson D.B. , Olusanya B.O., Mars M., Russo I. and Barajas J.J., Telehealth in audiology: the need and potential to reach underserved communities, International Journal of Audiology . New York, Informa, 2010, 49: 256-262.
Wong L.L.N. , Hickson L. and McPherson D.B. , Satisfaction with hearing aids: a consumer research perspective., International Journal of Audiology . UK, Informa, 2009, 48(7): 405-427.
Yang F. and McPherson D.B. , Best Poster Award, Craniofacial Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Annual Scientific Conference . 2010.
Yang F. and McPherson D.B. , Structural abnormalities and dysfunction of the auditory cortex in infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, Final Programme and Abstract Book, XXXth International Congress of Audiology . Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Society of Audiology, 2010, 73.
Yang F. and McPherson D.B. , Structural abnormalities and dysfunction of the auditory cortex in infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, Programme & Abstracts, Craniofacial Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Annual Scientific Conference . Liverpool, UK, Craniofacial Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 2010, 36.
Zhang W. , McPherson D.B. , Shi B.-.X., Tang J.L.F. and Wong B.Y.K., Comparison of alternative methods in neonatal hearing screening: Tone-burst otoacoustic emissions and time-frequency filtering, Final Programme and Abstract Book, XXXth Internati onal Congress of Audiology . Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Society of Audiology, 2010, 87.


Researcher : Mcpherson DB

Project Title: Neonatal hearing screening: improving OAE performance
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Speech & Hearing Sciences
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 10/2001
Abstract:
To investigate TBOAE screening in neonates and compare this to conventional TEOAE test results.


Project Title: Screening Systems for Newborns: The Complete Perspective
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 12/2007
Abstract:
To produce a publication that can provide an up-to-date reference source for university students, clinicians, researchers and policymakers concerned with the whole field of neonatal screening. By drawing on the knowledg e and expertise of numerous experts from varying fields, not only at the clinical level but also at the research level, the book will provide the only comprehensive text that details the entire collection of screening programs routinely delivered to newborns and that prescribes direction for future endeavours in this area.


Project Title: Central auditory processing disord er in children with nonsyndromic clefts of the lip and/or palate
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 12/2008
Abstract:
Oral clefts comprise a significant proportion of human birth defects. Oral clefts are developmental craniofacial abnormalities that result, at least in part, from a failure of embryonic neural crest cells to migrate properly. As a group, 70% of cleft disorders are composed of those that are isolated to facial clefts only (nonsyndromic), and 30% are those in which the facial cleft is part of a well-defined syndrome with additional anomalies (Jones, 1988). In addition to the facial cleft, many patients also suffer from cognitive impairment. In syndromic clefts, this impairment is often severe. In nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP), the cognitive impairment is less severe but the functional consequences of these deficits should not be under-estimated. Children with NSCLP have been shown to have a lower IQ compared with matched controls (Kommers & Sullivan, 1979; Richman & Eliason, 1980). In addition to this generalized deficit, many patients also have abnormalities in language and learning abiliti es (Richman, 1993). That language and learning disabilities occur in NSCLP has been well documented. Almost all reports focus on the effects of middle ear disease in NSCLP, because otitis media with effusion is widely prevalent among children with cleft lip and/or palate (Gould, 1990; Schonweiler et al., 1996; Richman & Eliaso n, 1984). Many reports have considered the mild cognitive abnormalities associated with NSCLP as “secondary” to factors such as hearing deficits, speech deficits, or both. Indeed, some studies have demonstrated a relationship between language proficiency and peripheral hearing loss (Broen et al., 1998). Yet other reports have sugg ested that cognitive skills are not significantly affected by deficiencies in peripheral hearing or speech. A recent study found that even though hearing status at 12 months of age in infants with CLP correlated with some language measures at the age of 24 months, hearing status did not account for all detected language delays (Jocelyn et al., 1996). Similarly, Hubbard and colleagues (1985), in a retrospective study of two groups of children with palatal clefts closely matched in all ways except for the incidence of otitis media, demonstrated that even though enduring middle-ear infection may result in hearing impairment, it does not necessarily lead to language and cognitive disabilities. Therefore, the issue of how much conductive hearing loss contribute s to the cognitive disabilities of children with oral clefts remains controversial. Another possibility is that cognitive impairment is not secondary to external factors but primary to abnormal brain structure. In the case of NSCLP, recent studies have shown abnormalities in brain development. Nopoulos and her research group (2000) found the presence of a specific midline brain anomaly (enlarged cavum septi pellucidi). Furthermore , in another study by Nopoulos the noted abnormalities in a NSCLP group included abnormally enlarged anterior regions of the cerebrum, and decreased volumes for the posterior cerebrum and cerebellum. Overall, the most severely affected region was the left temporal lobe (Nopoulos et al., 2002). As the auditory cortex is located in this area, these structural abnormalities may directly lead to auditory dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that the cognitive dysfunction of patients with isolated facial clefts is likely to be directly related to brain pathology. Reports of specific types of cognitive dysfunction have varied, with some studies showing language deficits (Kommers, 1979; Richman, 1993) and others showing visual perceptual problems (Brennan & Cullinan, 1974). The fact that there is a close relationship between craniofacial maldevelopment and concomitant brain maldevelopment should not be surprising, for a close relationship exists between the development of the face, the craniofacial skeleton and the brain, under both normal and pathologic conditi ons (Winter, 1996). The systematic study of cortical auditory processing in patients with NSCLP (and the functional consequences thereof) has not been carried out. Hearing is a complex process, which includes the perceptual registration and cognitive elaboration of the acoustic signal by the brain as well as conscious perception of sound. Therefore, it is possible that auditory processing disorders accompany abnormal brain development in children and adults with NSCLP. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a perceptual dysfunction not caused by peripheral (outer, middle or inner ear) hearing impairment. It has been defined as “an observed deficiency in one or more of the following behaviors: Sound localization and lateralization, auditory discrimination, auditory pattern recognition, temporal aspects of audition, including temporal resolution, masking, integration, and ordering, auditory masking with competing acoustic signals, and auditory performance with degraded acoustic signals” (ASHA, 1996). The British Society of Audiology (BSA) CAPD group has recently put forward an alternative working definition, characterizing CAPD as “a hearing disorder resulting from impaired brain function and characterized by poor recognition, discrimination, separation, grouping, localization, or ordering of nonspeech sounds” (Vanniasegaram et al., 2004). Our initial small scale studies at HKU suggest that NSCLP children and adolescents do have structural abnormalities of the auditory cortex (Yang & McPherson, 2008) and indications of CAPD (McPherson, Cheuk & Yeung, 2007). Children and adults with auditory processing disorders appear to be uncertain about what they hear, and may have difficulties listening in background noise, following oral instructions, and understanding rapid or degraded speech, despite normal peripheral hearing. Hearing impairments arising from pathology of the brain may have detrimental consequences language development and learning if untreated. This study, therefore, aims to (a) develop and trial a behavioural CAPD assessment battery for groups of Chinese childr en and adolescents and (b) obtain normative data for CAPD tests from a control group of non-NSCLP children and adolescents. This will be the essential first step in a major project to investigate central auditory processing function in children and adolescents with cleft lip/palate.


Project Title: Communication Disorders
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding for Strategic Research Theme
Start Date: 05/2009
Completion Date: 09/2012
Abstract:
n/a


Project Title: Visiting Research Professors Scheme 2009-10
Investigator(s): McPherson DB
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Visiting Research Professors Scheme
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
To support the appointment of Professor Bruce E. Murdoch as Visiting Research Professor in the Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences.


Project Title: Auditory processing disorders in children with cleft lip/palate
Investigator(s): McPherson DB, Whitehill TL
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
1) Compare behavioural auditory processing test results of children with NSCL/P to results obtained from children with no craniofacial disorder; 2) Compare the electrophysiological auditory processing test results of children with NSCL/P to results obtained from children with no craniofacial disorder; 3) Determine the preval ence of abnormal auditory processing findings in children with NSCL/P; 4) Determine the pattern(s) of abnormal auditory processing findings that can be detected in children with NSCL/P; 5) Use the research findings as a foundation on which to plan further studies in this area and to consider appropriate clinical assessment and treatment strategies for children with NSCL/P with auditory processing disorders.


Project Title: Neuroplasticity of the auditory system in older adults
Investigator(s): McPherson DB, Wong LLN
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
The long-term objective of this research program is to investigate neuroplasticity of the auditory system in older listeners by detailing relations among behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroanatomical changes. At this pilot phase, we seek seed funds for conducting a first auditory training experiment to demonstrate that behavioral changes in the auditory system are possible even in older adults. In addition to producing an empirical study to be submitted to an international journal of broad impact, results from this pilot rese arch will provide strong justifications for an external grant application requesting funds to conduct research addressing the neural phases of this research program. The question of neuroplasticity penetrates virtually all subdisciplines of biological and system sciences. The possibility of neuroplasticity in older adults certainly bears clinical and educational implications on our aging population. Research in neuroplasticity has received much attention in the past decades (e.g ., Wiesel & Hubel, 1963, examining visual neuroplasticity in cats). Although early research has focused on animal models, human investigations have gained momentum (e.g., Tsushima et al., 2006). However, such human research often focuses on the visual system. Key differences among sensory systems limit the generalizability of findings in the visual system to other sensory syste ms such as the auditory system. For example, while multiple relay centers are present in the brainstem along the auditory pathway, the optic nerve connects directly to the diencephalon without making major connections in the brainstem (Nolte, 2009). The proposed research program is among the first efforts to directly examine the auditory system and its plasticity in humans. In addition to primarily focusing on the visual system, research concerning neuroplasticity in humans often relies on younger subjects. Although there are certainly similarities between younger and older adult brain functions, assuming their neuroplastic mechanism to be identical can be problematic, as older and younger adults differ in basic sensory (e.g., Humes & Christopherson, 1991), cognitive (e.g., Craik & Salthouse, 2008), an d neural (e.g., Cabeza et al., 2004) functions. Therefore, in order to gain an understanding of auditory neuroplasticity in older human subjects, we must conduct empirical studies directly on this population as they perform auditory tasks, without reliance on interpolating findin gs from cognate fields. Our research program seeks to conduct such experiments. Our research on auditory neuroplasticity in older adults consists of two phases, covering the range of expertise of the investigators. The first phase will involve an examination at the behavioral level. Once robust findings at the behavioral level are established, we will be in a strong position to seek external funds to perform the second, neurol ogical phase of this research program, using functional neuroimaging (e.g., Wong et al, 2008). In the first phase, we ask whether changes in auditory functions can occur even in older adults. We choose an area of auditory percep tion that older adults show marked deficits, namely speech perception in noise (McPherson & Wong, 2005; Wong and Cheng, 2009; Wong, Hickson & McPherson, 2009, 2004). We will develop a training paradigm aimed at improving their speech perception in noise abilities.


List of Research Outputs

Chan C.Y.J. , Wong L.L.N. and McPherson D.B. , Comparison of speech perception in noise and localization abilities in young and middle-age adults, Research Conference of the American Academy of Audiology . San Diego, 2010.
Danermark B., Cieza A., Gagné J.-.P., Gimigliano F., Hickson L., Kramer S.E., McPherson D.B. , Möller C., Russo I., Strömgren J.-.P., Stucki G. and Swanepoel D., International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for hearing loss: A discussion paper and invitation, International Journal of Audiology . New York, Informa, 2010, 49: 256-262.
Driscoll C.J. and McPherson D.B. , Glossary, In: Driscoll, CJ and McPherson, B, Newborn Screening Systems: The Complete Perspective . San Diego, USA, Plural Publishing, 2010, 213-221.
Driscoll C.J. and McPherson D.B. , Newborn Screening: History, Principles and Analysis, In: Driscoll, CJ and McPherson, B, Newborn Screening Systems: The Complete Perspective . San Diego, USA, Plural Publishing, 2010, 3-22.
Driscoll C.J. and McPherson D.B. , Preface, In: Driscoll, CJ and McPherson, B, Screening systems for newborns: The complete perspective . San Diego, USA, Plural Publishing, 2010, ix.
Laperle N., Marchese S., Smith A. and McPherson D.B. , Affordable hearing health care needs and initiatives in developing countries, Programme and Abstract Book, XXXth International Congress of Audiology . Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Society of Audiology, 2010, 109.
McPherson D.B. , Associate Editor, International Journal of Audiology . Stockholm, Informa Healthcare, 2010.
McPherson D.B. , Cost effectiveness of screening, Intercountry Consultative Meeting for Developing Guidelines Regarding Infant Hearing Screening in the Region. Society for Sound Hearing/World Health Organ ization, South East Asian Region . 2009.
McPherson D.B. , Editorial Board Member, Asia Pacific Journal of Speech Language and Hearing . San Diego, USA, Plural Publishing, 2010.
McPherson D.B. , Editorial Consultant, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Audiology . Brisbane, Australia, Australian Academic Press, 2010.
McPherson D.B. , Hearing for the whole world: Affordable hearing health care needs in developing countries, Inauguration Ceremony for WHO Collaborating Centre for the Prevention and Rehabilitation of Hearing Impairment . Beijing, 2009.
McPherson D.B. , Law M.M.S. and Wong M.S.M., Hearing screening for school children: Comparison of low-cost, computer-based and conventional audiometry, Child: care, health and development . Chichester, UK, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 36: 323-331.
McPherson D.B. , McMahon K., Wilson W.J. and Copland D., Neural correlates of feigned hearing loss: An fMRI study, Final Programme and Abstract Book, XXXth Internatio nal Congress of Audiology . Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Society of Audiology, 2010, 40.
McPherson D.B. , Round Table Discussion: Hearing health care and latest technologies, Final Programme and Abstract Book, XXXth International Congress of Audiology . Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Society of Audiology, 2010, 20.
McPherson D.B. , McMahon K., Wilson W.J. and Copland D., “I know you can hear me”: Neural correlates of feigned hearing loss, XIXth National Conference of the Audiological Soc iety of Australia, Embarking on a Hearing Future . 2010.
Swanepoe D., Clark J.L., Koekemoer D., Hall J.W., Krumm M., Ferrari D.V., McPherson D.B. , Olusanya B.O., Mars M., Russo I. and Barajas J.J., Telehealth in audiology: the need and potential to reach underserved communities, International Journal of Audiology . New York, Informa, 2010, 49: 256-262.
Wong L.L.N. , Hickson L. and McPherson D.B. , Satisfaction with hearing aids: a consumer research perspective., International Journal of Audiology . UK, Informa, 2009, 48(7): 405-427.
Yang F. and McPherson D.B. , Best Poster Award, Craniofacial Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Annual Scientific Conference . 2010.
Yang F. and McPherson D.B. , Structural abnormalities and dysfunction of the auditor y cortex in infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, Final Programme and Abstract Book, XXXth International Congress of Audiology . Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Society of Audiology, 2010, 73.
Yang F. and McPherson D.B. , Structural abnormalities and dysfunction of the auditory cortex in infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, Programme & Abstracts, Craniofacial Society of Gre at Britain and Ireland, Annual Scientific Conference . Liverpool, UK, Craniofacial Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 2010, 36.
Zhang W. , McPherson D.B. , Shi B.-.X., Tang J.L.F. and Wong B.Y.K., Comparison of alternative methods in neonatal hearing screening: Tone-burst otoacoustic emissions and time-fr equency filtering, Final Programme and Abstract Book, XXXth International Congress of Audiology . Sao Paulo, Brazil, International Society of Audiology, 2010, 87.


Researcher : Mok FY

Project Title: Self and Peer Assessment as a To ol to Develop Students’ Critical Thinking
Investigator(s): Mok FY, Andrews SJ
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 10/2008
Completion Date: 11/2009
Abstract:
Objectives: -To contribute to the development of the theory of assessment for learning, in particular in the area of implementation of self and peer assessment in Hong Kong junior secondary English language classroo ms - To investigate the participating teachers and students’ understanding of critical thinking, and the teachers' views on developing students’ critical thinking through the English language subject - To explore the participating teachers’ difficulties and concerns with implementing self and peer assessment in junior English language curriculum Key issues: Hong Kong has been undergoing a lot of changes since the return of its sovereignty to China in 1997. For example, its political and socio-ec onomic structures have been changing significantly. There has been rapid advancement in the production and consumption of information. The community including even young kids and teenagers are bombarded with loads of various types of information everyday. In respond to the knowledge-based economy, new emphases on life long learning and the development of various generic skills of students to prepare them for the rapidly changing world were introduced in the Hong Kong school curriculum. In 1999 a new set of guidelines (CDC, 1999) was issued by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) requiring secondary school English language teachers to develop students’ critical thinking skills and attitudes through the subject. In a study (Mok, 2008) on investigating the implementation of the critical thinking recommendations in five teachers’ S.1 English language classrooms the teacher participants reported that their teaching was so heavily constrained by external pressure and the school context that the teaching of critical thinking was difficult and that specific professional develop ment for teachers on implementing the recommendations would be needed. The study also pointed to the need of providing students a purposeful reason for thinking critically in a context that truly supports and values critical thinking to enhance their critical thinking development. In terms of assessment the importance of changing assessment practices, for example, a shift from assessment of learning to assessment for learning in schools, has been reiterated by the Education Bureau (EDB, 2007) in the local assessment reform. The adoption of school-based assessment, criterion referenced assessment and different key focal areas of formative assessment, such as self and peer assessment is encouraged to improve primarily students’ learning as well as the authenticity, validity and reliability of the assessment conducted by school teachers. Although the teachers in a professional development project (Davison and Mok, in press, 2008) on investigating the support teachers need to implement effectively formative assessment in local junior secondary English language classrooms voiced similar institutional constraints and external pressure, many of the teacher participants who had tried out assessment for learning with their students in the project, for example, self and peer assessment, reported that the assessment indeed helped develop students’ critical thinking. Education researchers also point out that self and peer assessment possesses many potential benefits to both the learner and assessor (Bostock, 2005). Apart from enhancing student’ learning, it facilitates students’ development of a lot of important learning and life skills, such as metacognitive strategy (Hedge, 2000), learner autonomy and higher order thinking skills (Bostock, 2005). I believe that the fact that self and peer assessment can provide a meaningful reason and an appropriate context for students to think and act critically makes it an appropriate tool for developing students’ criti cal thinking, which is the focus of the research. References: Bostock, S. (2005). Review of student peer assessment, format ive and summative. Learning Technology. Retrieved August 22, 2006, from: http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/aa/landt/lt/docs/bostock_ peer_assessment.htm. Curri Development Council. (1999). Syllabuses for secondary schools English language: Secondary 1-5. Hong Kong: Printing Department. Davison, C. & Mok, J. (Eds). (in press, 2008). Aligning assessment with curriculum reform in junior secondary English language teaching. Hong Kong: Quality Education Fund/Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, 250pp. Education Bureau. (2007). Assessment for learning. Retrieved April 3, 2008, from: http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=2410&langno=1. Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mok, J. (2008). Critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary school English language classrooms: The case of five teachers. PhD thesis. Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.


Project Title: 42nd Annual Meeting of the Briti sh Association for Applied Linguistics From policies to realities: Developing students’ critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary school English writing classes
Investigator(s): Mok FY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 09/2009
Completion Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Mok F.Y. , From Policies to Realities: Developing Students’ Critical Thinking in Hong Kong Secondary School English Writing Classes , In: Chan Yue Weng , Relc Journal . London, United Kingdom, SAGE, 2009, 40: 262-279.
Mok F.Y. , Language, Learning and Context: Developing Students’ Critical Thinking in Hong Kong Secondary School English Writing Classes, The 42nd Annual Meeting of the British Association of Applied Linguistics . 2009.
Mok F.Y. , Participation or Acquisition: Exploring Teachers’ Role in the Educational Change Process in Hong Kong, The 1st Combined Conference of the Applied Linguistics Associations of New Zealand & Australia . 2009.
Mok F.Y. , The New Role of English Language Teachers: Developing Students’ Critical Thinking in Hong Kong Secondary School Classrooms, In: Paul Robertson and Roger Nunn, Asian EFL Journal . Busan, Korea, Asian EFL Journal Press, 2010, 12: 262-287.


Researcher : Mok IAC

Project Title: Comparison of the Learners’ Perspectives of Mathematics Lessons between Australia and Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Mok IAC, Lopez-Real FJ, Leung FKS
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2008
Abstract:
The proposal seeks funding support to access and use the data set generated by the international project “Learners’ Perspective Study (LPS)”. Since the launching of LPS in 2000, the international LPS team now consists of ten countries (Australia, China, the Czech Republic, Germany, Israel, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Sweden and the USA). The objective of the proposal is to compare the learners’ Perspective s of their mathematics lessons between Australia and Hong Kong. The work of LPS has clearly emerged from the strong impetus in mathematics education research during the last decade, concerning comparisons, at the classroom level, between different countries. A significant stimulus for such classroom studies was the seminal work undertaken in the first TIMSS 1995 Video Study, reported in Stigler et al. (1999) and further discussed in the influential book “The Teaching Gap” (Stigler & Hiebert, 1999). This first study involved just 3 countries and this was later extended to 7 countr ies in the follow-up TIMSS 1999 Video Study (see “Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries”, NCES, 2003). The LPS project has been a promising international collaboration. With a common methodology base, LPS has generated a corpus of data which are ready at different stages according to the progress of its own country. Following the LPS meeting 2007 in Budapest, the next stage of LPS will be to launch an online system for the access to the international data base by the establishment of a system in the International Centre for Classroom Research ICCR in the University of Melbourne. The principal and co-investigators of the proposal are invited to subscribe to the new online system (LPS online) to have access to the international data set. It must be stressed the funding for the data generation is provided by other projects led by individual international members and is not included in this proposal. The data of Hong Kong and Australia is already housed in ICCR and ready for use via online access. It is also worthy to mention that this proposal will build upon the collaborative work by the LPS international team including data co llection, research and publication. For example, the LPS researchers have put effort in investigating the eighth grade mathemati cs classrooms of teachers within their own countries and making comparisons between the classroom practices in a variety of school systems. Some of these findings are documented in two influential books, Mathematics Classrooms in Twelve Countries: The Insider’s Perspective (Clarke et al., 2006) and Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms around the World (Clarke et al., 2006). The finding of the early LPS stage provid es important ground work for this proposal. Besides, the co-investigators have contributed significantly in comparative studies in mathematics education (e.g., Leung, et al. 2006). Besides the aforementioned reports of findings, there are still important issues in pedagogy between different didactical systems to be explored. Previous research tended to dichotomize teaching and learning as discrete activities sharing a common cont ext. Such dichotomization has been gradually shown to be misleading while researchers have made progress through the various levels of complexity of research models in teaching. The outcomes of learning are indeed based on the students’ own actions or behaviors. These actions, besides being influenced by the teachers’ actions, are much influenced by the students’ attitudes or bel iefs about themselves s learners of mathematics and their beliefs (Koehler and Grouws, 1992). The LPS design provides a design to study the hypothesis that there may be a set of actions and associated attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of students that constitute a culturally-spec ific coherent body of learner practices. The use of post-lesson video-stimulated interviews provided an opportunity for the classroom participants’ voices (including the learners’) to be heard, in particular in relation to the meanings that each classroom activity and situation held for that participant (Clarke, 2006). It is of interest in this study whether the learner practices observed in one country show consistency of form and purpose such as to suggest a culturally-specific character. Whether or not such identifiable learner characteristics exist as cultural traits, this study is predicated on a belief that international comparative studies are likely to reveal patterns of practice less evident in studies limited to a single country or community. In brief, the objective of this proposal is to make a comparison between the learners’ perspectives of their eighth-graded mathematics lessons between Australia and Hong Kong. References: Clarke, D. (2006).The Learner’s Perspective Study. In Clarke, D., Keitel, C. and Shimizu, Y. (Eds.), Mathematics Classrooms in 12 Countries: The Insiders’ Perspective. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers B.V. pp. 1-14. Clarke, D., Emanuelsson, J., Jablonka, E., and Mok, I.A.C. (Eds.) (2006). Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers B.V. Clarke, D., Keitel, C. and Shimizu, Y. (Eds.) (2006). Mathematics Classrooms in 12 Countries: The Insiders’ Perspective. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers B.V. Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Garnier, H., Givvin, K. B., Hollingsworth, H., Jacobs, J., Chiu, A. M.-Y., Wearne, D., Smith, M., Kersting, N., Manaster, A., Tseng, E., Etterbeek, W., Manaster, C., Gonzales, P., & Stigler, J. ( 2003). Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results From the TIMSS 1999 Video Study (NCES 2003-013). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Koehler, M. S. and Grouws, D. A. (1992). Mathematics teaching practices and their effects. In Grouws D.A. (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Mathemati cs Teaching and Learning. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. pp. 115-126. Leung, F. K.S., Graf, K-D. and Lopez-Real, F.J. (Eds.) (2006). Mathematics Education in Different Cultural Traditions : A Comparative Study of East Asia and the West. New York: Springer. Stigler & Hiebert. (1999). The Teaching Gap. The Free Press.


Project Title: Researching mathematics learning task events in the school experience of mathematics student teachers
Investigator(s): Mok IAC, Lee AMS, Wong KL
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 06/2009
Abstract:
Based on the findings of the Survey Team on Relations between Mathematics Education Research and Practice set up by the Program Committee of 10th International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME 10), in Copenhagen, July 6, 2004, some important observations are made (Sfard, 2005). In addition to research for students’ learning, there is a need for the focus on the teacher and the teacher practice (Hoyles, 1992). Research into the teacher’s input, the interaction and the discourse in the classroom context is getting more and more important. In addition, there is a growth of recognition of the dialogical relation with the practitioners (teachers ) and the researchers. Qualitative research with a focus on how things work and try to make the practitioners aware of alternative possibilities rather than trying to arrive at simple view of “what works” is important. To bring about meaningful learning of mathematics in classroom, appropriate tasks that students can engage in are essential. Tasks can range from simple drill- and-practice exercises to complex problem-solving tasks set in rich contexts. However, it is not the content of the tasks alone which determine the opportunity for learning. A challenging problem can be taught in such way that students simply followed some routine procedures, wher eas a simple task for some fundamental basic skills can be taught in a culture fostering mathematical understanding (Carpenter and Lehrer, 1999). The learning opportunity is thus determined by the learning environment which encompasses both the task and the interaction between the participants in the lessons. Therefore, the idea of “learning task” lesson event (LT event) developed by Mok and Kaur (2006) which encompasses the task as well as what happens in the lesson makes a legitimate unit for analysis. On the other hand, in the pre-service teacher training program, the school experience is a very important component for student teachers to learn to put what they have learned into practice. During the process, they may design their own learning tasks either by adopting the task in the textbook or by their own creation. There are a lot of self-investig ation and reflection of the possibility for better teaching and learning. A self-reflective and critical analysis into the process is essential for bringing about better development for mathematics teachers. This study is an investigation of the practice of the student teachers in their school experience with a focus on mathematical learning task events. It aims to investigate how to improve the mathematical discourse of pre-service student mathematics teachers during their school experience. The student teachers enrolled in the mathematics major of the Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) program will be invited to participate in the study. The study has the following objectives: 1. To guide the student teachers to develop a more effective learning task events by a reflective process. 2. To investigate the student teachers’ perspectives of the major factors influencing their development of the mathematical discours e in the learning task events. References: Carpenter, T. P., & Lehrer, R. (1999). Teaching and learning mathematics with understanding. In E. Fennema, & T.A. Romberg, (Eds.) Mathematics classrooms that promote understanding (pp.19-32). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass ociates. Inc., Publishers. Hoyles, C. (1992), ‘Mathematics teaching and mathematics teachers: A meta-case study’, For the Learning of Mathematics 12(3), 32–44. Mok, I.A.C. & Kaur, B. (2006). Learning Tasks. In Clarke, D., Emanuelsson, J., Jablonka, E., and Mok, I.A.C. (Eds.) Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms Around the World. (pp. 147-164). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers B.V. Sfard, A. (2005). What Could Be More Practical than Good Research? On Mutual Relations between Research and Practice of Mathematics Education. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 58(3), 393.


Project Title: 2009 Australian Association for Research in Education International Education Research Conference (AARE 2009) Teacher development by "Parallel Lessons": An example of mathematics
Investigator(s): Mok IAC
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 11/2009
Completion Date: 12/2009
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Prospective Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Algebraic Reasoning
Investigator(s): Mok IAC
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
The project aims to investigate prospective teacher s’ pedagogical content knowledge of algebraic reasoning. "Teaching necessarily begins with a teacher's understanding of what is to be learned and how it is to be taught" (Shulm an, 1987) Shulman conceptualizes pedagogical content knowledge as an amalgam of subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. Following from this and the elaboration from other researchers, PCK can be seen as an amalgamation of the knowledge of the content, the knowledge of students’ learning, the knowledge of the curriculum and the knowledge of pedagogy. Algebra is an important strand in the curriculum. Therefore, it is very important to have information how prospective teachers’ understand the construct of algebraic reasoning in the school curri culum. The foundation of school algebra is built on school arithmetic in primary mathematics. Traditional teaching of algebra took the standpoint that algebra is generalized arithmetic. The starting point of the learning and teaching of school algebra has taken strong assumpti on that students need firstly acquire a solid foundation in generalized arithmetic. Nevertheless, research findings show that students’ mistakes are persistent although this assumption is sound (e.g. Mok, 2009). Researchers and educators also argue that algebraic reasoning go beyond generalized arithmetic. Recently, Hong Kong curriculum reforms have broadened the work of school algebra to have more emphasis on algebra reasoning and generalization since 1999 (CDC, 1999, 2000). Upon the launch of a three-year senior secondary academic structure in September 2009 by Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB), there will be further changes in the content and approaches in the teaching and learning (CDC and HKEAA, 2007). Nonetheless, changes in teacher will not be brought about easily in educational reforms (Fullan and Stiegelbauer, 1991). The prospective teachers who are mostly recent graduates are in the transition period between the old and new curriculum. They will be expected to make active preparation for the new curriculum in their teacher preparation program. Therefore, their conception of “algebraic reasoning” is the most important for helping them become better teachers. Objectives of the project: 1. To develop an interview instrument for measuring the PCK for teachers. 2. To find a picture of prospective teachers’ PCK in algebraic reasoning. Curriculum Development Council and Hong Kong Examination and Assessment Authority. (2007). Mathematics Education Key Learning Area: Mathematics curriculum and assessment guide (seconda ry 4-6). http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=6120&langno=1 Curriculum Development Council. (1999). Syllabuses for secondary schools: Mathematics, secondary 1 to 5. http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nod eID=4905&langno=1 Curri Development Guide. (2000). Mathematics curriculum Gui de (P.1 to P.6). http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=4907&langno=1 Fullan, M., & Stiegelbauer, S. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Mok, I.A.C. (2009). Learning of algebra: Inspiration from students’ understanding of the distributive law. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Association for Mathematics Education. Shulman, L.S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15 (2), 4-14.


List of Research Outputs

Brousseau G. and Mok I.A.C. , Preparation of Selected Papers of The ICME 11. Selected Papers of The ICME 11 Topic Study Group 24: Research on classroom practice., In: Ida Ah Chee Mok (Chief), Guy Brousseau (Advisor) Ma. Guadalupe Cabañas, Ricardo Cantoral-Uriza, Hélia Oliveira, João Pedro da Ponte, Filippo Spagnolo , A monograph for Topic Study Group 24, ICME 11, July 6 – 13, 2008, Monterrey, Mexico. QUADERNI DI RICERCA IN DIDATTICA (Scienze Matematiche) of G.R.I.M. Supplemento . 2009, n. 4 al N.19-: 1-7.
Leung F.K.S. , Lee A.M.S. , Lopez-Real F.J. , Leung A., Mok I.A.C. and Wong K.L. , What Can We Teach Mathematics Teachers? Lessons From Hong Kong, In: F.K.S. Leung & Y. Li (Eds.), Reforms and issues in school mathematics in East Asia: Sharing and understanding mathematics education policies and practices . Rotterdam, Sense Publishers, 2010, 153-168.
Mok I.A.C. , Comparison Of Learning Task Lesson Events Between Australia n And Shanghai Lessons, In: Y. Shimizu, B. Kaur, R. Huang & D. J. Clarke, Mathematical Tasks In Classrooms Around The World . Rotterdam, Sense Publishers B.V., 2010, 119–145.
Mok I.A.C. , Glimpse of A Mathematical Enculturator in Chinese Mathematics Classrooms: An Example from A Shanghai Lesson., In: Ida Ah Chee Mok (Chief), Guy Brousseau (Advisor) Ma. Guadalupe Cabañas, Ricardo Cantoral-Uriza, Hélia Oliveira, João Pedro da Ponte, Filippo Spagnolo , Selected Papers of The ICME 11 Topic Study Group 24: Research on classroom practice. A monograph for Topic Study Group 24, ICME 11, July 6 – 13, 2008, Monterrey, Mexico. QUADERNI DI RICERCA IN DIDATTICA (Scienze Matematiche) of G.R.I.M. . 2009, Supplemento n. 4 al N.19-: 74-82.
Mok I.A.C. , Researching mathematics learning task events: A project for mathematics student teachers in Hong Kong. , 13th International Conference on Mathematics Education in China (ICMEC-2010) . Hangzhou, 2010.
Mok I.A.C. , Brousseau G., Cabañas G., Cantoral-Uriza R., Oliveira H., da Ponte J. and Spagnolo F., Selected Papers of The ICME 11 Topic Study Group 24: Research on classroom practice. A monograph for Topic Study Group 24, ICME 11, July 6 – 13, 2008, Monterrey, Mexico., In: Ida Ah Chee Mok (Chief), Guy Brousseau (Advisor), Ma. Guadalupe Cabañas, Ricardo Cantoral-Uriza, Hélia Oliveira, João Pedro da Ponte, Filippo Spagnolo , QUADERNI DI RICERCA IN DIDATTICA (Scienze Matematiche) of G.R.I.M . 2009.


Researcher : Msonde CE

List of Research Outputs

Msonde C.E. , SHIFTING TEACHERS FROM TEACHING TO LEARNING IN TANZANIA SCHOOLS: IS IT POSSIBLE? . Dodoma, The University of Dodoma, 2009, 1(1): pp.13-34.


Researcher : Ng FP

Project Title: The 16th International Conference on Learning The Application of Free Web Tools to E-Learning Platforms for Integrating Cantonese Opera into Hong Kong Chinese Language Education in the Era of Web 2.0
Investigator(s): Ng FP
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Chung A.L.S. and Ng F.P. , Biography of Leung Sing Boh (in Chinese) . 梁醒波傳, Hong Kong, ET Press, 2009.
Li Z.Y., Ng F.P. and Shang X.F., The Relations between Tang Di Sheng's Cantonese Opera "Legend of the Purple Hairpin" And Tang Xianju's Story "Legend of the Purple Hairpin", 唐滌生粵劇《紫釵記》與明湯顯祖《紫釵記》傳奇, Legend of the Purple Hairpin Classroom . 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009, 150-155.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Chan E.S.Y. , Cantonese Opera as Local Intangible Cultural Heritag e: Constructing the Learning Experience in Formal Education in Hong Kong, Symposium on the Politics & Poetics of Asian Intang ible Cultural Heritage (Hong Kong) . The University of Hong Kong, 2009.
Ng F.P. and Lam J.W.I. , Chinese Reading Ability Training - Reading, Understanding And Strategies . 中文閱讀能力訓練--認讀、理解、策略, INSTEP, 2009.
Ng F.P. and Lam J.W.I. , Chinese Reading Ability Training - Reading, Understandi ng And Strategies (in Chinese) . 中文閱讀能力訓練--認讀、理解、策略, Hong Kong, In-service Teacher Education Programm, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Lo A.M.F. , Construction the Platform for Interactive Learning of Cantonese Opera in Secondary School Education: Supporting the NSS Curriculum Reform (in Chinese), 共同搭建中學粵劇教育 的互動學習平台 ──支援香港新高中課程改革, Drama and Education in Chinese Communities World Conference 2009 (Hong Kong) . Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts and TEFO, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Chung A.L.S. and Lam J.W.I. , Construing the Learning Community of Cantonese Opera Education: Supporting the New Senior Secondary Curriculum Reform, 共同建構粵劇教育的學習社群──支援新高中課程改革, Legend of the Purple Hairpin Classroom . 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009, 14-20.
Ng F.P. , Chung A.L.S. and Lam J.W.I. , Legend of Purple Hairpin Classroom . 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Chung A.L.S. , Legend of the Purple Hairpin Classroom (in Chinese), 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009.
Ng F.P. and Lam J.W.I. , Teaching of Reading Cantonese Opera Scripts for Hong Kong Secondary Students - Story Schema Approach, Reading: Assessment, Comprehension and Teaching . NOVA Publishers, 2009.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Chung A.L.S. , The 3rd phase of the “Seed Project of Cantonese Opera --- Integrate Cantonese Opera in Education”: Hong Kong Arts Development Awards - Arts Education Awards, Non-school division (Bronze Prize), 香港藝術發展獎 藝術教育獎(非學校組)銅獎, Hong Kong Arts Development Council . 2010.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Choi K.K., The Application of Free Web Tools to E-Learning Platforms for Integrating Cantonese Opera into Hong Kong Chinese Language Education in the Era of Web 2.0, The 16th International Conference on Learning (Barcelona) . 2009.
Ng F.P. , Lam J.W.I. and Choi K.K., The Application of Free Web Tools to E-learning Platforms for Integrating Cantonese Opera into Hong Kong Chinese Language Education in the Era of Web 2.0, The International Journal of Learning . Common Ground Publisher, 2010, 16.
Ng F.P. and Chung A.L.S. , The Art of Leung Sing Boh (in Chinese) . 梁醒波傳﹕亦慈亦俠亦詼諧, Hong Kong, ET Press, 2009.
Ng F.P. , The Arts & Education: Synergies & Influences for Quality Audienceship and Sm{ART} minds Symposium . The Absolutely Fabulous Theatre Connection, 2010.
Ng F.P. and Chung A.L.S. , The publication and the exhibition of Leung Sing-boh Biography were elected as the Top 10 News in Cantonese Opera Industry 2009, 十大梨園新聞, Radio Television Hong Kong, Radio 5 . 2010.
Ng F.P. , 觀眾培育、推廣及交流, 粵劇發展座談會, 民政事務局, 2010.
Ng F.P. , 粵劇藝術﹕從戲棚到劇場課堂交流討論, 香港大學通識教育, 2010.
Shang X.F., Ng F.P. and Li Z.Y., Textual Research on the History, Characters and Culture of Cantonese Opera "Legend of the Purple Hairpin", 粵劇《紫釵記》歷史、人物及文化考證, Legend of the Purple Hairpin Classroom (in Chinese) . 紫釵記教室, Hong Kong, CACLER, 2009, 156-165.
Yuen S.F., Sun K.L. and Ng F.P. , 「洗滌生靈復說唐」藝術介紹講座, 2009.


Researcher : Ng HM

Project Title: ICSEI - International Congress for School Effectiveness and Improvement (ICSEI 2004) The Effects of Sharing among Teachers on Professional Development in China
Investigator(s): Ng HM
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 01/2004
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Ng H.M. , The Leadership And Management Of Teaching - From The Cultural Perspective, 文化视野下的教学领导与管理, Invited lecture by Faculty of Public Administration and Management, East China Normal University . 華東師範大學公共管理学院, 2009.
Ng H.M. , The roles of the principal in connecting staff develop ment to school development , 校长在促进学校发展中的角色研究, In: Li, Jing and Zhang, Xiao Feng, The New Perspective of Teacher Education and Educational Leadership . 教师教育与教育领导的新视野, 2009, 65-87.
Ng H.M. , The study of Principals' Continuous Professional Developmen t Model, 校长持续性专业发展模式的构建研究, Educational Leadership Research (Quarterly) . 教育领导研究(季刊), Beijing, Peking University Press, 2009, 36-53.


Researcher : Ng HW

List of Research Outputs

Tse S.K. , Yuen H.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam J.W.I. and Ng H.W. , The impact of blogging on the bilingual reading literacy of Chinese primary pupils, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education . Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tert iary E, 2010, 26(2): 164-179.


Researcher : Ng ML

Project Title: Voice pitch characteristics associated with English and Cantonese produced by Cantonese-English bilingual children
Investigator(s): Ng ML
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 01/2009
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
Previous research indicated that speakers of different ethnicities exhibited significantly different voice pitch characteristics (e.g., between English and Mandarin). However, some other studies failed to reveal such diff erences. Researchers suspected that the difference in voice characteristics was due to physical differences between speakers (e.g., between Hispanics, African Americans, Causacians, and Asians). Some others argued that the difference came mainly from language differences. The study attempts to examine the possible voice pitch difference between Cantonese and English produced by Cantonese-English bilingual children of ages from 5 to 15 years. By examining the voice characteristics in bilinguals, physical differences are eliminated.


Project Title: Quantification of accent in English sounds produced by Cantonese speakers
Investigator(s): Ng ML
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2009
Abstract:
With the increasing prevalence of the use of English worldwide, and the soaring need for spoken English at work, the number of people learning English as a second language (ESL) is escalating. However, adult ESL speakers always face great difficulty in language learning. The proficiency level of spoken English has been found to correlate closely to the age of learning [cf. 1]. Researchers believe that there is a critical period for learning a second language (L2). Complete mastery of L2 is not possible if learning begins after the end of this critical period (at about 15 years of age) [cf., 2]. Therefore, adult ESL learners inevitab ly speak English with varying degrees of accent. Accent reduction training for spoken English is traditionally done in one of the following ways: (1) ESL learners’ self-learning based on audio and/or video instructional materials, (2) formal classes instructed by qualified ESL teachers, and (3) accent modification sessions provided by practicing speech-language pathologists. The improvement in spoken English an ESL speaker has achieved needs to be assessed regularly before he/she is qualified to progress to the next level. However, for all of these learning modes, the amount of accent exhibited by the ESL learner is evaluated either by the learner him/herself, the ESL teacher, or the attending speech-language pathologist. This is usually done by listening to ESL learner's production, and comparing it with what they think is correct. This is apparently subjective and can be inconsistent and unreliable. Different individuals may have different norms, and may have different expectations on the ESL speech. This may yield different ratings of the accentedness of ESL learner's production. An objective way of quantifying accentedness is apparently needed. The presence of accent in English produced by the ESL speakers can be readily noticed by native English speakers. Flege [3] revealed that foreign accent can be detected from segment of word-initial consonants of as short as 30 milliseconds. It is believed that foreign accent is directly related to acoustic and temporal differences between native and non-native productions of the language. Previous studies have reported perceptual ratings of the amount of accent present in the speech produced by ESL speak ers. In an attempt to perceptually scale the amount of foreign accent present in English, Southwood and Flege [4] found that listeners failed to rate accented English reliably, as indicated by the low inter-listener reliability (r = 0.5 - 0.6). They attributed the high inter-list ener difference to the great bias among listeners who were native speakers of English causing the great differences in their ratings. Listeners had different internal standards of foreign accent. Similar results were found by Flege and Fletcher [5] in studying how talker influence d the degree of perceived accent. They found that listeners’ rating of accentedness can be affected by their experience with the speech materials and the range of talkers included in the listening samples. If speech samples produced by both excellent and average non-native English speakers were included, listeners tended to rate the speech produced by average speakers worse. Apparently, accentedness rating was not absolute; there appeared to be an internal, perhaps unconscious, comparison among talkers when rating for accentedness. Accentedness ratings have been found to also vary with rater’s backgroun d in phonetic training. Thompson [6] found that inexperienced raters generally perceived greater degree of accentedness than expert raters who had prior knowledge in phonetics or ESL teaching. However, Bongaerts, van Summeren, Planken, and Schils [7] found no significant differenc e between experienced and inexperienced raters. Accordingly, accentedness ratings based on human perception is subjective and may vary from rater to rater. Objective and reliab le quantification of accent based on acoustic and temporal features is needed. Chen [8], and Chen, et al. [9] examined the accented English vowels produced by native speakers of Mandarin. They objectively assessed the deviation between English vowels produced by Mandarin speakers and native English speakers using Euclidean distance. Chen et al. [10] also quantified the accented English in sentences produced by Mandarin speakers by using fundamental frequency, duration, and intensi ty measures. Similar studies have also been done in Turkish [11] and Cantonese ESL speakers [12]. However, these measurements were obtained only from vowels/vocal portion of the sentences. In an attempt to study English learning using unisensory and multisensory feedback, Vila and Ng [13], and Thotli, Ng, and Vila [14] evaluate d accented English produced by native Spanish and Indian speakers by using the ASR engine of VoiceXML. The researchers were successful in monitoring the improvement of ESL pronunciation by objectively measuring the accent present in the ESL speech using a robust, speaker-independent ASR engine. However, since acoustic signals were input to the VoiceXML ASR system through telephone line, speech signals were greatly distorted and signal quality was heavily deteriorated due to the limited bandwidth associated with telephone lines. Such approach of measuring ESL learners’ accent is apparently not ideal. The proposed project will attempt to objectively quantify the amount of accent present in the speech produced by non-native speakers of English by using speaker-independent automatic speech recognition (ASR) technique. Speech recognition performed by using ASR engine involves the extraction of features from accented English speech, calculation of parameters, and comparison of paramet ers with the norms stored in the engine. By using ASR technology to quantify phonetic deviation, an objective and reliable measurement of accentedness can be implemented. In the study, the scores obtained from the ASR will be correlated with rating scores obtained from three group s of listeners: (1) experienced native speakers of English and (2) inexperienced native speakers of English. Specific objectives of the study include: (1) To objectively and reliably quantify the amount of accent present in the English speech produced by non-native (ESL) speakers by using a robust, speaker-independent autom atic speech recognition (ASR) software engine. (2) To correlate the scoring of accentedness obtained from ASR engine with the perceptual measures obtained by experienced and inexperienced native speakers of English. (3) To reveal the possible differences in the amount of accent between isolated word productions and continuo us speech productions.


Project Title: An acoustic study of the error pattern associated with English words produced by Cantonese ESL speakers
Investigator(s): Ng ML
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 03/2010
Abstract:
Predictions of possible mispronunciation of English sounds by Cantonese ESL speakers were solely based on studying the discrepancy between the English and Cantonese phonetic inventories. Variations due to different reasons such as the subtle differences between productions and idiosyncratic disparities have not been taken into consideration. No empirical evidence has been made to support such predictions. In addition, how a problematic English sound will be produced or substituted by which Cantonese sound may vary. It is not confirmed how th e problematic sounds will be substituted. The present study will test the predictions made by Meng, Zee, and Lee (2007) objectively by using speaker-independent automatic speech recognition (ASR) technique. Speech recognition using ASR engine involves the extraction of features from accented English speech, calculation of parameters, and comparison of parameters with the norms stored in the engine. By using ASR technology to quantify phonetic deviation, an objective and reliable measurement of accentedness can be implemented. In the study, the scores obtained from the ASR will be correlated with perceptual scores obtained from three groups of listeners: (1) experienced native speakers of English, (2) inexperienced native speakers of English, and (3) native Cantonese ESL speakers.


Project Title: A kinematic study of English vowels produced by Cantonese ESL speakers
Investigator(s): Ng ML
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 05/2010
Abstract:
With the increasing popularity of the use of English worldwide, and the escalating need for proficient spoken English, more people are learning English as a second language (ESL), especially in developing countries such as China. However, adult ESL speakers always face great difficulty in learning to speak native-like English. A number of factors have been found to dictate the outcome of spoken ESL learning such as age and method of learning [cf. 1]. Accent reduction training of spoken English is traditionally done in one of the followin g ways: (1) ESL learners’ self-learning based on audio and/or video instructional materials, (2) formal English classes instructed by qualified ESL teachers, and (3) accent modification clinic sessions provided by practicing speech-language pathologists. During the learning cycle, improvement in spoken English an ESL learner has achieved needs to be assessed before the learner progresses to the next level. However, common to all learning modes, the amount of accent exhibited by the ESL learner is evaluated either by the learner him/herself, the ESL teacher, or the attending speech-language pathologist. This is usually done by listening to ESL learner’s production, and comparing it with what they think is correct. The “correct” production of an English soun d refers to what the listener believes a native English speaker should produce. This is a subjective judging process which can be inconsistent and unreliable. Different individuals may have different norms, and may have different expectations, yielding different accentedness ratings of ESL speakers’ production. Previous studies have reported perceptual ratings of the amount of accent present in the speech produced by ESL speakers. These ratings were made using either equal-appearing intervals (EAI) scaling or direct magnitude estimation (DME). When perceptually scaling the amount of foreign accent present in English by listeners who were native speaker s of English, Southwood and Flege [2] found that listeners failed to rate accented English reliably (correlation = 0.5 - 0.6). The low inter-listener inconsistency was believed to be related to the bias among listeners, causing the great differences in their ratings. The native English-speaking listeners had different internal standards of foreign accent. Similar results were foun d by Flege and Fletcher [3], which reported that accentedness rating can be affected by listeners’ experience with the speech materials and speakers’ proficiency. Listeners tended to rate the speech produced by average ESL speaker s as worse than those by superior ESL speakers. There appears to be an internal, perhaps unconscious, comparison among talkers when rating for accentedness. Ratings of the degree of L2 foreign accent have been found to also vary with the rater's background in phonetic training. Thompson [4] studied accentedness rating provided by inexperienced and expert raters and found that inexperienced raters generally perceived a higher degree of accentedness in non-native speech than expert raters who had prior knowledge of phonetics or ESL teaching. However, others [5] found that experienced and inexperienced raters were not significantly different and did not “constitute two homogeneous subgroups”. The discrepancy may be related to idiosyncratic differences among raters. Accentedness rating based on auditory perception is indisputably subjective and may be inconsis tent. Flege [6-7] suggested that L2 foreign accent is directly related to the acoustical differences between native and non-native productions of the language. Accentedness of L2 production can objectively be described using acoustical parameters. This was supported by a number of researchers [cf., 8-10], and they believed that articulatory inaccuracy is directly correlated with acoustical measurements. However, others have shown contradictory findings [cf., 11-13]. In studying English sounds produced by native English speakers, Harris [11] and Ladefoged et al.[12] reported that different articulatory positions can result in the same vocal tract resonances, and similar acoustics may imply different articulatory gestures. In an articulatory study of German vowels, Maurer et al. [13] found no one-to-one relationship between articulatory gesture and acoust ics. According to the above discussion, accentedness judgment based on human perception is too subjective, inconsistent, and may vary among raters. Describing the amount of accent based on acoustical measurements may also be problematic due to the many-to-one relationship betwe en acoustics and articulation. A more reliable and direct way of quantifying accent that is intuitively based on articulatory is needed. Accent can be objectively assessed by directly examining the deviations in articulatory movement, including the positioning, speed, timing, and acceleration of the movement of various articulator s during L2 sound production. However, directly studying articulatory movement has not been easy due to technological and methodological issues as most articulators are confined within the oral cavity. Previous researchers examined normal and disordered articulation by using cineradiography [14] and x-ray microbeam system [15]. However, both techniques require subjects’ exposure to radiation which is hazardous and greatly limits the scope of research. A safer alternative to viewing articulatory movement during speech is by using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) [16-17]. The commercially available EMA system allows the acquisition and computation of kinematic information including the trajectory, velocity, and acceleration of articulatory movements of L2 speakers during speech production [18]. EMA has been used by researchers in articulation studies involving normal and pathological populations including dysarthric and ataxic individuals. The proposed project will attempt to objectively describe accent in English vowels produced by Cantonese ESL speakers by measuring the articulatory inaccuracy during English vowel production. By using a 3-dimensional EMA, instantaneous information on position, velocity, and acceleration of different articulators including the lips, tongue tip, blade, and dorsum, and mandible will be obtained during production of English vowels by Cantonese ESL speakers. Kinematic information will be collected by the receiver coils attached to different articulators of the speakers. Although sensors are placed on the articulators, studies have shown that presence of sensors will not significantly affect speech production due to their small size [17,19,20]. Such kinematic data obtained from ESL speakers will be compared with that obtained from native English speakers. In order to correlate with the perceived amount of accent present in L2 English, kinematic data will also be compared with subjective accentedness ratings provided by native English speakers.


List of Research Outputs

Chen Y. and Ng M.L. , Acoustic features of English vowels produced by Canton ese-English bilingual speakers, The 2009 Annual Convention of the American Speech, Language, and Hearing Association . 2009.
Ng M.L. , Air pressure and airflow differences between esophageal and tracheoesophageal speech of Cantonese, The 9th Phonetic Conference of China (PCC2010) . 2010.
Ng M.L. , Liu H., Zhao Q. and Lam P.K.Y., Long-term average spectral characteristics of Cantonese alaryngeal speech, Auris Nasus Larynx . 2009, 36: 571-577.
Ng M.L. and Chen Y., Tense and lax English vowels produced by adult Cantonese ESL speakers, The 13th Meeting of the International Clinical Phone tics and Linguistics Association (ICPLA 2010), Oslo, Norway . 2010.
Ng M.L. , Hsueh G. and Leung C.S., Voice pitch characteristics of Cantonese and English produced by Cantonese-English bilingual children, In: Sharynne McLeod, International Journal of Speech-language Pathology . UK, Informa Healthcare, 2010, 12: 230-236.
Xue S.A. , Kaine L. and Ng M.L. , Quantification of vocal tract configurations of olde r children with Down syndrome using acoustic reflection technology: a pilot study, International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology . http://www.ijporlonline.com/, 2010, 74: 378-383.
Xue S.A. , Cheng R. and Ng M.L. , Vocal Tract Dimensional Development of Adolescents: an Acoustic Reflection Study, International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology . 2010, 74: 907912.


Researcher : Nicholson S

List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.


Researcher : Nordtveit BH

Project Title: Basic Education in the Tibet Aut onomous Region
Investigator(s): Nordtveit BH
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 01/2007
Abstract:
The aim of this Seed Funding Project is to study China’s basic education policies in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR). In recent decades China has achieved an unparalleled rate of economic growth. This has bettered the lot of millions of Chinese in the coastal provinces. However, poverty remains a serious problem in China’s western provinces and especially in the TAR. Statistics on China show that Tibet is an outlier in nearly all aspects of development. The region, with a population of 2.8 million inhabitants, is by far the least populated region in China, and at the same time the least urbanized one (China Statistical Yearbook, 2006). A total of 73 percent of the population live in rural areas, and have limited access to health and education services. The lack of services is reflected in the life expectancy of the population: at 64 years it is the lowest in China, and compares unfavorably to an average of 71 years for the Chinese population as a whole (2000 data, China Statistical Yearbook, 2006). Likewise, the TAR illiteracy level, at 45 percent, is significantly higher than the Chinese average of 11 percent (2005 data, China Statistical Yearbook, 2006). Chinese authorities, International Organizations (IOs) and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are actively trying to improve the situation in the TAR through the realization of different development programs and projects. Despite an important education investment in the TAR, there is a lack of studies on basic education policies as applied to rural areas of the region. The seed funding project will address this knowledge gap by analyzing and comparing different education projects and policies in Tibet. The Seed Funding Project will consider China’s involvement in the TAR at three levels: 1. China’s basic education policies in the TAR will be compared with basic education policies elsewhere in China, and particularly in the less developed Western Provinces; 2. China’s rhetoric on basic education in Tibet will be compared to the rhetoric on external (Chinese) aid to developing countries (along the lines of the so-called Beijing Consensus); 3. China’s education strategies in the TAR will be compared to the strategies of other donor agencies which are active in the region (i.e., NGOs and IOs). The related research questions are as follows: 1. How do China’s basic education policies in the TAR differ from policies in other regions? 2. How does China’s support to education in the TAR differ from its support to education in developing countries? 3. How does China’s support to basic education in the TAR differ from support given by other donors? 1: China’s Basic Education Policies in Tibet While there is a considerable literature on China’s geo-political ambitions in Tibet, few studies have looked specifically at rural education policies and programs as implemented through central Government funding. Also, there is little res earch on the topic of literacy in the TAR. The statistics on education and literacy levels are themselves questionable, since the literacy trend is surprisingly “bumpy” (66% illiteracy in 1999; 47% in 2000, 55% in 2003, etc.: see overview of statistics and comments on Tibet Info Net http://www.tibetinfonet.net). The evolution of the percentage of literacy in the TAR is therefore very different from other regions: elsewhere, there is a steady improvement of literacy, whereas the TAR is the only region where the literacy rate at times seems to regress (e.g., illiteracy increased by more than 10 percent, from 43.8 percent in 2002 to 54.9 percent in 2003). The Seed Funding Project will seek to gain knowledge about the variation of literacy rates in the TAR by (i) conducting interviews in Beijing and Lhasa among basic education civil servants and education specialists; (ii) identifying basic education projects and programs that could be used as future case studies (under a CERG or other grant); and (iii) gaining oversight of past and current assessments of the literacy situation in the region. 2: China in Tibet compared to China in Developing Countries Western development aid is often based on the so-called Washington Consensus and promotes fiscal discipline, financial liberalization, tax reform (including cutting marginal taxes), and generally the privatization of social services. China, not adopting this course, has followed a path that, in view of the country’s spectacular economic growth, has been hailed as an alternative model - the “Beijing Consensus.” This development strategy is based on knowledge-led growth, a focus on the quality of life (instead of economic performance), and self determination. The Seed Funding Project will analyze China’s involv ement in Tibet to see if it follows the path of the Beijing Consensus, or if, instead, it has developed an alternative development path. Hence, different policy papers and project documents related to educational development in the TAR will be analyzed. For example, the government ’s 2001 White Paper on Tibet’s modernization will be compared with the 2006 White Paper on China’s relationship with Africa. 3: China in Tibet compared to Other Donors in Tibet Foreign organizations working on Tibet can roughly be divided into three categories: First, an important number of associations are active outside of China, raising consciousness about aspects of Chines e policies in the region (including education). Many of these outside organizations are negative toward China’s intervention in Tibet. Secondly, a number of NGOs and IOs are helping improve service delivery inside the TAR. These organizations usually collaborate with regional Tibetan authorities and the central government to set up education projects and programs. Finally, several organizations propose trips and cultural activitie s to discover Tibet’s people, culture and natural beauty. The Seed Funding Project will analyze the basic education services and policies proposed by these three types of organizations, and will compare them both among themselves and with current Chinese programs in Tibet. This part of the research will be accomplished through on-site interviews with NGO and IO personnel based in different areas of Tibet and abroad. Further, the research is expected to lead to identification of NGO and IO-funded literacy and basic education initiatives to be used as future case studies (under a CERG or other grant).


Project Title: China as an Aid Donor: The Case of Education in Africa
Investigator(s): Nordtveit BH
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 09/2008
Abstract:
1. The project will analyze China's current developme nt policies as an external donor to Africa. In this regard, the project will examine the re-emergence of China's relations with Africa, as outlined in the White Paper on China's African Policy (PRC, 2006).; 2. At the general level, the project will contrast China's discourse of development assistance with its implementation practi ces. These will be compared with the policies of several major bilateral agencies and multilateral agencies, and in particular with the international discourse of Education For All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Further, Chinese approaches will be contrasted with African attitudes towards aid, and particularly with African attitudes towards Chinese educational aid.; 3. China's aid policies to Africa will be illu strated by analysis of the education and training sector which is widely claimed to play a critical role in helping to break the cycle of poverty as well as providing one key element in employment generation and growth.; 4. Education and training projects funded by China in Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya and South Africa will serve as case studies to examine China's policies-in- practice, as a donor.; 5. The modalities China employs in its support for education and training development in Africa will be compared to the modalities employed in this same sector by traditional bilateral and multi-lateral donors to Africa. ; 6. The project, through its researc h training, document acquisition, dissemination and publication plans, expects to strengthen analytic capacity within Hong Kong on China's aid policy in general and on aid to education and training in particular, and thus substant ially to assist Hong Kong's becoming a knowledge hub for China and its development partners to draw upon.


Project Title: 10th UKFIET International Conference on Education and Development The New Politics of China’s Aid Partnerships with Africa: A Case Study of Cameroon
Investigator(s): Nordtveit BH
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 09/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Nordtveit B.H. , Constructing Development: Civil Society and Literacy in a Time of Globalization . Springer, 2009, pp. 195.
Nordtveit B.H. , Development as a complex process of change: Conception and analysis of projects, programs and policies, International Journal of Educational Development . 2009, In press.
Nordtveit B.H. , Schools as Agencies of Protection in Namibia and Swaziland: Can They Prevent Dropout and Child Labor in the Context of HIV/AIDS and Poverty?, Comparative Education Review . 2010, 54(2): 223-242.


Researcher : Oleksiyenko PA

Project Title: 54th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES Conference 2010) Professional Education and Interdisciplinary Fields: The Role of Global Boundary Objects in the Emerging Open Systems of the Post-Soviet Academe Re-imagining graduate education for collaborative actions in response to global challenges: A Case-Study of the University of Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Oleksiyenko PA
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 03/2010
Completion Date: 03/2010
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Strategic International Partnerships: A Comparative Perspective on Academic Roles and Responsibilities across Disciplines, Sectors and Jurisdictions in East Asia
Investigator(s): Oleksiyenko PA
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 03/2010
Abstract:
The proposed research examines and compares the academic roles and responsibilities in strategic internationa l partnerships necessitated by both opportunities and challenges of social and economic development in four jurisdictions: People’s Republic of China; Hong Kong, SAR, China; Singapore; and Taiwan. The study explores the integrative effects of strategic approaches in university research and education on creating a more relevant and competitive research enterprises. The study examines the theoretical underpinnings of a resource dependence perspective within the “glonacal agency” heuristic and its impact on organizational strategies of academic entrepreneurship and innovation in international research and education. The “glonacal agency heuristic”, proposed and discussed by Marginson and Rhoades (2002) and followed up in theoretical constructs such as “glob al higher education matrix” (Jones 2008, Jones and Oleksiyenko 2008), points to the increasing intersection of global, national and local forces and factors that change stakeholde r relations in higher education systems. Having engaged Clark’s (1983) analytical heuristic of tensions between states, markets and professions, the authors explain how power and influence has been moving away from nation-state control, as the markets and professions undergo chang e. The researchers argue that a shift in reconceptualization of states, markets and higher education institutions from a national to “glonacal” (global, regional, national and local) has been underway with the advance of complexit y and tensions between the different levels of power and influence. Jones and Oleksiyenko (2008) provided empirical evidence to support the increasingly “glonacal” nature of policy-making powers shaping international partnership building in Canada. The authors have demonstrated a cascade effect that exists in relations between fe deral, provincial and institutional policies and raised questions about the changing character of the notion of local in this heuristic. The research puts emphasis on the need to give more attention to the uses of an evolving entrepreneurial “understructure” that results from the convergence of markets and professions, as the government tends to play a lesser role in the process of developing policies for international partnership s in some countries. The two studies re-emphasize Clark’s earlier proposition to avoid viewing higher education development as sheer tension between public and private, or governments and markets. The complexity of relations is much greater, involving many other lateral and verti cal stakeholder relationships from across societies at home and abroad. The influence of entrepreneurial faculty members has been a particularly significant factor in the recent decades (Clark 1998, Slaughter and Rhoades 2004). This necessitates redefining the position of local stakeholders in the global domain. The resource dependence perspective (Pfeffer and Salancik 1978) adds an interesting angle to the conceptualization of organizational strategies at the local level. Confr onted by increasing competition for resources that are critical for their survival, institutional actors seek collaborative arrangements that allow them to secure stable access to the required assets, in order to reduce uncertaint ies caused by environmental challenges and/or to achieve desired results that they would not be able to achieve on their own. Inter-institutional linkages trigger organizational growth, which is often welcome “as a cushion against organizational failure” (Pfeffer and Salancik 1978:139). Large size is encouraged to enhance “the survival capacity of organizations, providing them with more power with respect to their environments and with more parties interested in their continuatio n” (ibid.:140). The resource dependence perspective captures the tension between the goals and strategies of sponsors, research universities and scientists. Aware of the instability of funding patterns and the growing competition for limited resources, scientists pursue the creation of organized research units in order to enhance their own autonomy and limit their dependence on any single external agent in the process of building their positions in the scientific fields that are increasingly globalized. The nature of their work requires that they seek int er-organizational partnerships in order to secure sufficient intellectual, material and financial input to their projects. Given the diversity of goals in the research intensive environments, universities often permit or encourage structural dispersion to create a necessary level of scientific autonomy. The decentralization also allows to gain access to diverse funding opportunities (Lang 2001). Despite the advantages, the fragmented environment also creat es a number of challenges, such as internal competition, duplication of efforts and resources, and most importantly, the depletion of trust – a factor that is often considered to be major capital in partnership strategy building (Burke 2006). The dispersed organizational environme nts prevent effective communication among divisions and incapacitate the coherence of goals and the immediacy of institutional actions. As funding agencies redesign their programs to address more complex problems, they encourage universities to engage in collaborative research and practice (Oleksiyenko and Sá 2009). The field of global health, for example, increasingly requires the integration of individual capacities from across the campus. Proactive actions aimed at the interdisciplinary efforts have been shown to provide an underpinning for a more competitive institutional strategy, leading to more success in securing resources for research teams. The demand for effective institutional coordination is voiced both by faculty members, who are experienci ng time and effort overload, and by institutional authorities, who aspire to more competitive performance. Steps to reorient dispersed academic activities, scattered across campuses, into solid, structurally-built interdisciplinar y programs can be viewed as an attempt to secure vital resources in a shifting environment. Many academic divisions and research centers recognize their increasing inter-dependence between local and global stakeholders. The notion of resources goes beyond the traditional concept of financial and material support. Community recognition, acceptance and trust are equally important resources that define scientists’ capacities for eff ective partnerships (Cattell 2001, Lomas 1998, Pretty 2003, Sanders et al. 2004). Universities reach out to various international stakeholders to ensure their political support. Scientific, professional, cultural and even residential communities intermingle as separate or boundary objects to influence the patterns of research development at the global level. Previously interpreted as linear relations between resource providers and resource seekers, organizational dependencies are growing in complexity. In light of the intersection of the “glonacal agency heuristic” and the resource dependence perspective, this study explores how universities maintain the delicate balance between local, national and global resource providers.


List of Research Outputs

Jones G...A... and Oleksiyenko P.A. , The internationalization of Canadian university research: A global higher education matrix analysis of multi-level governance, Higher Education . Netherlands, Springer, 2010, doi.10.1007/s10734-010-9324-8.
Oleksiyenko P.A. and Chan M., From “Community Colleges” to “Private Universities”: Reframing the Hong Kong Community College System , 24th Annual Conference of the Consortium of Higher Education Researchers (CHER) "Effects of Higher Education Reforms", University of Oslo, Norway, June 9-12 . 2010.
Oleksiyenko P.A. , Professional Education and Interdisciplinary Fields: The Role of Global “Boundary Objects” in the Emerging Open Systems of the Post-Soviet Academe, 54th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) "Reimagining Education", Chicago, USA, March 1-5 . 2010.
Oleksiyenko P.A. , Re-imagining graduate education for collaborative actions in response to global challenges: A Case-Study of the University of Hong Kong, 54th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) "Reimagining Education", Chicag o, USA, March 1-5 . 2010.
Oleksiyenko P.A. and Sa C...M..., Resource asymmetries and cumulative advantages: Canadian And US research universities and the field of global health, Higher Education . Netherlands, Springer, 2010, 59 (3): 367-385.
Oleksiyenko P.A. , Universities and Regional Development in Central Asia: A Case of a Multilateral Partnership Strategy , 24th Annual Conference of the Consortium of Higher Education Researchers (CHER) "Effects of Higher Education Reforms", University of Oslo, Norway, June 9-12 . 2010.
Oleksiyenko P.A. , University-Industry Biomedical Partnerships: A Multilevel Stakeholder Management Approach, 2010 Annual Conference of the Association of Sout heast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning (ASAIHL) "Higher Education: Engaging the Knowledge Economy", National Taiwan University, Taiwan, April 16-18 . 2010.


Researcher : Pan FCN

List of Research Outputs

Pan F.C.N. , Lau H.Y.K. and Lai Au Yeung W.Y.W. , Sharing e-Learning Innovation aross Disciplines: an Encounter between Engineering and Teacher Education , In: Academic -Conferences.Ltd, Electronic Journal of e-Learning General topic papers . Academic - conferences Ltd, 2010, 8 Issue 1: 31-40.


Researcher : Pan NFC

List of Research Outputs

Yuen H.K. , Pan N.F.C. and Ng C., Reforming Learning and Teaching through Online Collaborative Knowledge Building, In: C.H. Ng & P. Renshaw , Reforming Learning: Issues, Concepts and practices in the Asia-Pacific Region . Springer Science, 2009, 67-86.


Researcher : Pan SY

Project Title: Citizenship and Multiple Identities in A Multileveled Polity: The Perspectives of Students in Beijing, China
Investigator(s): Pan SY, Law WW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 09/2007
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
For centuries, citizenship is seen as membership in a bounded community, with rights and responsibilit ies defined by a given polity; citizenship education initiates and equips people with civic knowledge, attitudes, and skills to enable them to live and function as members of the polity (Heater, 1999). However, these traditional notions have lately been challenged by globalization and urbanization. In response to rapid city development in a global age, many societies have incorporated into their citizenship education policies and/or curricula theoretical frameworks for multileveled/multidimensional citizenship and citizenship education, including global, national, local, and personal-social components. It is important to evaluate how important students perceive these four components to be, and to understand how students perceive, sustain and juggle their multiple identities in a multileveled polity. However, this is under-researched. With reference to Beijing, this study proposes to fill this gap by comparing and contrasting the importance and tensions of multiple identities, as perceived by local students (who have household registration in Beijing) and non-local Chinese studen ts (who have household registration outside of Beijing, but who live with parents who have come to Beijing from rural areas to earn their living). This study will investigate how local and non-local students construct and sustain these four dimensions of multileveled citizenship, and how they juggle their own multiple identities. Specifically, the study will attempt to answer five major research questions: (1) What do students believe is the relative importance of these dimensions to the citizenship education curricula that (a) have been implemented in their schools, and (b) they would prefer if they could select them? (2) What are the differences between how the implemented and preferred curricula (see above) regard the relative importance of these dimensions of citizenship? (3) What are the similarities and differences between local and non-local students’ perceptions of (a) the implemented and (b) the desired curriculum? (4) What patterns of relationship exist between these dimensions? (5) What are the reasons accounting for these patterns?


Project Title: The Sixteenth International Confe rence on Learning Citizenship and Multiple Identities in a Multileveled Polity: The Perspectives of Students in Beijing, China
Investigator(s): Pan SY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2009
Completion Date: 07/2009
Abstract:
N/A




Researcher : Pang MF

Project Title: Development of lesson studies in Sweden and the USA: a comparative study
Investigator(s): Pang MF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 02/2007
Abstract:
To investigate development of lesson studies in Sweden and the USA: a comparative study.


Project Title: MODES OF VARIATION IN PUPILS’ APPREHE NSION OF A THRESHOLD CONCEPT IN ECONOMICS
Investigator(s): Pang MF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 03/2007
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
Introduction The conceptual focus of this proposal is on threshold concepts − a term introduced into the student learning research literature in a seminal paper by Meyer and Land (2003) as follows: A threshold concept can be considered as akin to a portal, opening up a new and previously inaccessible way of thinking about something. It represents a transformed way of understanding, or interpreting, or viewing something without which the learner cannot progress. As a consequence of comprehending a threshold concept there may thus be a transformed internal view of subject matter, subject landscape, or even world view. This transformation may be sudden or it may be protracted over a considerable period of time, with the transition to understanding proving troublesome. Such a transformed view or landscape may represent how people ‘think’ in a particular dis cipline, or how they perceive, apprehend, or experience particular phenomena within that discipline (or more generally). (Meyer and Land, 2003, p.412.) Threshold concepts have rapidly defined new research agendas in a variety of disciplinary contexts as evidenced in a recently published book edited by Meyer and Land (2006), and in papers presented at an international symposium held in Glasgow in 2006. There are currently in excess of 400 websites that refer to threshold concepts in a variety of educational contexts and that refer explicitly to the work of Meyer and Land. Recent work on developing students’ acquisition of threshold concepts has broug ht into focus the importance of transformative learning in particular critical content elements within a discipline, as opposed to learning in general in a disciplinary context : ‘Student learning engagement’ is a broad term, and the variation within it can be generally formalised in terms of empirical (or conceptual) ‘models’ of differing multivariate complexity….[however] generic models [of learning] are only useful, and indeed ‘actionable’, up to a rapidly reached point at which they become inadequate proxies for the dynamics of student learning within discipline-specific courses. It is here, at this interface of reached uselessness, that the existen ce of threshold concepts provides immediate and compelling signposting for avenues along which to solicit variation in student learning and understanding (and misunderstanding) in a far more critical sense. The responsiveness to variation is no longer in the general sense (how are you going about learning?), or even the discipline sense (how are you going about learning subject x?), but is now operating at a critical micro-perspective level within the epistemology of the discipline itself and its discourse. (Meyer and Land, 2005 pp. 380-381.) In further developing a theoretical framework for threshold concepts Meyer, Land and Davies (2006) distinguish between four modes of variation in the acquisition of a threshold concept. The first of these modes captures the extent of the learner’s awareness and understanding of an underlying game or episteme – a ‘way of knowing’ – which may be a crucial determinant of progression (epsitemological or ontological) within a conceptual domain. Such tacit understanding might develop in the absence of any formalised knowledge of the concept itself; it might, for the learner, represent a ‘natural way of thinking’. Variation in such tacit understanding constitutes a mode of sub-liminal variation. The second mode, that of pre-liminal variation, captures variation in how a threshold concept initially ‘comes into view’, that is, how it is initially perceived or apprehended, and with what mindset it may therefore be approached or withdrawn from. These two modes of variation form the focus of the proposed research. The conceptual framework There are two conceptual issues that need to be considered in framing the research question. The first refers to the identification of a threshold concept for the purposes of the proposed research and a theorisation of its importance as a transformative portal. The second issue addresses the contextualisation of the threshold concept; that is, the context elemen t(s) within which the threshold concept is embedded. In addressing the first issue the present proposal is fortunate in being able to draw on the findings of a current large scale UK FDTL 5 project on Developing first year undergraduates acquisition of threshold concepts in Economics and, in particular, the work by Davies and Mangan (2005) that specifically identifies (the acquisition of) the threshold concept of opportunity cost as one basis for the ‘understanding of everyda y experience transformed through integration of personal experience with ideas from [the] discipline’. (Emphasis added.) Indeed the concept of choice itself, and the value placed on the next best but rejected alternative when making choices (the definition of ‘opportunity cost’) represents a fundamental element of economic discourse and analysis. The importance of this concept cannot be overstated, and the pedagogical challenge lies in the fact that many students fail to acquire it. As Frank (1998, p.14) puts it: ‘…the opportunity cost concept, so utterly central to our understanding of what it means to think like an economist, is but one among hundreds of other concepts that go by in a blur. The second issue takes as a framework The New Senior Secondary (NSS) Curriculum – Proposed Economics Subject Framework for Secondary 4-6 students in Hong Kong. In accordance with CDC (2004), its aims are to develop students’ interest in exploring human behaviour and social issues through an economic perspective, and to have a deeper understanding of the world in which they live through mastery of basic economic kno wledge. A well-accepted aim of teaching Economics in school is to enable students to experience a phenomenon from an economic perspective. It is important to develop in students the capability of looking at a phenomenon not purely from a commonsense perspective, but to develop a more sophisticated way of comprehending the phenomen on from the Economics discipline. The object of enquiry in the proposed research is the threshold concept of opportunity cost which is included in the NSS Economics curriculum in Hong Kong. Students are expected to develop a good mastery of the fundamental economic themes such as ‘economic decisions involving choices among alternatives’ and ‘concept of cost in Economics’.


Project Title: Design as Artifact: Enhancing Student Teachers’ Professional Competence through Learning Study
Investigator(s): Pang MF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Leung Kau Kui Research and Teaching Endowment Fund - Teaching Grants
Start Date: 09/2007
Abstract:
In Hong Kong, the new senior secondary curriculum reform has been under way and huge financial resources have been allocated to its implementation. Tyack and Cuban (1995) argue that "changes where it counts the most - in the daily interactions of teachers and students - is the hardest to achieve and the most important” (p.10). However, past experience tells us that these reform initiatives always seem unable to permeate into classroom instruction to generate a real impact on student learning. In order to improve the quality of student learning in classrooms, it is important to build on the existing strengths of educational practitio ners as well as teacher educators. With their close collaboration, theory and practice can inform each other, consequently making a difference to our students. One of the innovati ve strategies to realise this is through a learning study (Pang & Marton, 2003; 2005; Marton & Pang, 2006). Stigler and Hiebert (1999) brought world attention to the Japanese “lesson study” model of improving teaching and learning. They identified it as a factor behind the superiority of Japanese students of mathematics in international comparisons over their counterparts from other countries such as the United States and Germany (e.g. TIMSS, 2003). A learning study draws its inspiration from the idea of lesson study as well as design experiments (Brown, 1992; Collins, 1992; Kelly, 2004). A learning study aims to build innovative learning environments and to conduct research into innovations grounded in theory. It also aims to pool the valuable experience of teachers, while maintaining focus on an object of learning (i.e. what students are expected to learn). Teachers work together to build up innovative learning environments in one or a series of research lessons to achieve identified objects of learning. Furthermore, teachers are provided with the opportunities to share and examine their practical knowledge with the learn ing communities established (Cockran-Smith & Lytle, 1999). Through empowering teachers to make use of the theoretical framework premised on a learning theory to analyze their own teaching, teachers can develop an analytical awareness of teaching and learning, which in turn enables them to transform their practical knowledge into professional knowledge. In line with Hiebert, Gallimore and Stigler (2002), a knowledge base for the teaching profession to bring about high quality student learning is expected to be established and sustained. In Hong Kong, learning study has been widely practiced in local pri mary and secondary schools, with strong support from Education and Manpower Bureau. Various reports showed that it was quite effective in enhancing teacher professional development and thereby improving student learning (e.g. Lo, Pong & Chik, 2006; Pang, 2006). However, this innovative practice has so far been conducted with in-service teachers only. The provision of short-term training posed extra burden and pressure to the teac hers on top of their heavy workload. Quite a number of them expressed that they need to spend extra time after school to learn the ways to conduct learning study, as they have not been given the opportunity to equip themselves with this practice when they enrolled the professional training programmes offered by the universities. In order to prepare our future teaching profession for such an innovative practice which has been prevailing in schools, the proposed study aims at incorporating learning study into our Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) programme. It will firstly be trailled with students majoring in Economics, in which both full-time and part-time students (who possess teaching experienc e) will work together and form learning study groups. Furthermore, the study will draw upon the lesson designs and materials produced by other teachers who participated in other learning studies conducted (e.g. Pang & Marton, 2003, 2005). Student teachers will be asked to reflect on the designs and improve it further. In this way, it is hoped that they will develop analytical awareness to analyze teaching and thus enhance their professional competence. The objectives of the project are: (1) to help student teachers to develop the professional competence of conducting learning study for their future practices; and (2) to enhance the professional learning of student teachers through professional engagement and reflection, which is grounded on classroom practices.


Project Title: Conditions of learning - Differences in what students learn as a function of the way in which the learning content is structured
Investigator(s): Pang MF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 12/2008
Abstract:
The specific aim of the project is to put the variatio n theory of learning to a partial test by examining experimentally our interpretation of some of the results that have been previously arrived at. This project concerns the relationship between what happens in the classroom and what students learn there. The way in which learn ing is organized, whether students work individually, in groups, or as a whole class, will certainly make a difference. But such differences are not what we are dealing with in this project. We have found that what students learn in different classes may differ radically even when learning is organized in the same way, even if the students are equally capable and motivated, and even if the teachers are equally well-educated and experienced. We have found that these radical differe nces frequently originate in the way in which learning content is handled and structured in the interactions between teachers and students. These differences involve what the students are able to discern through what is said or exemplified and what the commonalities and difference s are in the systems of examples, problems, and illustrations that are used in the classroom. We have developed the variation theory of learning, which sees learning as a function of the differences and commonalities in what learners experience. The results of several studies indicate that this theory could be a remarkably powerful tool for teachers to use in bringing about learning. Some of the teachers in these studies made use of the theory, and others did not. The differences in learning outcomes seemed to correspond to whether or not the teaching was theory-based. We now intend to test the theory further by examining the effects of the differences in the way in which learning resources are designed, particularly in terms of the relationships between the examples that are used to illustrate concept s, principles, or methods of solving certain types of problems.


Project Title: The Economics, Business & Enterprise Association Annual Conference 2010 Applying Theory to Teaching Economics - Examples of Research
Investigator(s): Pang MF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2010
Completion Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Pang M.F. , Chairperson of the Organising Committee , First Swedish Rsearch Link Sympsoium on Phenomenography and Variation Theory . 2009.
Pang M.F. and Meyer J.H.F., Exploring The Modes Of Variation In Pupils’ Apprehension Of The Threshold Concept Of Opportunity Cost In Economics, The 13th Biennial European Association on Research for Learning and Instruction (EARLI) Conference 2009 .
Pang M.F. , Holder Of The Carl And Thecla Lamberg's Visiting Professo rship At Faculty Of Education, University Of Gothenburg, Sweden . 2010.
Pang M.F. , Invited Lecture: Boosting Students’ Financial Capability, Faculty of Education, Stockholm University, Sweden . 2010.
Pang M.F. , Invited Lecture: Catering For Learner’s Diversity: Insights From Variation Theory, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Sweden . 2010.
Pang M.F. , Invited Lecture: Is There A Chinese Pedagogy Of Science Teaching? , Uppsala University, Sweden . 2010.
Pang M.F. , Invited Lecture: Learning Study: Teachers Enhance Student Learning And Produce New Knowledge To Be Shared, Faculty of Education, Stockholm University, Sweden . 2010.
Pang M.F. , Invited Lecture: Making Learning Possible: Phenomenography, Variation Theory and Learning Study, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Sweden . 2009.
Pang M.F. , Invited Lecture: Mindful Learning, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Sweden . 2010.
Pang M.F. , Invited Lecture: The use of variation theory to develop students' critical thinking skills in Liberal Studies, Department of Education, Uppsala University, Sweden . 2009.
Pang M.F. , Journal Editor, Educational Research Review (An Official Journal of EARLI) . Elsevier, 2010.
Pang M.F. and Marton F., Learning to Handle Money Better, The 13th Biennial European Association on Research for Learning and Instruction (EARLI) Conference 2009 .
Pang M.F. , Member of Editorial Board, Higher Education Research and Development . Carfax Publishing, 2010.
Pang M.F. , Member of Editorial Board, Vocations and Learning . Springer, 2010.
Pang M.F. and Meyer J.H.F., Modes Of Variation In Pupils' Apprehension Of A Threshold Concept In Economics, In: J. H.F. Meyer, R. Land & C. Baillie , Threshold Concepts And Transformational Learning . Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Sense Publishers, 2010, 365-382.
Pang M.F. , Reviewer of Manuscript, Educational Research Review . 2010.
Pang M.F. , Reviewer of Manuscript, Instructional Science . 2009.
Pang M.F. , The Impact Of The Learning Study On The Professional Learning Of Student Teachers, World Association On Lesson Studies Conference 2009 .
Pang M.F. , Using The Learning Study Grounded On The Variation Theory To Improve Students’ Mathematical Understanding , Journal of Education . Tanzania, The University of Dodoma, 2009, 1 (1): 1-13.
Pang M.F. , Visiting Professor, Faculty of Education, Gothenburg University, Sweden . 2009.
Pang M.F. , What is the critical aspect(s) of ‘critical aspect’?, First Swedish Research Link Symposium on Phenomenography and Variation Theory . 2009.


Researcher : Park JH

Project Title: Educational Values and Social Mobility in Diaspora : Soviet Koreans in Kyrgyzstan
Investigator(s): Park JH, Yuen HK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
Asian students and parents are known for holding education in high regard. They value education as a way to assure not only material betterment but also and above all, social recognition, esteem and reward (Park, 2009). Such values are also deeply rooted in the consciousness of Asian ethnic minorities in diaspora. Regardless of their countries of origin, perils of political maneuvers or geographical landscapes they have been exposed to, education has consistently been regarded by Asian diaspora communities as a pathway for upward social mobility in its many dimensions and details (Hurh, 1998) (Gao, 2008). The present research will look into Soviet Korean minority in one of the former Soviet Union countries, namely Kyrgyzstan. The main aim of the research is to analyze Kyrgyzs Soviet Koreans’ education in diaspora, their educational value system and its correlation with upward social mobility. The research questions are: 1. What happened to culturally permeating and all-encompassing Confucian education value system in the case of Soviet Koreans in Kyrgyzstan? Has such an “Asian value” been preserved or altered? 2. What is the relationship between education and social mobility for Korean diaspora community in Kyrgyzstan? Korean diaspora happened in four distinct periods since the end of 19th century (Yoon, 2004). Deportations to Central Asia were in two waves: First, Czarist Russia’s mistrust for non-Russians in 1904-1905 triggered the relocation of all Koreans along with other Asians to the policed camps further within Russian, and second, in the midst of growing tension between Russia and Japan in 1937 under Stalin’s distrust of Koreans as suspected spies for Japan (Yoon, 2000). Current Soviet Koreans in Kyrgyzstan are descendants of this latter group that used to be rice farmers in the Soviet Far East. Post-Stalin Soviet Union practiced with outward regions a policy of Soviet People [Sovetskii narodin] settlements and perhaps, only to this extent, multiculturalism and tolerance. Despite the fact that the Soviet disintegration in 1989 “was shaped by the territorial-political crystallization of nationhood, not by the ethnocultural definition” (Brubaker, 1994, p. 61), the newly created Central Asian states soon practiced a tacit policy of preference in favor of the ethnic majority. Job opportunities have since been scarce and even less for minorities given the consistently declining GDP since the handover in 1991(Mertaugh, 2004). There is dichotomy between educational level and quality and quantity of jobs. On the other hand, it is relatively well-known that Koreans elsewhere view education “both as a process of intrinsic cultivatio n and as the best insurance of survival and upward social mobility” (Gao, 2008). Their passion for education dates back to the Chinese state examination system to select outstanding scholars for high government posts in 201 B.C., which was adopted by Korea in the second half of Eighth Century and “provided men of intellectual ability with the most obvious route to political and financial success until the end of the Yi dynasty in 1905” (Hurh, 1998, p. 94). It is not surprising, therefore, that Koreans during the Soviet period used education for social mobility, hence their formal education level relatively high (Krieger, 2006). Once a ‘model minority’ in Soviet Union, as it is happening today in the U.S.A. and China, Soviet Koreans in Kyrgyzstan did not emigrated there freely but politically deported. The heart of Korean achievements is, it is said, their cultural predisposition, which attaches a high priority to the value of education. But is this assessment still valid in Post-Soviet period? According to our preliminary data, after almost two decades since the fall of Berlin Wall, Koreans have become less educated in Kyrgyzstan, or they seem to be less interested in formal education or less en thusiastic with prospects of ‘getting degrees’ as there is a political system that is substantially different from Soviet period, paradoxically, one based on ethnicity. Most of the professional jobs in Kyrgyzstan are dominated by Kyrgyz and they are in Kyrgyz language. Soviet Kore ans do not have their own autonomous land or province (as Chechens do), they mostly speak Russian, so they are becoming traders and owner of small stores, restaurants and cafes, forming a 0.4% of total population, roughly 18,000 people. This apparent abulia for education among Soviet Koreans in Kyrgyzstan contradicts their millennial educational value hierarchy system. Are the ‘Confucian educational values in exile’ dead ? Is it due to a political misrecognition or a lack of inclusiveness and multicultural social structure (Taylor, 1992)? The present research will attempt to get an answer to it. Brubaker, R. (1994). Nationhood and the national question in the Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Eurasia: an institutionalist account. Theory and Society, 23(1), 47-78. Gao, F. (2008). What it means to be a 'model minority': voices of ethnic Koreans in Nort heast China. Asian Ethnicity, 9(1), 55-67. Hurh, W. M. (1998). The Korean Americans. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. Krieger, V. (2006). Rein, Volga, Irtysh: Iz istorii nemtsev tsentral'noi Azii. Almaty: Raik Press. Mertaugh, M. (2004). Education in Central Asia, with Particular Reference to the Kyrgyz Republic. In S. P. Heyneman & A. J. DeYoung (Eds.), The Challenge of Education in Central Asia (pp. 153-180). Greenwich Connecticut: Information Age Publishing. Park, J. (2009). Leadership of Recognition: A Philosophical Study. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller. Taylor, C., & Gutmann, A. (1992). Multiculturalism and "The politics of recognition" : an essay. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press . Yoon, I.-J. (2000). Forced relocation, language use, and ethnic identity of Koreans in Central Asia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 9(1), 35-64. Yoon, I.-J. (2004). Korean Diaspora. In C. R. Ember, M. Ember & I. A. Skoggard (Eds.), Encyclopedia of diasporas : immigrant and refugee cultures around the world (pp. 201-213). New York ; London: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.


Project Title: Regional Seminar on the Impact of the Economic Crisis on Higher Education and the Use of ICT in Universities in Asia and the Pacific The Use of ICT for Administration and Management at the University of Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Park JH
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2010
Completion Date: 07/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Gao F. and Park J.H. , Teaching Chinese as a Second Language in China, 2010 Conference of the Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong “Globalization within Regionalization: Identity, Understanding and Interactions,” Guangzhou, China . 2010.
Park J.H. , Leadership of Recognition: A Philosophical Study, Saarbruken, Germany, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktiengesellscha ft & Co. KG, 2009, iv, 216 leaves.
Yuen H.K. and Park J.H. , Digital Natives in Higher Education: Changes in Students, Challenges for the Rest, ICT2009, Hong Kong: The Open University of Hong Kong . 2009.
Yuen H.K. and Park J.H. , Digital natives in higher education: Changes in students and challenges for others, 2009 International Conference on ICT in Teaching and Learning, 6-8 July, Hong Kong . 2009.


Researcher : Pei M

Project Title: Exploring the teachers' follow-up move in teacher-fronted whole-class interaction with the students in Chinese English immersion classrooms
Investigator(s): Pei M
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund
Start Date: 03/2004
Abstract:
To explore the teachers' follow-up move in teacher-fronted whole-class interaction with the students in Chinese English immersion classrooms.




Researcher : Polat F

Project Title: 11th Biennial Conference of the International Association of Special Education (IASE) 2009 ACTION RESEARCH: DEVELOPING INDEX FOR INCLUSION IN TANZANIA INCLUSIVE SCIENCE TEACHING
Investigator(s): Polat F
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2009
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: The Effective Use of Teaching Assistants within Whole School Approach: The Role, Management and Training of Teaching Assistants
Investigator(s): Polat F
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 11/2009
Abstract:
Background There has been significant shift from special education to inclusive education (IE) around the globe and Hong Kong is no exception. Although the government of Hong Kong’s policies on integration set up as early as in 1977 (Hong Kong Government, 1997) with the Publication of White paper ‘Integrating the Disabled into Community’ there was little impact of the policy on integration of disabled children in regular classrooms alongside with their peers (Heung, 2006). In fact, according to Yung (1996), from the publication of the 1977 White paper the number of special schools more than doubled. The growing number of special schools somehow fostered with the introduction of banding sy stem for secondary schools by government in late 1970s almost around the same time with the publication of 1977 White paper. Overall the banding system assumes placement of children with similar abilities together which fosters exclusionary practice by placing students with range of difficulties in special schools and special units. In a sense current Hong Kong education system seems to offer two parallel systems of education namely segregated (special) education and ‘whole school approach to integration’. Following the Equal Opportunities and Full Participation White paper in 1995, the government initiated integration of special and general education in 1997 with the launch of two-year pilot project with 7 primary and 2 secondary schools that integrated children with range of special needs ranging from sensory difficulties to developmental difficulties. Hong Kong Education Bureau has adopted a ‘whole school approach to integration’ which aims to provide opportunities to for students with special needs enabling them to fully participate in all aspects of life including education, employment and adult life. In 2004 the government initiated a new funding mode (NFM) which aims towards a whole school support for students with special needs via means of flexible funding to provide coordinated support services where necessary. The whole school approach to integration places great emphasize on restructuring of schools in order to accommoda te students with diverse needs. In order to meet diverse needs of students, including those with special needs, schools are expected to establish Student Support Teams (SSTs) as part of their restructuring in addition to other adjustments and accommodations. Overall SSTs oversee and are responsible from implementation, effectivene ss and review of support provided for meeting the needs of students with special needs. The member of SST composed of general education teachers and resource teachers who are expected to collaborate and co-operate meeting the needs of students with special needs. It seems that Teaching/Education Assistants are not specified as being part of SSTs who can play a significant role within such team. Purpose There is a wealth of international literature that demonstrates time and time again the crucial role teaching assistants can play supporting students with range of needs (EPPI, 2003 and EPPI 2009). The literature reveals that use of TAs has been influenti al on number of levels including the benefits and support to teachers and pupils as well as collaboration with parents. The literature, more specifically, suggests that TAs who are trained, have clear role description and are supported can have a positive impact on the progress of individual and/or group of students academically, socially and emotionally (EPPI, 203 and EPPI, 2009). The literature further suggests that use of TA support leads to reduced workload for teachers which enable teachers to have more time to design creative and practical activities that engage students and also allows teachers to spend more time working with small groups and/or individuals. TAs support can also lead to reduce teach er stress and increased job satisfaction as a result of improved support and attention paid to students (EPPI, 2009) Key Issues A preliminary literature review conducted prior to writing this research proposal indicated that there is lack of research on deployment of TAs within Hong Kong education system. The review suggests that there is no clear job description of TAs and the y mainly seem to be employed at EFS schools and special schools. Moreover, there does not seem to be many training opportunities for TAs and based on our communication with a senior officer at EDB (June, 2009) there is only one training provider who trains TAs for total of 2 days (12 hours). Furthermore, the same line of communication revealed that the employment of TAs is under individual schools jurisdiction and to a degree there can be rather different job descriptions, role expectations and management. Based on international literature review it is evident that TAs are one of the educational professionals who can play a key role in making whole school approach to integration/inclusion a step closer. Therefore the present study aims to map current practice of training, role and management of TAs in representative number of schools in Hong Kong and will establish a foundation for a more in-depth and large scale research proposal to be submitted to GRF.


List of Research Outputs

Erduran S., Polat F. , Barnes C. and Williams D., Step-IN: Science Teaching for Promoting Inclusion. , Annual Conference of the Association for Science Education, September, Reading. England. . Reading, UK, 2009.
Patison S., Rowland N., Cromarty K., Richards K., Jenki ns P. and Polat F. , School Counselling in Wales: Recommendations for good practice, Counselling and Psychotherapy Research Journal . UK, Taylor & Francis, 2009, 9(3): 169-173.
Polat F. , An Inclusion in Education, ICT and Social Justice, In: Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, An invited presentation at 1st World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE), Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, Doha, Qatar. . Doha, Qatar, 2009.
Polat F. , Conference on Sign Linguistics and Deaf Education in Asia , Conference organized by the Department of Linguistics and Modern Languages, The Chinese University of Hong Kong . The Chinese University of Hng Kong, 2010.
Polat F. , Contextualising Inclusive Education in Tanzania , In: Mutua, K and Sunal, C. , Advances in Research and Praxis in Special Education in Africa, Caribbean and the Middle East Sixth Book in the Series Research on Education in Africa, the Caribbean and the Middle East . USA, InfoAge Publishing., 2010, 6th.
Polat F. , Continued Professional Development for Teachers in Inclusive Settings, In: Kuwait University, Keynote Paper Included in Special Education Conference Proceedings, University of Kuwait. . Kuwait, 2010, 1-15.
Polat F. , Continued Professional Development for Teachers in Inclusive Settings, Keynote paper included in conference proceedings, University of Kuwait, Kuwait, April 2010 . 2010, 15pp.
Polat F. , Dare to Dream: The social model of disability, An invited key note at the ‘Rock and Row of NSS’, organized by Hong Kong Special Education Society, . Hong Kong, 2009, December.
Polat F. , Dare to Dream? Towards a Social Model of Disability. , In: Andrew Tse, Hong Kong Special Education Forum . Hong Kong SAR, China, The Special Eductaion Society of Hong Kong, 2010, 12: 49-59.
Polat F. , Kisanji J. and Mmbaga D., Developing Index for Inclusion in Tanzania, Conference Proceeding of the International Association of Special Education , Alicante, Spain, 13 - 17 July 2009 .
Polat F. , Inclusion in Education and Social Justice., Paper presented at XIV. World Congress of Comparative Education Society (WCCESS), 14-18 June, Istanbul, TU RKEY. . Istanbul, Turkey, 2010.
Polat F. , Inclusion in Education and Social Justice, Proceedings of XIV Workd Congress of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES), Istanbul, Turkey, 14 - 18 June 2010 . 1-29.
Polat F. , Inclusion in Education: A Step Towards Social Justice? An invited Journal article to appear in Special Issue (Education Quality for Social Justice: Addressing Disadvantage) of International Journal of Educational Development., In: Guest Editors Leon Tikly and Angeline M.. Baret , International Journal of Educational Development. . 2010.
Polat F. , Inclusion in Education: A Step towards Social Justice?, An invited presentation at the Second Beijing International Forum on Special Education . Beijing, China, 2009.
Polat F. , Inclusion in Education: The Implementation of Article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. , In: Centre for Comparative and Public Law, HKU;The Centre for Advancement in Special Education (CASE), HKU;& the Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution, University of Hawaii, USA, Invited Panel member on implementing inclusion: Education perspective. Conference jointly organized by Centre for Comparative and Public Law, HKU;The Centre for Advancement in Special Education (CASE), HKU;& the Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace and Confl ict Resolution, University of Hawaii, USA. . HKU, Hong Kong, 2009.
Polat F. and Kisanji J., Inclusive Education: A Step Towards Social Justice. A Research Programme Consortium on Implementing Quality Education in Low Income Countries (EdQual) Working Paper. EdQual . 2009, 19pp.
Polat F. and Kisanji J., Inclusive Education: A Step Towards Social Justice., A Research Programme Consortium on Implementing Quality Education in Low Income Countries (EdQual) Working Paper. EdQual . Bristol, UK, 2009, 1-19.
Polat F. , Erduran S. and Raveaud M., Inclusive Science Teaching, 11th Biennial Conference on Broadening the Horizon: Recognizing, Accepting, and Embracing Differences to Make a Better World for Individuals with Special Needs, International Association of Special Education, July 12-16 2009, Alicante, Spain . Alicante, Spain, 2009.
Polat F. , Inclusive Science Teaching, In proceedings for the 11th Biennial Conference of the International Association of Special Education, Alicante, Spain, 12 - 16 July 2009 . 219-222.
Polat F. , Opening speech for Marden Forum on Special Education and Rehabilitation and Quality Education Fund project launch seminar on The SAME Curriculum for all,, Centre for Advancement of Special Education (CASE) . HKU, Hong Kong, 2009.
Polat F. , SAME Curriculum Assessment for Learning Effectiveness (SCALE), 「融通」學習成效量表, Quality Education Fund . 2009.
Polat F. , Kisanji J. and Mmbaga M., Social inclusion and social justice through inclusive education, Session 1 of "Education Quality: Policies, politics and progress in Addressing Disadvantage" Symposia at 10th UKFIET International Conference on Education and Development, Oxford, UK. . Oxford, UK, 2009.
Polat F. , Tackling barriers to education caused by attitudes towards inclusion in Tanzania., id21 Education Insights: Research Findings for Development Policymakers and practitioners . UK, DfID, 2010, 81: 4.


Researcher : Pong WY

Project Title: Catering for individual differences - building on variation (CID (v))
Investigator(s): Pong WY, Ng FP, Pang MF, Leung AYL
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 06/2000
Abstract:
To study the professional development of teachers in analysing what is going on in their own classrooms, in particular the nature of and hence better ways to cater for individual differences.




Researcher : Poon-McBrayer KF

Project Title: 2000 Special Education World Congress School-Based Problem-Solving Teams: Pilot Schools' Experiences in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Poon-McBrayer KF
Department: Education
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 04/2000
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Council for Exceptional Children 2003 Annual Convention and Expro Implementing Integration: Systemic & Policy Dilemmas in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Poon-McBrayer KF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 04/2003
Abstract:
N/A




Researcher : Postiglione GA

Project Title: The second international study of the academic profession: the Hong Kong and Chinese mainland components
Investigator(s): Postiglione GA, Zhang LF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 01/2006
Completion Date: 12/2009
Abstract:
ORIGINAL Objectives 1. To examine academic staff patterns in Hong Kong and mainland China, especially from 1994-2005; (a) working conditions (b) professional practice (teaching, research and service) (c) privatization of higher education (d) internationalization 2. To analyse the interactions between the two university systems for the academic profession. 5.2 Revised objectives 1. To examine academic staff patterns in Hong Kong and mainland China, especially from 1993-2007; (a) working conditions (b) professional practice (teaching, research and service) (c) governance of higher education (d) internationalization 2. To analyze the difference between the two university systems for the academic profession.


Project Title: Nationalism, Ethnic Groups and Educational Development in China: Cultural Discourse , Social Capital and Ethnic Identity
Investigator(s): Postiglione GA
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 09/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
This is project based on a request by Routledge Press that would be used to bring our doctoral graduates back to HKU for a research workshop.


Project Title: Border Crossing in East Asian Higher Education
Investigator(s): Postiglione GA, Fong PKW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
This research examines issues that have emerged as higher education systems and individual institutions across East Asia confront and adapt to the changing economic, social, and educational environments in which they now operate. The particular focus is on how higher education systems learn from one another and the ways that higher education institutions collaborate to addres s new challenges. The main theme that runs throughout this research project concerns the changing nature of cross-border sharing and collaboration in higher education. The specific aim is to examine the motivations, goals, mechanisms, outcomes, and challenges associated with cross-border collaboration in East Asian higher education. The provision of technical assistance by more industrialized countries to lower and middle income countries has given way to collaborations that place the latter’s participating institutions on more equal footing. At the same time, there is a greater number of partnerships that link higher education systems within the larger East Asia region to one another. The central premise of this research proposal is that national borders have become less relevant than in the past. Global telecommunications, the international flow of funds, and even some internet-based education programs operate largely outside the purview of nati onal governments. Even as boundaries become more porous and permeable, there is growing acceptance of the view that cross border collaboration, if done well, can offer mutually beneficial advantages on multiple levels. There is a new recognition that the intensified internat ional sharing of ideas, strategies of learning, and students is not only of enormous value to systems and institutions but essential to their long term survival. To this end, this research examines the motivations, goals, mechanisms, outcomes, and challenges associated with cross-border collaboration in higher education. The foundation for this research rests on what we already know: National borders are becoming less relevant in the delivery of higher education. At the same time the nature of cross-border sharing in higher education is changing. Across East Asia, international collaborations among higher education institutions have diversified in the purposes for which they are undertaken, the nature and design of the collaborations themselves, and the outcomes that are actually achieved. The examination of cross border higher education programs across East Asia provides a basis for learning more about six areas: (1) Why do some work and others do not? The benefits of cross border collaboration can be significant, but cannot be assumed. Much depends on how these collaborations are implemented and the ongoing attention given to how these programs are actually working. The history of cross border collaboration is marked by examples of programs that started only to fizzle when initial champions lost interest or moved on. Yet, done well, such collaborations provide a significant source of innovative thinking and creative sharing. Cross border partnerships in higher education can have meaningful impact on participants’ views about research, entrepreneurship, and instruction. (2) What role does initiation play on outcomes? The impetus for cross-border collaboration can originate from seemingly contradictory motives. They can be undertaken by governments or higher education institutions as an effort to correct perceived weaknesses, a reaching out for help, or they can be undertaken out of a sense of strength, an opportu nity to internationalize and enrich the institution. This push to internationalize may be due to government encouragement to do so or as an effort to remain competitive with other domestic institutions. In other cases, these collaborations are motivated by self-perceived strength, particularly when undertaken as a strategy to capture new markets. (3) What determines the benefits that accrue to different stakeholders? Partnerships have to benefit all stakeholders, but the benefits are seldom symmetrical, and do not need to be. Institutional, national and international stakeholders often differ in the payoff they expect and receive from cross-border collaborations. In this sense, there are floating forms of capital that are convertible among stakeholders. This can attract more students and increase the amount of financial capital that the overseas partner reaps through such cross-border collaboration. Both may benefit from a form of social capital that opens access among scholars and officials to new networks that can be advantageous for other forms of collaboration, perhaps in field of scientific research or with international development agencies (4) What works: Bottom-up or top down? International collaboration can be motivate d and initiated by either bottom-up or top-down mechanisms. Bottom-up collaborations typically are initiated by champions at individual institutions, working through personal networks, seeking to open new avenues for student and faculty exchange. In contrast, top-down pressures for collaboration often emerge from government interest in the larger economic and entrepreneurial benefits that such collaborations might bring. Though relatively rare, the most effective ones are those that meet somewhere in the middle and can take advant age of the academic and scholarly enthusiasm form the bottom and economic and political incentives from the top. (5) What are the risks? Cross border collaborations is not a panacea for the problems facing higher education, thoug h they may be viewed as such. There is a risk that international models of higher education have a halo effect, an unexamined notion that because it worked well in the originatin g country it will also work well in the recipient country. Institutions need to give careful attention to the motivations of the partners with whom the work, the appropriateness of the models they adopt, and to realistic estimates of what can be accomplished through such collaborations. (6) Cross border collaborations were often initiated as a strategy for bringing Western models of higher education to weaker higher education systems. That pattern is giving way to an increasing number of collaborations among East Asian partners. At the same time, three way partnering is also being put forward when there is a large cultural gap between two partners, making use of an intermediary institution in a third system that bridges academic cultures. Universities in Hong Kong sometimes take this role (Postiglione 2005).


Project Title: Comparative and International Education Society 2010 (CEIS 2010) Hong Kong Looks to International Collaboration as a Core Strategy for Enhancing Productivity
Investigator(s): Postiglione GA
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 03/2010
Completion Date: 03/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Beckett G...H. and Postiglione G.A. , Guest Editors, Ethnic Minority Education in China: Language Policies and Practices, Special issue of Diaspora, Indigenous and Minority Education . UK, Routledge, 2010, 4(1).
Champman D...W., Cummings W...K. and Postiglione G.A. , Crossing Borders in East Asian Higher Education . Hong Kong, Springer & CERC, HKU, 2010, 388pp.
Chapman D...W., Cummings W...K. and Postiglione G.A. , Transformations in Higher Education: Crossing Borders and Bridging Minds, In: Chapman, D.W., Cummings, W.K. & Postiglione, G.A., Crossing Borders in East Asian Higher Education . Hong Kong, Springer & CERC, HKU, 2010, 1-22.
Chen Y. and Postiglione G.A. , Muslim Uyghur Students in a Dislocated Chinese Boarding School: Bonding Social Capital as a Response to Ethnic Integration, Race and Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts . Indian, Indiana University Press, 2009, 2(2): 287–309.
Fong P. and Postiglione G.A. , Making Transnational Collaboration Work: The Case of China’s Hong Kong System, In: Sakamoto, R & Chapman, D.W. (Eds.), Cross-Border Collaborations in Higher Education: Partnerships Beyond the Classroom . Routledge, 2010, 169-190.
Postiglione G.A. , Cultural Exclusion in China: State education, Social Mobility, and Cultural Differences, Lin Yi, London and New York: Routledge press, 2008, Information China . 2010.
Postiglione G.A. , Dislocated Education: The Case of Tibet, Comparative Education Review . USA, Comparative and International Education Society, 2009, 53(4): 483-512.
Postiglione G.A. and Chapman D...W., East Asia's Experience of Border Crossing: Assessing Future Prospects, In: Chapman, D.W., Cummings, W.K. & Postiglione, G.A., Crossing Borders in East Asian Higher Education . Hong Kong, Springer & CERC, HKU, 2010, 377-382.
Postiglione G.A. , East Asian Knowledge Systems: Driving Ahead Amid Borderle ss Higher Education, In: Chapman, D.W., Cummings, W.K. & Postiglione, G.A., Crossing Borders in East Asian Higher Education . Hong Kong, Springer & CERC, HKU, 2010, 25-46.
Postiglione G.A. , Ethnic Minority Identity and Educational Outcomes in a Rising China, International Encyclopedia of Education . Oxford, Elsevier Ltd, 2010, 616-622.
Postiglione G.A. , Guest Editor, Sino-foreign Partnerships in Higher Education, Special issue of Chinese Education and Society . New York, M.E. Sharpe Inc., 2009, 42(4).
Postiglione G.A. , Higher Education Since 1949, Encyclopedia of Modern China . New York, MacMillan, 2009, 482-486.
Postiglione G.A. , Research Report: Establishment of a World Class Research University: Case Studies, World Bank and Boston College . 2009.
Postiglione G.A. , Research Report: The Impact of the Global Recession on the Capacity of Colleges and Universities in the Asian Pacific Region to Serve Poor &Vulnerable Populat ions (http://www.adbi.org/working-paper/2010/ Asian Development Bank . 2009.
Postiglione G.A. , Review of Higher Education in Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, United Nations Development Programme . 2009.
Postiglione G.A. , The education of ethnic minority groups in China, In: Banks, J. (Ed.), Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education . New York, Routledge, 2009, 501-511.
Postiglione G.A. , Jiao B. and Tsering N...W., Tibetan Student Perspectives about Neidi Schools, In: Zhou, M.L. & Hill, A. (Eds.), Affirmative Action in China and the United States: A Dialogue on Inequality and Minority Education . Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, 127-142.
Postiglione G.A. and Jiao B., Tibet’s Relocated Schools: Popularization Reconsidered, Asian Survey . USA, University of California Press, 2009, 49(5): 895-914.
Postiglione G.A. , 西藏自治區的農村教育與資本形式, In: 熊景明,關信基 編, 中外名學者論21世紀初的中國 . 香港, 香港中文大學出版社, 2010, 593-616.


Researcher : Ran W

List of Research Outputs

Wang M. , Ran W. , Liao J. and Yang S.J.H., A Performance-Oriented Approach to Workplace E-Learning Systems Development, Journal of Educational Technology and Society . 2010, in press (SSCI).
Wang M. , Jia H., Ran W. , Sugumaran V. and Liao J., Ontology-Based Intelligent Agents in Workplace E-Learning, Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) . 2009.


Researcher : Rao N

Project Title: Evaluation of Different Preschool Models in Rural China
Investigator(s): Rao N, Li H
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2008
Completion Date: 11/2009
Abstract:
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT The objectives of this project are (i) to examine the efficacy of existing preschool programmes on the school readiness and achievement of poor and rural children in China; and (ii) to prepare for an application for a CERG grant. KEY ISSUES AND PROBLEMS BEING ADDRESSED Importance of Early Childhood. The foundations of human development, education and life-long learning are laid during the early childhood period. Research indicates that the brain develops rapidly in the first years of life and that it is positively affected by environmental stimulation (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). Further, research has also drawn attention to the larger economic returns of government investment in early childhood compared to adulthood (Heckman, 2004; Lynch, 2004). These findings have led governments, NGOs and international development agencies to accord increased importance to early childhood education. Advantages of Preschool Education. Preschool attendance promotes school success and narrows the achievement gap between children from low income families and their more advantaged peers. Research in the developing world has shown that: (i) preschool programmes impro ve the school readiness and performance of economically disadvantaged children; and (ii) children who attend preschool programmes are less likely to drop out of school than those who do not (Rao, in press). Education for All. The achievement of universal primary education is Goal 2 of both the UN Millennium Development Goal s and the Education for All initiative (UNESCO 2000a, b). Yet, based on enrolment data, it was estimated that there were 4.4 million primary school children out of school in China in (UNESCO, 2005). Poor, rural and female children are the most disadvantaged in terms of participation in education and preschool attendance promotes school enrolment and achievement. Low Enrolment Rates in Pre-primary Education. China has about 100 million children below 6 years. In China, the th ree years before Primary 1 entry are regarded as the period of pre-primary education and the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for pre-primary education was 36 in 2002. More recent estimates indicate that about 41 percent of children between 3 and 6 years attend some form of preschool. However, national figures conceal regional disparities within countries. For example, in China, GERs for preschool education are 99 in major cities like Shanghai (Shanghai Education Committee, 2001) but preschool services are not available for some rural and ethnic minority populations. This study focuses on preschool education in poor and rural areas with low access rates to pre-primary education. Lack of research on the efficacy of different types of programmes in rural China. The Chinese government wishes to expand preschool provision for disadvantaged children. In rural areas, children attend stand-alone kindergartens, pre-primary classes in primary schools, just “sit-in ” Primary 1 classes or do not attend any programmes. To our knowledge there is no published study which has compared the developmental functioning, school readiness and academic achievement of children from these different types of programmes. REFERENCES Heckman, J. J. (2004). Invest in the very young. In: R. E. Tremblay, R. G. Barr, & R. DeV Peters (Eds.). Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development (online). Montreal, Queb ec: Centre for Excellence for Early Child Development. Retrieved November 11, 2005, from http://www.excellenceearlychildhood.ca /documents/HeckmanANG.pdf Lynch, R. (2004). Exceptional Returns: Economic, Fiscal and Social Benefits of Investment in Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Rao, N. (in press). Strong Foundation for Gender Equality in Early Childhood. Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO. Shanghai Education Committee (2001). Basic Education Report 2001. Shanghai: Department of Basic Education: Shanghai Education Committee. Retrieved on September 25, 2006 from http://www.edu.sh.cn/ Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. UNESCO (2000a). World Declaration on Education for All. Meeting Basic Learning Needs. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved on September 19, 2006, from http://www.unesco.org/education/efa/ UNESCO (2000b). Dakar Framework for Action. Education for All: Meeting Our Collective Commitments. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved on September 19, 2006, from http://www.unesco.org/education/efa/ UNESCO Institute of Statistics. (2005). Children Out of School: Measuring Exclusion from Primary Education. Montreal: UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Retrieved on October 7,2006 from http://www.uis.unesco.org/ev_en.php?ID=6427_201&ID2=DO_TOPIC


Project Title: 10th ISSA Annual Conference Promoting High Quality Early Childhood Education: Government Policy and Investment in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Investigator(s): Rao N
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 10/2009
Completion Date: 10/2009
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Preschool Influences on Early Childhood Development
Investigator(s): Rao N
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
PURPOSE The objectives of this project are to develop (i) a psychometrically robust, culturally and developmentally appropriate measure of child development for children ranging in age from three to six years; and (ii) assess the reliability and validity of a measure of preschool quality appropriate for Hong Kong preschools. It is necessary to develop these measures to appropriately assess preschool influences on child development. The objective of the main study (proposal for funding to be submitted to the RGC in 2009) will be to assess the relationships among preschool quality, home learning environment and child development (controlling for age of entry into preschool). We plan to include about 3000 children, ranging in age from 3 to 6, from abou t 60 preschools in the main study and follow them over a two-year period. KEY ISSUES Importance of Early Childhood The foundations of human development, education and life-long learning are laid during the early childhood period. Research indicates that the brain develops rapidly in the first years of life and that it is positively affected by environmental stimulatio n (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). Further, research has also drawn attention to the larger economic returns of government investment in early childhood compared to adulthood (Heckman, 2004; Lynch, 2004). These findings have led governments, NGOs and international development agencies to accord increased importance to early childhood education. Attention to Early Childhood Policy Globally Governments all over the world are developing and enacting policy to enhance the well-being of young children. There has been a global and regional focus on Early Childhood policy (see Rao & Pearson, 2008). In Hong Kong, the government has given increasing attention to the quality of early childhood education (see Rao & Li, 2009) and instituted the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme (PEVS) in September 2007. Soon these vouchers, which are given to parents, will only be encashable in preschools which meet governmen t benchmarks for quality. This enables the government to better monitor and regulate preschool quality. Relationship Between Child Development Research and Policy Over the past few decades, large scale studies in the US and the UK have examined the relationship between the quality of preschool programs and children’s outcomes. The Cost Quality and Outcomes (1995), the NICHD Early Childcare Research Network (ECCRN) (2005) and the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) (Sylva et al., 2006) studies have followed children longitudinally and assessed the quality, quantity and type of child care at regular intervals. In general, these studies have found relationships between preschool quality and child development even after controlling for home environments. Results from these studies have significant implications for policy. PROBLEMS BEING ADDRESSED Dearth of Research on Early Childhood Development and Preschool Quality in Hong Kong Systematically conducted research about child development and the factors which influence it should be the basis of child and social policy. Indeed, it is only large scale or rigorously designed research that has been instrumental in influencing early childhood policy in different parts of the worl d. There has been only one large scale study of early childhood development in Hong Kong (Opper, 1996) and the data were collected over 20 years ago. The study included a representative sample (Stratification variables: locality, type of preschool, size of preschool) of about 3000 children, including 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds from 67 preschools. The Hong Kong data were collected as part of the 1986 IEA pre-primary project. Despite an increasing amount of research in early childhood education in Hong Kong, there have only been two large-scale studies of preschools in Hong Kong which were conducted by Opper (1992) and Rao and colleagues (Rao, Koong, Kwong & Wong, 2003). Opper’s study was based on the 67 preschools in the 1986 IEA study mentioned above and Rao et al.’s study was based on a stratified samp le (stratification variables: locality and sponsoring body) of 60 kindergartens and child care centres.


List of Research Outputs

Li H. and Rao N. , Multiple Literacies: Beliefs and Related Practices among Chinese Kindergarten Teachers. , Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An Internation al Journal . Hong Kong, HKU, 2009, 1: 269-284.
Lyabwene M. and Rao N. , Pre-primary education in Tanzania: Observations from urban and rural classrooms, International Journal of Educational Development . New York, NY, Elsevier Ltd, 2010, 30(3): 227-235.
Ng S...S...N. and Rao N. , Chinese number words, culture and mathematics learning, Review of Educational Research . Washington, USA, American Educational Research Association, 2010, 80(2): 180-206.
Rao N. and Pearson V., Early childhood care and education in Cambodia, International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy . Korea, Korea Institute of Child Care and Education, 2009, 1(3): 13-26.
Rao N. and Sun J. , Educating Asian Adolescents: A Developmental Perspec tive, In: Li-fang Zhang, John Biggs, and David Watkins, Learning And Development Of Asian Students: What The 21st Century Teacher Needs To Think About . Singapore, Pearson Education Asia, 2009, 36-69.
Rao N. , Invited paper: Evaluating the Quality of Early Childhood Programs in poor and rural areas in Asia: Observations from China, India and Cambodia, Conference on "Beyond Child Indicators: A Framework to Assess and Evaluate the Quality of Early Childhood Services and Programs in Global Contexts", Abu Dhabi, 13 - 15 April 2010 . 2010.
Rao N. , Paper presented: Monitoring and evaluating early childhood development policy efforts in Asian contexts: A matter of choice?, Seminar on Sustainable Policies for Early Childhood Development, The Regional Early Childhood Policy Review Development, UNICEF and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore, December 2009 . 2009.
Rao N. , Preschool quality and the development of children from economically disadvantaged families in India, Early Education and Development . Brandon, VT, Routledge, 2010, 21(2): 167-185.
Rao N. , Promoting high quality early childhood education: Go vernment policy and investment in the Hong Kong SAR, 10th ISSA Annual Conference The International Step by Step Association, Bucharest, Romania, 14 - 16 October 2009 .
Sun J. and Rao N. , Mothers' and teachers' scaffolding for migrant and non-migrant children in China, The 2009 Asia-Pacific Workshop of International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Adelaide, Australia, July 2009 .
Sun J. and Rao N. , Processes in dyadic problem solving: Mothers' and teachers' scaffolding of preschool children, The 16th Biennial Conference of the Australasian Human Development Association, Adelaide, Australia, July 2009 .


Researcher : Robinson CG

Project Title: The summer institute: collaborative project between CAUT, Faculty of Education and Swedish Council for the renewal of higher education
Investigator(s): Robinson CG
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: The University of Hong Kong Foundation Seed Grant
Start Date: 04/2003
Abstract:
To provide an opportunity for young local academi cs to develop leadership expertise within a collegial and challenging environment.




Researcher : Sha L

List of Research Outputs

Sha L. and van Aalst J.C.W. , A 2×3 Model of Student-Directed Formative Assessment in Collaborative Knowledge Creation, In: S.C. Kong et al., Proceedings of ICCE 2009 . Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.
Sha L. and van Aalst J.C.W. , A Vizualization Of Group Cognition: Semantic Network Analysis Of A Cscl Community, 9th International Conference Of The Learning Sciences, June 29 - Jul. 2, 2010 . International Society of the Learning Sciences, 926-936.


Researcher : Shortall T

Project Title: Double Degrees: dealing with dilemma
Investigator(s): Shortall T
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2009
Abstract:
Four years ago, following government directives, the Faculties of Arts and Education set up a double degree programme for language teachers (BA&BED) to be completed in four years. The first cohort of this programme will graduate this year. As new Programme Director, I have received early indications (anecdotal evidence) that there are serious difficulties and problems between the two faculties in terms of how the programme should be delivered, what subjects be taught and by who, and whether there is parity between the two facu lties in terms of their academic and teaching capacities. This research attempts to bring an empirical eye on this evidence and to document it in an objective and principled manner. The key issues to be investigated are: 1. whether or either each faculty collectively sees itself as more capable at delivering academic content; 2. whether each or either faculty collectively sees itself as more capable of transmitting pedagogic skills; 3. whether members of either faculty have negative attitudes towards the other Faculty, or towards members of the other Faculty, because of (1) and (2) above; 4. whether members of either faculty believe that their own academic and teaching interests are not being adequately represented in the curriculum; 5. whether there are negative attitudes towards the curriculum because of (4) above; 6. whether those responsible for administration (whether lay or academic staff) perceive difficulties in scheduling of classes becau se of (4) and (5) above. The objectives of this research are twofold: first of all, it will provide both Faculties with important information regarding the double degree, and allow them to take appropriate Policy and Planning action to correct any deficiencies found; secondly, it will provide opportunity to publish findings in an area of growing importance, namely inter-university, inter-faculty, and inter-disciplinary programme delivery.




Researcher : Shum MSK

Project Title: 27th International Systemic Functional Linguistics Congress Cross Cultural Study of Learning Report Writing Genre in Senior Secondary Chinese Classes in Melbourne and Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Shum MSK
Department: Curriculum Studies
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2000
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: 2007 International Conference of Chinese Language Textbooks Developing Learning material for South Asian Ethnic minorities students in post-colonial Hong Kong Technical support for learning Chinese writing system by phonetic language learners
Investigator(s): Shum MSK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 10/2007
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Exploring the Subject-Specific Genres of Liberal Studies in the Reforming Secondary School Curriculum
Investigator(s): Shum MSK, Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 01/2008
Abstract:
To identify the written subject-specifc genres that students have to master in the subject of Liberal Studies; To analyse students' problems encountered in writing in Chinese, with special reference to subject-specif ic genres; To identify the spoken subject-specific genres that students have to master in constructing classroom discourse in the subject of Liberal Studies.


Project Title: 35th International Systemic Functional Congress Using functional approach to improve language and learning in Hong Kong secondary school
Investigator(s): Shum MSK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2008
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: 36th International Systemic Functional Congress Exploring the Subject-specific Genres of Liberal Studies in the Reforming Secondary School Curriculum
Investigator(s): Shum MSK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Jin B., Shum M.S.K. and Teng H.F., Issues On Computer Assisted On Teaching Of Chinese Practical Writing., Yantai University Journal . 2009.
Lam S.F. , Law Y.K. and Shum M.S.K. , Classroom discourse analysis and educational outcomes in the era of education reform: An analysis of whole classroom discourse in writing lessons and educational outcomes, British Journal of Educational Psychology . United Kingdom, The British Psychological Society, 2009, 79: 617-641.
Shum M.S.K. and Lau K.L. , How International Mindedness Education Could Be Implemented In International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Chinese Classroom In Hong Kong Context., Education Development in Chinese Society . Macao, Macao University, 2009.
Shum M.S.K. , The Functions Of Language And The Teaching Of Chinese: Application of Systemic Functional Linguistics to Chinese Language Education, Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press, 2010, 2nd Edition: 331.
Tsung L.T.H. , Shum M.S.K. , Ki W.W. and Lam M., Accessing Chinese: For Ethnic Minority Learners In Hong Kong, Unit 1-3. . Hong Kong, Centre for Advancement of Chinese Language Education and Res, 2009, 135.
Tsung L.T.H. , Gao F. , Shum M.S.K. and Ki W.W. , Acquisition of Chinese as a second language in Hong Kong: Chinese language studies among ethnic minority students, Zaixianggang huanjingxia de zhongwen dier yuyan jiaoxue: Shaoshu zuyi xuesheng de zhongwen xide yanjiu, Butong huanjing xiade hanyu jiaoxue guoji xueshu yantaohui, 2009.
Tsung L.T.H. , Zhang Q. , Shum M.S.K. and Ki W.W. , South Asian learners of Chinese in Hong Kong, In: L. Tsung & K. Cruickshank, Teaching and learning Chinese in a Global Context . USA, The Continuum Publisher, 2009.
Zhang Y. and Shum M.S.K. , A Critical Discussion On The Trend Of Curriculum Deve lopment Of Modern Practical Writing In Secondary School Chinese In Mainland China, 現代應用文在中學語文課程的發展路向及式微原因淺探, Language Monthly . 語文月刊, 2010, 4.
Zhang Y. and Shum M.S.K. , Enhancing Listening and Oral Skills in Hong Kong Junior Secondary Chinese Curriculum in Hong Kong, 香港初中語文課程中的聽說能力培 養, Secondary Language Teaching . 中學語文教學, 2010, 4.


Researcher : Siu ACK

List of Research Outputs

Siu A.C.K. , Psychology of Teaching and Learning, Learning Gui de . Hong Kong, China, Faculty of Education, 2010, pp.52.
Yuen M.T. , Li H. , Siu A.C.K. , Wong M.Y.P. , Sun R.C.F. and Chung Y.B. , Understanding and guiding whole-person development. Learning Guide Part 1. pp.67 . Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Educatio n, 2010.
Yuen M.T. , Li H. , Siu A.C.K. , Wong M.Y.P. , Sun R.C.F. and Chung Y.B. , Understanding and guiding whole-person development. Learning Guide Part 2. pp.45 . Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Educatio n, 2010.


Researcher : Siu FLC

Project Title: Storytelling with interactive multimed ia: an intervention strategy or children with developmental phonological impairment
Investigator(s): Siu FLC
Department: HKU SPACE
Source(s) of Funding: Other Funding Scheme
Start Date: 04/2000
Abstract:
To investigate multimedia enhanced CAL as a mode of learning and interaction to enhance delivery of treatment service to children with developmental phonological impairment by speech language-clinicians.


List of Research Outputs

Liang M., Chu S.K.W. , Siu F.L.C. and Zhou P. , Comparing User Experiences in Using Twiki & Mediawiki to Facilitate Collaborative Learning. , Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM]. . 2009.
Zhou S., Siu F.L.C. and Wang M. , Effects of Social Ties Content on Knowledge Transfer, Journal of Knowledge Management . 2010, 14 (3): 449-463 (SSCI).
Zhou S.H.Z. and Siu F.L.C. , “The effects of the social tie content on knowledge transfer, with interpersonal trust as the mediator” , The International Conference On Knowledge Management (6th Ickm 2009, Dec 3-4, 2009, Hk) . ICKM, 2009, 6.


Researcher : So LKH

Project Title: The effect of ambient languages on the variability in bilingual phonological acquisition
Investigator(s): So LKH
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 05/2005
Abstract:
The main objective of this project is to investigate the effect of the ambient languages pair on the phonological acquisition of Cantonese-Putonghua bilingual children. The variability of error patterns exhibited by children with different language dominance will be explored.




Researcher : Song Y

Project Title: Beliefs of PRC teachers of English at tertiary level about medium of instruction
Investigator(s): Song Y
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Sik Sik Yuen Education Research Fund
Start Date: 03/2004
Abstract:
To study beliefs of PRC teachers of English at tertiary level about medium of instruction.




Researcher : Stimpson PG

Project Title: Earth science education in Hong Kong schools
Investigator(s): Stimpson PG
Department: Curriculum Studies
Source(s) of Funding: Other Funding Scheme
Start Date: 06/1993
Abstract:
To describe the intended earth science curriculum as set out in curriculum guides; to assess the nature of the implemented curriculum by examining expressions of the earth science curriculum in tests and the beliefs of teachers about how earth science to taught in schools; to assess the achievement of pupils at P4, S2 and S6 in respect of earth science topics; to examine the inter-relationship of the above.


Project Title: GLASGOW 2004 - International Geographical Union Education Communication Symposium: Expanding Horizons in a Shrinking World Conceptions of Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Study of Geography Student Teacher s
Investigator(s): Stimpson PG
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 08/2004
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Teacher educators' conceptualisations of teaching teachers (TECTT)
Investigator(s): Stimpson PG, Lopez-Real FJ, Pang MF
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 02/2005
Abstract:
In this study we ask: 1a. what factors underpin teacher educators' views of how they themselves teach? 1b. what differences do they identify between their own teaching of student-teachers and teaching in schools? 1c. what beliefs do they have concerning their own teaching as a "model" of best practice for student-teachers? 2a. what conceptualisations of PCK do teacher educators hold in relation to the process of training student-teachers? 2b. how do the factors and beliefs identified in questions 1a-c fit into their personal conceptualisations of PCK?




Researcher : Stokes SF

Project Title: 2002 Joint Meeting of the Symposiu m on Research in Child Language Disorders (SRCLD) and the International Congress for the Study of Child Language (IASCL) Lexical and Morphological Diversity in Children with SLI: Evidence in Support of a Syntactic Optionality Constraint
Investigator(s): Stokes SF
Department: Speech & Hearing Sciences
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2002
Abstract:
N/A




Researcher : Su IF

Project Title: Neurobiology of Language Conference 2009 (NLC 2009) Semantic radical consistency and character transparency effects in Chinese: An ERP study
Investigator(s): Su IF
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 10/2009
Completion Date: 10/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Cheung S.T.C., Su I.F. and Law S.P. , The locus of orthographic facilitation in speech production of Chinese: Evidence from picture-word naming paradigm. (Best Poster Award), Hong Kong Speech and Hearing Symposium 2010, Sha Tin, Hong Kong . 2010.
Su I.F. , Klingebiel K. and Weekes B.S. , Dyslexia in Chinese: Implications for connectionist models of reading, In: Brunswick, N., McDougall, S. & de Mornay-Davies, P., Reading and Dyslexia in Different Orthographies . London, Psychology Press, 2010.
Su I.F. , Electrophysiological Correlates Of Orthographic Facili tation In Cantonese Picture Naming, Principal Investigator (HK$ 19,991). , Faculty Research Fund (FRF), Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong . 2009.
Su I.F. , Law S.P. and Weekes B.S. , Semantic Radical Processing in Chinese Character Identification: Evidence from ERP studies. (Invited Talk), Language Engineering Laboratory Seminars at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong . 2009.
Su I.F. and Weekes B.S. , Semantic radical and character transparency effects in Chinese: an ERP study. (Poster), 1st Meeting of the Neurobiology of Language Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA . 2009.
Su I.F. and Weekes B.S. , The Processing of Semantic Radicals in Chinese Charact er Identification: Evidence from ERP studies. (Oral Presentation), The International Conference on the Processing East Asian Languages, Beijing, China . 2009.
Su I.F. , The Role of Semantic Radicals in Chinese Character Recognition: Evidence from Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies (Unpublished PhD thesis) . Brighton, UK., University of Sussex, 2009.
Wan L., Dienes Z., Su I.F. and Fu X., EEG correlates of conscious versus unconscious knowledge in artificial grammar learning. (Poster), 14th Meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness, Toronto, Canada . 2010.


Researcher : Sun AHY

List of Research Outputs

Yuen H.K. , Fox R.M.K. , Sun A.H.Y. and Deng L. , Course management systems in higher education: understanding student experiences, International Journal of Interactive Technology and Smart Education . 2009, 6, (3): 189-205.


Researcher : Sun J

List of Research Outputs

Rao N. and Sun J. , Educating Asian Adolescents: A Developmental Perspect ive, In: Li-fang Zhang, John Biggs, and David Watkins, Learning And Development Of Asian Students: What The 21st Century Teacher Needs To Think About . Singapore, Pearson Education Asia, 2009, 36-69.
Sun J. and Rao N. , Mothers' and teachers' scaffolding for migrant and non-migrant children in China, The 2009 Asia-Pacific Workshop of International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Adelaide, Australia, July 2009 .
Sun J. and Rao N. , Processes in dyadic problem solving: Mothers' and teachers' scaffolding of preschool children, The 16th Biennial Conference of the Australasian Human Development Association, Adelaide, Australia, July 2009 .


Researcher : Sun RCF

List of Research Outputs

Hui E.K.P. and Sun R.C.F. , Chinese children’s perceived school satisfaction: the role of contextual and intrapersonal factors, Educational Psychology . UK, Routledge, 2010, 30(2): 155-172.
Yuen M.T. , Li H. , Siu A.C.K. , Wong M.Y.P. , Sun R.C.F. and Chung Y.B. , Understanding and guiding whole-person development. Learning Guide Part 1. pp.67 . Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Educati on, 2010.
Yuen M.T. , Li H. , Siu A.C.K. , Wong M.Y.P. , Sun R.C.F. and Chung Y.B. , Understanding and guiding whole-person development. Learning Guide Part 2. pp.45 . Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Educati on, 2010.


Researcher : Tavares NJ

List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.
Tavares N.J. , Adjudicator, 3rd Hong Kong Students Open Speech Competition, Speech and Music Recital Development Foundation, May . 2010.
Tavares N.J. , Adjudicator, 61st Hong Kong Schools Speech Festival, organised by the Hong Kong School Music and Speech Association, November 2009 . 2009.
Tavares N.J. , Adjudicator, The Standard Chartered Hong Kong English Public Speaking Contest, organised by the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, March 2010 . 2010.
Tavares N.J. , Adjudicator, The THiNKAga!n Documentary Making Competition and TH?NKGre@t Snapshot Competition 2010, co-organised by National Geographic Channel, Reuters and Wiseman Education, September 2009 - May 2010 . 2010.
Tavares N.J. , Assessor, Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English (Speaking and Writing Papers), Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority, February - June 2010 . 2010.
Tavares N.J. , Assistant Examiner, Writing (Paper II) Part 2 (Error Correction and Explanation), Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English, In: Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority, February - June 2010, 2010.
Tavares N.J. , Chief Examiner and Academic Advisor, Territory-wide System Assessment 2009 for the English Language (P.6), Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority, Hong Kong, June 2008 - July 2009 . 2009.
Tavares N.J. , External Examiner, Internal Test of English Language Proficiency (ITELP), Centre of Language in Education, The Hong Kong Instit ute of Education, May 2010 . 2010.
Tavares N.J. , Honorary Consultant, Writing Competition for Primary and Secondary School Students, Victoria Art and Performance Education Centre, October - November . 2009.
Tavares N.J. , Invited Member, Mentorship Programme, St. Mary's Canossian College, September 2009 - May 2010 . 2010.
Tavares N.J. , Invited Member, Mentorship Programme, St. Mary's Canossian College, Hong Kong, September 2008 - August 2009 . 2009.
Tavares N.J. , Invited Speaker, Assessment for Learning Workshop Series titled "From Hating to Enjoying Writing/Marking Compositions", Hong Kong Taoist Association The Yuen Yuen Institute No.1 Secondary School, October 2008 - July 2009 . 2009.
Tavares N.J. , Language Consultant, 'Hoppi & Friends' series of English story books for 2- to 7-year-olds, Little Rainbow Educational . 2010.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. , Fox R. and Tavares N.J. , Engaging Students with Online Discussion in a Blended Learning Context: Issues and Implications, In: F.L. Wang et al, ICHL 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS 5685) . Berlin Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 2009, 150-162.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. , Fox R. and Tavares N.J. , Engaging Students with Online Discussion in a Blended Learning Context: Issues and Implications, ICHL2009, Macau . 2009.
Yuen H.K. , Deng L. , Fox R.M.K. and Tavares N.J. , Engaging Students with Online Discussion in a Blended Learning Context: Issues and Implications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science . Berlin Heidelberg, 2009, 5685: 150-162.


Researcher : To KS

Project Title: Effect of Using Putonghua as the Medium of Instruction on Specific Language Impaired Children with Cantonese as the mother tongue in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): To KS
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 06/2009
Abstract:
The advantages of being bilinguals or multilinguals are clear and have been recently documented to have positive cognitive consequences (Bialystok & Marin, 2004; Ramirez, 1998). If children can start on a second language early in life, and provided with adequate input which they could use the language in an authenticate d way, such as using the second language as the teaching medium for learning, many of them can become effective multi-linguals (Halliday, 2007). The “biliteracy and trilingualism” policy issued more than 10 years ago by the Chief Executive of the first HKSAR Government during the change of Hong Kong (HK) sovereignty from Britain to China in 1997 aims to provide these condition s to HK children in order to cultivate them into effective multilinguals (HKSAR Government, 1997). ‘Biliteracy’ referred to the use of Modern Standard Chinese (the national language of China) and English, and ‘trilingualism’ referred to using Cantonese, English and Putonghua as the oral languages. The recent endorsement of “Suppor t Scheme to Schools in Using Putonghua as a Medium of Instruction (MOI) for the Chinese Language Subject” by the Standing Committee of Language Education and Research (SCOLAR) is also aligned with the long established “biliteracy and trilingualism’ policy (Ng, 2007). The aims of this proposal are twofold. Firstly, it aims to foster children’s ability to learn/acquire Putonghua which has a rapid growing global status in the world. Secondly, it intends to enhance HK children’s writing skills since the formal writing style of Chinese is based on the Modern Standard Chinese vocabulary and grammar. These language policies not only are an endeavor to maximize the potentials of HK children’s language competence at an individual level, but also have the political motivation to maintain the international status of HK. While these policies on MOI are mainly designed for the majority of the typically developing children, there exists a minority group of children who suffer from language-learning difficulties and are integrated into the mainstream classrooms sharin g the same curriculum with the majority. Children with language learning difficulties are those have particular problem in developing appropriate level of language but do not show co-morbid conditions of intellectual, neuro-psychological, and sensory impairment, and they are called children with specific language impairment (SLI). With the prevalence rate of 7% of SLI in one population (Leonard, 1998), it is estimated that there are about thirty-one thousand children struggling wi th language learning problem among the 4.5 billion HK school children (HKSAR Government, 2006). The number of SLI children appears to be small when compared with the large cohorts but it is not negligible. The children with SLI are often thought as not suitable for learning more than one language at the same time. Families of these children are often advised to provide one language to them (usually the societal dominant language or dominant language at school), regardless of children’s home language or language of schooling. This piece of recommendation was based on the assump tion that SLI children usually have limited processing capacity and cope with one language better than two or even more. However, potential problem underlying this piece of advice is that when parents’ language is not the societal dominant language, there will be great lost for opportunity of communication for language learning in these children. Most ironically, this piece of rec ommendation or assumption has virtually no research backup (Johnson, 2006). Then would these SLI children benefit from the new scheme of using Putonghua as the MOI as expected from their typically developing peers? This current project aims to address this issue by raising the fo llowing research questions: (1) Does the implementation of Putonghua as the MOI impose any extra barrier to the SLI children’s learning of their first language (L1, i.e. Cantonese) or have positive effect on their L1, as measured by standardized language measures and teachers’ subjective ratings? (2) Which language domains (e.g. expressive nominal vocabulary, lexical-semanti c relation, grammar, narrative production, and textual comprehension), are the mostly affected or enhanced in SLI children who are taught with Putonghua as the MOI when compared to those with Cantonese?


Project Title: Assessing Theory of Mind (ToM) in Chinese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Investigator(s): To KS, Wong AMY
Department: Edu Fac-Speech & Hearing Sci Division
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 10/2009
Abstract:
1) To determine the age and variability in the development of ToM skills in Chinese children from 5 to 8 years of age. 2) To examine the validity of the advanced ToM tasks in the diagnosis of high-functio ning children with ASD. 3) To develop and validate a screening test of advanced ToM skills to differentiate typical children and those suffered from impaired ToM.


List of Research Outputs

To K.S. , Stokes S.F., Cheung H.T. and T'sou B.K.Y., Development Of Narrative Skills In Cantonese-speaking Children, In: Janna B. Oetting, and Ron Gillam, Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research . American Speech Language Hearing Association, 2010, 53: 648–669.
To K.S. and Cheung P.S.P., Speech Sound Development In Cantonese-speaking Children In Relation To Demographic Factors , Speech & Hearing Symposium . 2010.


Researcher : Tong AKK

List of Research Outputs

Kwan T.Y.L. , Ho M.W. , Tavares N.J. , Davies G.E. , Harfitt G.J. , Lo M.M. , Nicholson S. , Tong A.K.K. , Lam J.W.I. , Chan E.S.Y. , Law Y.K. , Lo A.M.F. , Lee A.M.S. , Wong K.L. and Wong A.S.L. , The 2010 Faculty of Education Academic Staff Knowledge Exchange Award, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong . 2010.


Researcher : Tse SK

Project Title: The dissemination of new whole language writing approach
Investigator(s): Tse SK
Department: Curriculum Studies
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 03/2000
Abstract:
To study on the effective teaching of Chinese writing.


Project Title: The dissemination of creative Chinese writing
Investigator(s): Tse SK
Department: Curriculum Studies
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 08/2000
Abstract:
To study on the effective teaching of creative Chinese writing.


Project Title: Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2006
Investigator(s): Tse SK, Lam Joseph
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 06/2004
Abstract:
(1) Many educators have advocated that the language proficiency of pupils in HK is declining. The findings of PIRLS 2001 indicate that pupils performed quite well in the study. The present study is to compare the findings of 2001 and 2006, and to look at the pr ogress of pupils' reading literacy. (2) This study aims to examine the quality of learning of reading in Chinese at primary school level. This is also a project that seeks to promote innovative methods to improve the quality of teaching and learning of reading in HK. (3) This study aims to investigate changes in the issues and problems associated with pupils' acquisition of reading literacy in HK (after the 2001 study), and to seek ways to solve the problems. The Reading Liter acy Test included in the project will be used to investigate pupils' reading literacy achievement in HK. (4) The project focuses on changes in the reading experiences of pupils at home and in school in learning to read. The study will collect data that provide valuable comparative international information about levels of children's reading literacy that may be used to improve learning and instruction in HK. (5) The study will also conduct an in-depth study of a small number of schools performing well on the IEA tasks. The aim is to examine both distant and proximal factors that may explain Chinese reading/literacy. The findings may help in designing appropriate reading materials and strategies for instruction in Chinese reading/literacy.


Project Title: Chinese Curriculum Reform: Teaching of Literature Reciting and Teaching of Chinese Literature: Thought Imagery, Association, Imagination and Fantasy
Investigator(s): Tse SK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2006
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Collaborative study on Chinese language standards of ethnic minorities students in local schools of Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Tse SK, Cheung WM, Lam JWI, Loh EKY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 08/2007
Abstract:
To investigate the sequence of learning and teaching Chinese as a second language; to find out the minimu m standard of Chinese Language for EM students to learn effectively and study steadily in the Chinese language medium in local primary and secondary schools; to find out the minimum standard of Chinese Language for EM students to read effectively and extensively in Chinese; to recommend effective learning strategies of Chinese Language for EM students in the Hong Kong context, including learning Chinese through the Cantonese and Putonghua medium, as well as through traditional and simplified Chinese characters.


Project Title: Study of the Chinese Language Standards of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Schools on the Basis of their Performance in 2007
Investigator(s): Tse SK, Loh EKY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 05/2008
Abstract:
The research team will provide service on the co llaborative study with EDB on Chinese language standards of ethnic minorities students in local schools of Hong Kong.


Project Title: Supporting secondary schools in the teaching and learning of Chinese for non-native learners
Investigator(s): Tse SK, Ki WW, Shum MSK, Tsung LTH, Cheung WM, Lam JWI, Loh EKY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 06/2008
Abstract:
To develop classroom pedagogy to the needs of ethnic minority students; to nurture teachers' role as Curr iculum Leaders who act as change agents, facilitators and researchers in developing school-based Chinese curriculum to help ethnic minority students to learn Chinese more effectively.


Project Title: Research Output Prize
Investigator(s): Tse SK, Lam JWI, Loh EKY, Lam RYH
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Research Output Prize (in Faculty)
Start Date: 10/2008
Abstract:
To identify and recognize the best research outpu ts in different faculties.


Project Title: The Progress in Chinese and English Reading Literacy Study (in 2010) at Primary 4 in HK and Approaches to and Strategies for Enhancing the Quality of the Teaching and Learning of Reading
Investigator(s): Tse SK, Lam JWI, Loh EKY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 11/2009
Abstract:
1) BR10 (data collection from April to June 2010), after BR04 and BR07, will be the third in a three-year cycle of assessments that measure trends in children' s bilingual reading literacy achievement and policy and practices relating to literacy. 2) The Chinese reading literacy of pupils using Cantonese or PTH as their MOI will be compared. 3) The impact of SCT on the teaching approaches of English and Chinese reading and pupils' bilingual reading performance will be investigated. 4) The impacts of pupils' reading habits, self-concep t and attitudes, teaching methods, classroom reading activities, home reading environment and parents’ attitudes towards reading on bilingual reading performance will be investigated.


Project Title: Consultancy service of consolidation and redevelopment work on QEF Chinese language projects
Investigator(s): Tse SK, Loh EKY, Lam JWI
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 03/2010
Abstract:
To provide services to underpin good practices distilled from groups of projects under selected topical themes with solid theoetical framework. To develope education resouces in the form of printed (with electronic version) materials for dissemination purposes and to recommend to the QEF the possibilit of setting up a school network on the theme. (i.e for setting up a QEF Thematic Network or QTN)


Project Title: A project promoting effective methods of teaching Chinese characters to young children in Hong Kong: ways of teaching pupils to recognise and write Chinese characters
Investigator(s): Tse SK, Loh EKY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
The project aims at promoting effective methods of teaching Chinese characters to pre-primary students through case studies, school visits, lesson observat ions and trial teaching in 6 pre-primary schools.


Project Title: SunBelt XXX 2010 Conference Problems and challenges faced by researchers in a qualitative study of a community of practice in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Tse SK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2010
Completion Date: 07/2010
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Chan L.K. and Tse S.K. , The mother-tongue medical vocabulary of final-year medical students in an English-medium medical programme, Frontiers in Medical and Health Sciences Education,11- 12 December 2009 .
Cheung W.M. , Tse S.K. , Lam J.W.I. and Loh E.K.Y. , Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2006(PIR LS): Pedagogical correlates of fourth-grade students in Hong Kong, In: Rhona Stainthorp, Journal of Research in Reading . Horsforth, Leeds, UK, Blackwell Publishing, 2009, 32(3): 293-308.
Chu S.K.W. , Chow K. and Tse S.K. , The development of students’ information literacy and IT skills via inquiry PBL and collaborative teaching, Proceedings of the 2009 ASIS&T Annual Meeting . Canada, 2009.
Lam R.Y.H. , Tse S.K. , Lam J.W.I. and Loh E.K.Y. , Does the gender of the teacher matter in the teaching of reading literacy? Teacher gender and pupil attainment in reading literacy in Hong Kong, Teaching and Teacher Education . Elsevier Ltd, 2010, 26: 754-759.
Tse S.K. and Kan K.Y. , A case study on students' ability to express emotion in his Chinese composition, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Journal . Hong Kong, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre, 2009, 8: 152-164.
Tse S.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam R.Y.H. and Lam J.W.I. , A comparsion of English and Chinese reading proficiency of primary school Chinese Students, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development . UK, Routledge, 2010, 31: 181-199.
Tse S.K. , Children’s reading (Invited Speech), Seminar for Teachers, Evangel College . 2009.
Tse S.K. , Chinese Language Education in Hong Kong: Twenty Five Years of Educational Research in Hong Kong, Educational Research Journal . Hong Kong, Hong Kong Educational Research Association, 2010, 24: 231-256.
Tse S.K. , Chinese and English Dictations for primary school studen ts (Invited Speech), Seminar for Educators and Teachers, Greenfield Educat ion Foundation Fund, HK. . 2009.
Tse S.K. , Curriculum Reform of Hong Kong, Speech for Ningbor Secondary and Primary School Principals (Invited Spe ech), Hong Kong Policy Research Institute Education And Training Centre Limited . 2009.
Tse S.K. , Differentiated Instruction in Chinese Language Teaching (Keynote Speech), Conference on Teaching Strategies for Chinese Language Teachers, Ministry of Education, Singapore . 2010.
Tse S.K. , Differentiated Teaching Material And Teaching Strateg ies: Hong Kong Experiences, Conference on enhancing and Chinese Learning and Teaching of Intercultural Learners: Theories, Strategies and School-based Experiences, Hong Kong . 2009.
Tse S.K. , Differentiated instruction in Chinese Language teaching , Conference on Teaching Strategies for Chinese Language Teachers, Ministry of Education, Singapore . 2010.
Tse S.K. , Differentiated teaching material and teaching strateg ies: Hong Kong experiences (keynote Speech), Conference on enhancing and Chinese Learning and Teaching of intercultural learners: Theories, Strategies and School-based Experiences, HKU. . 2009.
Tse S.K. , Education Reform in Hong Kong, Speech for Qinghai Secondary and Primary School Principals (Invited Speech), Hong Kong Financial Services Institute, Hong Kong. . 2009.
Tse S.K. , Effective learning of Chinese Character: a learning tool, Sun Ya Publications (HK) Ltd, 2009.
Tse S.K. , Effective learning of Chinese character (Invited Speech), Sun Ya Publication Ltd, Hong Kong Book Fair 2009 . 2009.
Tse S.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam J.W.I. and Cheung W.M. , Factors affecting the outstanding performance of Hong Kong primary school students in PIRLS 2006, China Reading . China, China Books Publisher, 2009, 1: 247-261.
Tse S.K. and Loh E.K.Y. , How to enhance primary school students' reading ability, Section of Primary and Secondary School Teachers' Professional Training, Ningbo Education Bureau . 2009.
Tse S.K. and Ip K.M., Problems and challenges faced by researchers in a qualitative study of a community of practice in Hong Kong (Invited Speech), Sunbelt XXX 2010 Conference, Trento Italy . 2010.
Tse S.K. and Loh E.K.Y. , Reading makes you smart, Education Bureau, Hong Kong SAR Government . 2010.
Tse S.K. , Loh E.K.Y. and Wong M.Y. , Teaching and learning of children with speical education al needs, National Taitung University, and Yung-Ling Research Center for Reading Instruction, Taiwan . 2010.
Tse S.K. , Yuen H.K. , Loh E.K.Y. , Lam J.W.I. and Ng H.W. , The impact of blogging on the bilingual reading literacy of Chinese primary pupils, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education . Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary E, 2010, 26(2): 164-179.
Tse S.K. and Loh E.K.Y. , The teaching and learning of Chinese characters, Greenfield Educational Fund . 2010.
Tse S.K. and Loh E.K.Y. , he teaching and learning of Chinese reading for second ary school students, Section of Primary and Secondary School Headmasters' Professional Training, Ningbo Education Bureau . 2009.


Researcher : Tsui ABM

Project Title: The study on good practices in secondary schools for enhancing students' English language proficiency
Investigator(s): Tsui ABM, Lam RYH, Andrews SJ, Tong AKK, Lo MM, Hyland F, Tavares NJ, Harfitt GJ
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 02/2003
Abstract:
To identify, on evidence-base, the measures and practices adopted by CMI and EMI schools that are effecti ve in enhancing the English language proficiency of students; to find out how and what have made the identified measures work effectively in the schools concerned; to write up, based on the findings, exemplars of good practices for distribution and sharing among secondary schools.


List of Research Outputs

Cheng W. and Tsui A.B.M. , 'ahh ((laugh)) well there is no comparison between the two I think': How do Hong Kong Chinese and native speakers of English disagree with each other?, Journal of Pragmatics . Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2009, 41(11): p2365-2380.
Tsui A.B.M. , Advisory Board Member, Education: Emerging Goals in a New Millennium Series . New York, USA, Nova Science Publishers, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Distinctive qualities of expert teachers, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice . UK, Routledge, 2009, 15(4): p421-439.
Tsui A.B.M. , Honored Life Member, The Global (EIL)English International Language Congr ess / Asian EFL Journal. Tortola, British Virgin Islands, Asian EFL Journal Press . 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Invited speaker, Inaugural APEC-RELC International Seminar, SEAMEO Regional Language Centre, Singapore, 19 - 21 April 2010 . 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Keynote speaker, 2010 International Conference on Applied Linguisti cs & Languages (ALLT), National Taiwan University of Science & Technology (NTUST), Taipei, Taiwan, 16 - 17 April 2010 . 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Advisory Board, International Content and Language Integrated Learning Journal . Finland, Eruopean Union (Lifelong Learning Programme), 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Advisory Board for Volume 34, Review of Research in Education . London, UK, SAGE Publications, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Advisory Board, Pedagogies: An International Journal . Oxon, UK, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Advisory Board, Reflections on English Language Teaching . Singapore, CELC, National University of Singapore, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Advisory Board, Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics . London, UK, Routledge, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Advisory Board, TESOL Quarterly . Alexandria, Va., USA, TESOL, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Advisory Board, The Asian EFL Journal . Totorla, British Virgin Islands, Asian EFL Journal Press, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Board, English for Specific Purposes . New York, USA, ScienceDirect, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Board, Information Technology, Education and Society . Albert Park, Australia, James Nicholas Publishers, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Board, Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching . Clevedon, England, Multilingual Matters, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Board, Journal of Asian Pacific Communication . Amsterdam, The Netherlands, John Benjamins Publishing Co., 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Board, Language Policy . Dordrecht, Holland, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Board, Linguistics and the Human Sciences . London, UK, Equinox Publishing Limited, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Board, The Open Applied Linguistics Journal . Hilversum, Nethlands, Bentham Open, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Review Board, International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning . Georgia, USA, Georgia Southern University, Center for Excellence in Teaching, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of Editorial Review Board, International Journal of Multilingual Research . Oxon, UK, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member of International Advisory Board, Research Papers in Education: Policy and Practice . London, UK, Routledge Journals, 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member, Appeal Board, Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications . 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member, Rules Committee, Appeal Board, Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications . 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Member, Humanities, Social Sciences and Business Studies Panel, Hong Kong Research Grants Council, Hong Kong . 2010.
Tsui A.B.M. , Plenary speaker, Annual Conference of Applied Linguistics Associat ion of Korea 2009, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea, 5 December 2009 . 2009.


Researcher : Tsung LTH

Project Title: A home language survey amongst South Asian students in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Tsung LTH
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 01/2007
Abstract:
To carry out a home language survey amongst South Asian students in Hong Kong.


Project Title: Chinese language learning support centres for non-Chinese speaking (NCS) students in five designated secondary schools
Investigator(s): Tsung LTH, Shum MSK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education and Manpower Bureau - General Award
Start Date: 05/2007
Abstract:
To identify the major factors that affect ethnic minorities' levels of success at learning Chinese; to examine the efficacy of current policy and curriculum, practical applications and teaching methodologies use d to deliver these policies and curricula.


Project Title: Ethnic minority student's Chinese Language and Literacy Development in Hong Kong
Investigator(s): Tsung LTH
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 01/2008
Abstract:
This study will examine the major factors that affect ethnic minorities’ levels of success at learning the Chinese language in Hong Kong. The study seeks to address the following questions: 1. What are the major factors that affect ethnic minorities’ levels of success at learning Chinese language in Hong Kong? 2. What kind of curriculum do ethnic minority students need? 3. How can ethnic minority students be better supported in learning Chinese as a second language? Literature on the education of south Asian (SA) students in Hong Kong is scarce although, in recent years, there have been growing concerns from the academic institutions, non-government organizations, and the press about the lives of ethnic minorities in Hong Kong society. Amon g the various difficulties that the SA students may have in adjusting to the Hong Kong education system, the lack of sufficient Chinese language skills seems to be salient (Ku, Chan, & Sandhu, 2005; Loper, 2004). Research into the necessity of teaching Chinese as a second language is of great significance to facilitate the learning of the SA minority students in Hong Kong and earn them equal access to education. In the existing literature, there is little discussion about teaching Chinese as a second language to these students, but two important issues reported in previous studies indeed provide evidence of the paramount importance of such teaching. 1. Language problems Many ethnic minority students in Hong Kong are unable to function in Chinese, or, even if they can speak Cantonese, their Chinese reading and writing skills are not good enough for them to receive CMI teaching (ICESCR Second Report, 2003, cited in Loper, 2004, p. 5). In their study on the education of south Asian minority groups including Filipino, Indian, Nepalese, and Pakistanis, Ku et al (2005) found that only 25% and 31%, respectively, of their student participants think their Chinese speaking and listening skills are good/very good. As many as 58.5% and 52% of them think they are fair/poor in speaking and listening respectively. With regard to the reading ad writing skills, only 3% believe they are good/very good in reading and 3.5% in writing. Up to 88.5% of them do not know how to read Chinese or think they are poor in reading, and 91% do not know how to write Chinese or think they are poor in writing. On the other hand, the study revealed that 78% of the students like/would like to learn Chinese in school since they have realize d the importance of acquiring Cantonese and/or Putonghua in Hong Kong, especially for career and further education opportunities. It is not surprising that the ethnic minority students have difficulties in learning Chinese. A study of the Nepalese community in Hong Kong discovere d that up to 76.6% of the Nepalese parents think that their children face tremendous difficulties in learning the Chinese language, and another 21.2% point out there is a shortage of tutorial support (Society for Community Organization, 2004). The language barrier also helps to create a segregation between the SA students and local Chinese students. The SA students in Ku et al’s (2005) study expressed difficulties in communicating with their Chinese peers because they cannot speak Cantonese. Loper’s (2004) research also found that the inability to speak Cantonese inhibits the SA students from interacting with their Chinese schoolmates thus making mutual understanding hard to achieve. Beyond the schools, the SA minority groups are subject to various obstacles in finding jobs. Language problem, again, is one of the greatest obstacles as many jobs in Hong Kong require their applicants to have a certain level of Chinese language proficiency. Besides, most employees retraining courses in Hong Kong are conduct ed in Cantonese (Ku, Chan, Chan, & Lee, 2003). In a study on the life experiences of Pakistanis in Hong Kong, 70.1% of the 117 respondents attribute the difficulties in employment to their inability to function in Cantonese, Mandarin and/or English (Ku, Chan, Chan, & Lee, 2003). A more recent study by Ku, Chan, and Sandhu (2006) revealed that 75% of their SA minority respondents consider the difficulties in searching for jobs lie in their incomprehension of Cantonese and Mandarin, and 34.9% think the reason is that most job advertisements are posted in Chinese. 2. Lack of an appropriate Chinese curriculum for non-Chinese speaking students It is repeatedly claimed in the literature that the Chinese language classes provided for the non-Chinese-speaking students are inappropriate and inadequate (e.g., ICESCR Second Report, 2003; Ku et al, 2005; Loper, 2004). Many of the students interviewed in Loper’s (2004) study complained that Cantonese and written Chinese language classes are either unavailable, or, when available, are not suited to their individual needs and levels. Similarly, in the study conducted by Ku et al (2005), only 71 out of 200 students are learning or have learnt Chinese in school, and three quarters of the 71 students consider the Chinese classes (Cantonese and Putonghua) as insufficient. Since there is no well-developed curriculum for Chinese as a second language, the SA students have enormous difficulties keeping up with their school education. They are very likely to fall behind their Chinese counterparts when learning Chinese or other subjects in Chinese. Besides, the CMI schools that accept ethnic minority children have not received enough government and social support (Ku et al, 2005). The issues stated above seem to have placed SA minority students at a disadvantage relative to their local Chinese counterparts. The possible unequal treatment they receive pinpoints the importance of providing them with sufficient and appropriate Chinese as a second language classes so that they can have much broader access to school places and further to tertiary education and employment opportunities with sound Chinese language skills.


Project Title: China's Minority Languages, Education and Communities
Investigator(s): Tsung LTH
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 09/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
Preparation of index and final formatting the book "China's Minority Languages, Education and Communities" to be published by Palgrave Macmillan


Project Title: 2nd International Discourses and Cultural Practices Conference 2009 Dilemams of identity, language & culture in higher education in China
Investigator(s): Tsung LTH
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2009
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Tsung L.T.H. , Zhang Q. and Cruickshank K., Access to majority language and educational outcomes: South Asian background students in post colonial Hong Kong., Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education . 2009.
Tsung L.T.H. , Shum M.S.K. , Ki W.W. and Lam M., Accessing Chinese: For Ethnic Minority Learners In Hong Kong, Unit 1-3. . Hong Kong, Centre for Advancement of Chinese Language Education and Res, 2009, 135.
Tsung L.T.H. , Gao F. , Shum M.S.K. and Ki W.W. , Acquisition of Chinese as a second language in Hong Kong: Chinese language studies among ethnic minority students, Zaixianggang huanjingxia de zhongwen dier yuyan jiaoxue: Shaoshu zuyi xuesheng de zhongwen xide yanjiu, Butong huanjing xiade hanyu jiaoxue guoji xueshu yantaohui, 2009.
Tsung L.T.H. , Wang G. and Zhang Q. , Bilingual Education in China: The Case of Yunnan, In: G. H. Beckett & G. A. Postiglione, accepted in Indigenous and Minority Language Education: Identity Reconstruction in a Rising China. . Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press, 2009.
Tsung L.T.H. and Zhang Q. , Dilemmas of identity, language and culture in higher education in China, The 2nd International Discourses and Cultural Practices Conference. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, July 7-9, . 2009.
Tsung L.T.H. and Zhang Q. , Educational outcomes of South Asian background students in Hong Kong secondary schools, The Chinese Studies Association of Australia 2009 Conference, Jiu: Commemoration and Celebration in the Chinese-speaking World. The Women’s College, University of Sydney, Sydney, July 9-11, 2009. . 2009.
Tsung L.T.H. , Zhang Q. , Shum M.S.K. and Ki W.W. , South Asian learners of Chinese in Hong Kong, In: L. Tsung & K. Cruickshank, Teaching and learning Chinese in a Global Context . USA, The Continuum Publisher, 2009.
Tsung L.T.H. , Zhang Q. and Others .., 中文作爲第二語言的課程、教材及教法:面向香港非華語學生 的需要, Hong Kon by Hong Kong University Press, 2009.


Researcher : Uroda A

List of Research Outputs

Smolkova E. and Uroda A. , Potential for development of joint educational programs, Collaboration of Russia and China in the sphere of education. Analysis of the past and perspectives for the future [in Russian] . Moscow, Russia, MISIS University Press, 2009, pp.182-219.
Uroda A. , Borders bridging degrees: Harbin and Vladivostok’s dual degree programs, Crossing borders in East Asian higher education . Hong Kong, The University of Hong Kong: Springer, 2010, pp.237-267.


Researcher : Van Aalst JCW

Project Title: Journal Publication Patterns in Educational Research
Investigator(s): van Aalst JCW
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 09/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
This study will examine publication patterns by eminent researchers in several; sub-fields of education: science education, educational technology, curriculum studies, second language education, and educational psychology; it will extend and improve a preliminary analysis for science education. The analysis will have two parts: - Tracing of the performance (impact factors) of the journals in each area that are inclu ded in the Thompson Web of Science and at least one other index. - Identifying the journals covered by the best five articles of each lead author in these journals in the lat five years, using Scholar Google to identify citations, and mapping these journals onto the indexes. - Identifying and classifying all the citations identified by Scholar Google for the best article for each lead author. The study will be able to evaluate the usefulness of Schola r Google citation as a measure of publishing success and will provide useful information about publication and patterns for experienced scholars, and differences in this among sub-fields of education. The study should be useful to staff members for gauging the performance of publications in different outlets.


Project Title: Formative Assessment of Knowledge Building
Investigator(s): van Aalst JCW, Chan CKK
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 12/2008
Abstract:
1) To develop practical assessments which students can use to self-assess and reflect on their work in online discussion forums; 2) To understand how students and their teacher develop social practices in which these formative assessments are used to improve the learning outcomes of collaborative inquiry projects.


Project Title: Development of Formative Assessment tools for Knowledge Building
Investigator(s): van Aalst JCW, Chan CKK, Sha L, Chan YY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 04/2010
Abstract:
writing, reading, and other actions—in Web-based environments (e.g., Guzdial & Turns, 2000; Hiltz & Goldman, 2005). Among the best known environments inlcude learning management systems like Moodle® and WebCT®, and more specialized inquiry environments such as Kn owledge Forum®. Among the most developed educational models is ‘knowledge building’, which has the goal to make the processes by which experts create new knowledge more prominent and feasible in schools (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2006). One of the most important features of the model is that students’ effort is directed at advancing the collective knowledge in a community (Scardamalia, 2002). Students are not just trying to understand things for themsel ves but aim to add something new to what is known in the community. In most implementations in schools, Knowledge Forum is used to share and collaboratively improve and synthesize ideas. Knowledge Forum also provides a trace of how the community’s ideas develop over time. In Hong Kong, a professional development network for knowledge building in schools has been established, which currently includes more than 25 schools and approx imately 70 teachers (see http://kbtn.cite.hku.hk). The authors have contributed to the development of theory and significant work in classrooms (Chan & van Aalst, 2006; Lee, Chan, & van Aalst, 2006; Niu & van Aalst, 2009; van Aalst, 2006, 2009; van Aalst & Chan, 2007), and we lead a vibrant research group involving research by graduate students and post-doctoral fellows (e.g., Truong & van Aalst, 2008). Recently, interest in the large-scale implementation of approaches like knowledge building, which aim to help students to develop 21st century skills such as collaboration, ability to deal with novel situations, and self-regulated learning, has been mounting. However, one important challenge is that assessment tools become widely available that can be used by teachers and students to self-assess how they are doing. For example, to what extent is their online discourse leading to knowledge advances, and how do such advances align with curriculum and assessment frameworks such as the National Science Education Standards (Marx, et al., 2004; NRC, 1996) and the New Secondary School (NSS) curriculum. The literature on asynchronous online discussions overwhelmin gly demonstrates that such discussions have been disappointing in terms of participation rates, depth of inquiry, and knowledge advancement, and often remains at the level of electronic conversations in which students share opinions and ideas, and engage in superficial arguments, without advancing the collective knowledge of the community. Although we have made progress in conceptualizing the nature of discourse needed (Scardamali a & Bereiter, 2006; van Aalst, 2006, 2009; J. Zhang, Scardamalia, Lamon, Messina, & Reeve, 2007), better assessment tools are needed. Currently assessments of online discourse consist of content analyses that examine specific features of the discourse (e.g., how knowledge is constructed, the epistemic levels of students’ questions and ideas, and how ideas are diffused), but these types of analysis are to laborintensive to inform students’ efforts while they are in progress. Social network analysis has also been used extensively (de Laat, Lally, & Lipponen, 2007), but while these techniques provide information about the social structure of students’ collaborative discourse, they reveal little about how ideas are developing. They do not, for example, provide insight into questions such as “are the ideas of students becoming more coherent with one another other over time?” To scale up approaches like knowledge building, it is essential to develop assessment technologies that can provide students and teachers with useful information about their discourse and what it is accomplishing—an d that such tools can be used by teachers and students’ themselves. In the proposed project, we intend to set out in a new direction, in which we combine the conceptual expertise on knowledge building and assessment with the technical development of assessment tools. The proposed project will establish a record in the technical domain, so that we can develop a proposal for a larger UGC-funded project in the 2010 2011 round. Thus, the proposed project has two aims: 1. Starting from a MySQL relational database, to develop a web-ba sed system that teachers and researchers can use to obtain information about online discourse for formative assessment. We have already accomplished programming to convert Knowledge Forum databases to MySQL format, but we want the system to be developed to be more flexible. For example, it should also be useful for databases creat ed within Moodle. 2. To conduct a small-scale usability evaluation, in which we interview teachers who have used the system. We have excellent technical expertise on board to accomplish these objectives. Together, the two components of the projects will enable us to advance our work with teachers on assessment of knowledge building, and will also help us to develop a research strategy for sustained technical development. Our in ternational partners on previous projects (Institute for Knowledge Innovation and Technology, IKIT, www.ikit.org) are currently seeking industrial partners in the information sciences, and we intend that as our technical work developed we will contribute to this agenda.


List of Research Outputs

Law N.W.Y. , Lee Y. , van Aalst J.C.W. , Chan C.K.K. , Kwan A.C.M. , Lu J. and Ki W.W. , Using Web 2.0 Technology To Support Learning, Teaching And Assessment In The Nss Liberal Studies Subject, 《學習2.0》: 一個支援新高中通識教育及「專題探究」的學習及評估平台, In: 胡少偉、楊沛銘, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre Journal . 香港教師中心學報, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Teachers' Centre, 2009, 8: 43-51.
Niu H. and van Aalst J.C.W. , Participation in Knowledge-Building Discourse: An Analysis of Online Discussions in Mainstream and Honours Social Studies Courses, Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology . 1, 2009, 35: online.
Sha L. and van Aalst J.C.W. , A 2×3 Model of Student-Directed Formative Assessment in Collaborative Knowledge Creation, In: S.C. Kong et al., Proceedings of ICCE 2009 . Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.
Sha L. and van Aalst J.C.W. , A Vizualization Of Group Cognition: Semantic Network Analysis Of A Cscl Community, 9th International Conference Of The Learning Sciences, June 29 - Jul. 2, 2010 . International Society of the Learning Sciences, 926-936.
van Aalst J.C.W. , Analysis of Group Scribble Data, Multi-Vocality Pre-Conference Workshop, 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Chicago, June 28, 2010 .
van Aalst J.C.W. , Gaining An Insider Perspective On Learning Physics In Hong Kong", 9th International Conference Of The Learning Sciences, Chicago, June 29 - July 2, 2010 . International Society of the Learning Sciences, 881-888.
van Aalst J.C.W. , Nominated For Best Paper Award, International Society of the Learning Sciences . 2010.
van Aalst J.C.W. and Truong M.S., Promoting Knowledge Creation Discourse In An Asian Primary Five classroom: Results From An Inquiry Into Life Cycles, International Journal Of Science Education . 2010.
van Aalst J.C.W. , Using Google Scholar To Estimate The Impact Of Journal Articles In Education, Educational Researcher . 2010, 39: 387-400.


Researcher : Wan Z

List of Research Outputs

Wan Z. and Wong A.S.L. , Chinese science teacher educators’ views about the values of teaching nature of science, Annual Meeting of National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST), Philadelphia, United States, 21 - 24 March, 2010 .


Researcher : Wang D

Project Title: 54th Comparative and International Education Society Annual Confenerence Speed or Quality: Dilemmas in Rural Classrooms in China
Investigator(s): Wang D
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 03/2010
Completion Date: 03/2010
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: Rural Teachers’ Opinions on the Loads of New Chinese and Math Curricula in China
Investigator(s): Wang D
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 05/2010
Abstract:
Since literacy and mathematic skills are the fundamentals for students’ later scholastic development, this proposed project will focus on the issue of suitability of the curricular loads for Chinese and math in rural primary schools. The objectives of the study are: 1. to compare the content loads between the old and new textbooks for primary Chinese and math used in rural schools; 2. to investigate teachers’ opinions on the content loads of Chinese and math for rural students; 3. and to identify the real and potential consequences of curricular loads for rural education.


List of Research Outputs

Liu Y. , Wang D. , Xu J., Lai L., Luo J. and Zhou Y., Member of the editorial board of a quarterly E-journal, In: Wang Dan, Liu Yu, Xu Jianping, Lai Lili, Luo Jun , Zhou Yisu, Positions: Dialogues on Education . 立场——教育对话, 2010.
Wang D. , Centering on Student Intellectual Development -- A Reflection on the "Student-Centered" Pedagogy, 以学生智识发展为 中心——反思“学生, Positions: Dialogues on Education . 立场——教育对话, 2010, No 2: 24-30.
Wang D. , Speed or Quality: Dilemmas in Rural Classrooms in China, The 54th Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Chicago, IL . 2010.


Researcher : Wang G

List of Research Outputs

Tsung L.T.H. , Wang G. and Zhang Q. , Bilingual Education in China: The Case of Yunnan, In: G. H. Beckett & G. A. Postiglione, accepted in Indigenous and Minority Language Educat ion: Identity Reconstruction in a Rising China. . Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press, 2009.


Researcher : Wang M

Project Title: Integrating Knowledge Management into Business Process Improvement with Collaborative Agents Support
Investigator(s): Wang M
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 01/2008
Completion Date: 12/2009
Abstract:
(1) To examine the mechanism of integrating knowledge management facilities into business process management for real-time dynamic decision and coordination of processes by using intelligent agents; (2) To invest igate the knowledge level facilities, such as the framework of knowledge assets and methods of knowledge acquisition and manipulation for establishing the foundation of real-time decision and coordination of processes; and (3) To explore human-computer interactions involved in knowledge extraction and sharing in process management , together with their impact on the performance of the approach.


Project Title: Supporting Knowledge-Based Navigation in e-Learning Systems
Investigator(s): Wang M
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 03/2008
Completion Date: 01/2010
Abstract:
E-learning is one of the fastest growing areas in educational technology research and development. It involves learning through the use of information and communications technologies. Compared with traditional learning methods, e-learning systems offer relatively open environments characterized by convenient access to a wide range of resources and flexible interactions with other participants. However, most existing e-learning systems are passive in their nature, leaving learner s unengaged in their learning process. By adopting a one-model-fits-all approach, such systems lack adaptive instructional strategies to guide learners and thus facilitate their learning process. The constructivist pedagogical principles call for an emphasis on engaging learners in the learning process, which encourages participation in various activities and interactions for active construction of knowledge. This therefore requires the development of e-learning systems that provide learning guidance and recommendations, by which learners are guided and encouraged to perform their learning activities more effectively. In this project, we aim to develop a conceptualization of e-learning systems that are able to guide individual learning activities in the virtual learning environment. In response to individual learning needs and diversified learning situations, knowledge-based adaptive mechanisms will be utilized for determining appropriate learning actions based on learning syllabus, rules and strategies as well as individual learning situations. The key idea lies in a knowledge-based adaptive e-learning process management system, where instructors do not predefine the exact details of the learning process but allow the system to determine appropriate learning actions based on situational awareness (learner’s needs, progress, performance, events and materials) and process management knowledge (learning strategies, navigation rules, logical relationships among learning concepts, resource constraints, and peer learning experiences) . As a result, real-time and personalized instructions and recommendations will be continuously generated and sent to learners throughout their learning process. To achieve this aim, a set of intelligent-agent-based adaptive functionalities will be developed for the e-learning system. • Learning Navigation Agent - monitor learning progress, diagnose learning problems, determine and recommend learning activities for indivi duals • Learning Activity Agent - activate and facilitate learning activitie s, adapt activity environment to individuals • Learning Content Agent - deliver learning materials to learning activities, organize and update learning materials • Learning Experience Agent - extract and manage learning experien ces • Administrative Agent - manage user profiles, course profiles and learn ing log Given the technological and behavioral perspectives inherent in this study, the research approach taken in this study will be a combination of pedagogically driven application development and evaluation in laboratory and field settings. We will propose a knowledge-based e-learning system framework, and map it to a multi-agent system architecture with underlying knowledge infrastructure. Based on the architecture, a prototype will be developed for demonstrating and evaluating the effectiveness of the approach. Compared with related models that focus on navigation and delivery of learning objects, this study will enhance the e-learning system capabilities by engaging learners and guiding their learning processes in a more effective way. With this project, the researchers are going to: 1) To examine the mechanisms of improving e-learning systems by supporting knowledge- based navigation to guide individual learning processes; and 2) To develop knowledge level facilities (knowledge infrastructure with knowledge construction methods) in the e-learning system, which are the foundation for guiding learning processes.


Project Title: Supporting Adaptive Learning Proc esses in the e-Learning Environment Using Intelligent Agents
Investigator(s): Wang M, Law NWY
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: General Research Fund (GRF)
Start Date: 01/2009
Abstract:
1. To examine the mechanisms of promoting e-learning outcomes through adaptive learning process management with the support of intelligent agent technology;2. To develop knowledge level facilities (knowledge infrastruc ture with knowledge construction methods) in an adaptive e-learning environment, which are the foundation of adaptive learning processes management; and 3. To explore the methods of extracting, sharing and recommending learning experiences in e-learning processes, together with their impact on the effectiveness of e-learning systems.


Project Title: A Pilot Study on the Design of a Performance-Oriented e-Learning System in Organizational Environment
Investigator(s): Wang M
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research
Start Date: 03/2010
Abstract:
E-Learning is increasingly being used by organizations as an emergent approach for enhancing the skills of knowledge workers [1]. Despite the ever-increasing practices of e-learning in the workplace, most have fallen short in motivating employees to learn. Significant gaps exist between organizational interests and lear ner needs when it comes to e-learning. For individuals, although knowledge can be learned by participating in e-learning programs, more often, they do not think e-learning is helpful since knowledge learned cannot help improve their work performance. For organizations, e-learning is generally designed without taking into account the organizational vision and mission. As a result, most e-learning applications fail to meet the needs of learners and ultimately fail to serve the organization’s quest for success in the knowledge econom y [2, 3, 4]. Recognizing the needs to integrate learning and work in the workplace, researchers and practitioners have been investigating approaches to build learning on practical tasks and work contexts. Competency-based learning has been addressed and used by organizations, where learning or training is driven by development of specific competencies [5, 6]. While applied in e-learning system development, the competency method is mainly used to organize learning content or organizational memory based on workforce competencies. However, the efforts are more content-driven, emphasizing organizing learning content or resources based on content structure [5]. They fail to cater for the learning behavior th at takes place in an organizational context, where strategies or approaches for improving work performance should be strengthened [4]. In this project, we propose a conceptualization of the performance-oriented workplace e-learning environment. The study aims to use performance measurement [7] to clarify organizational goals and individual learning needs and link them in e-learning applications. The key idea lies in a Key Performance Indicator (KPI) model, where organizational mission and vision are interpreted into a set of key performance targets for driving learning towards the goal of improving work performance. This conceptualization makes organiza tional goals accomplishable by showing a clear picture to each individual as to what is important and what they need to learn. Moreover, this approach will support social learning in the workplace. The KPI model can be used to identify each individual’s work context and expertise, as well as to organize knowledge assets, with a view to facilitating knowledge building and sharing and social networking in the learning community. To implement the KPI-oriented learning environment, ontology- and intelligent agent-based adaptive functionalities will be added to the e-learning system. The investigators will utilize ontology [8] for a formal and explicit representation of the KPI model, facilitating semantic reasoning of a performance-oriented learning process . The KPI ontology specifies: a) key performance indicators for each position, b) capabilities to be developed to improve the performance, c) knowledge topics relevant to the capability, and d) learning resources under the knowledge topic. In the meantime, a set of intelligent agents will be developed to assist learners in perform ing adaptive learning activities according to their performance gap, learning progress, and changes of learning environment (e.g., updating of learning resources and performance indicators). With the support of ontology- and agent -based technology support, real-time and personalized instructions and recommendations will be continuously generated and sent to learners, to facilitate and direct their learning processes towards the goal of performance improvement. Moreover, the ontology-based agents will support social networking and knowledge sharing by: a) identifying each individual’s work context, expertis e, and proficiency in his/her KPI profile; and b) by organizing knowledge assets based on the KPI model. With this project, the researchers are going to: 1) Examine the mechanism of enhancing e-learning in the workplace via a performance-oriented approach, where the KPI model is proposed to clarify and link organizational and individual learning needs to drive e-learning proce ss; 2) Develop the approach to building up a performance-oriented e-learning system by using ontology and intelligent agent-based technologies; 3) Explore the use of the KPI-oriented method to support social learning and knowledge management in workplace e-learning applications; and 4) Evaluate the effectiveness of the KPI-oriented approach for e-learning in organizational environment, together with its impact on learning and knowledge management in the workplace. References [1] Rosenberg, M.J., Beyond e-learning: approaches and technologies to enhance organizational knowledge, learning, and performance, San Francisco: Pfeiffer, 2006 [2] Tynjälä, P. and Häkkinen, P., E-learning at work: theoretical underpinnings and pedagogical challenges, The Journal of Workplace Learning, 17(5/6), 2006, 318-336 [3] Servage, L., Strategizing for workplace e-learning: some critical considerations, The journal of workplace learning, 17(5/6), 2005, 304-317 [4] Wang, M., Integrating organizational, social, and individual perspectives in Web 2.0-based workplace e-learning, Information Systems Frontiers, in press [5] Sicilia, M.A. and Naeve, A., Competencies and organizational learning: a conceptual framework. In Sicilia, M.A. (Ed), Competenc ies in organizational e-learning: concepts and tools, Hershey: Information Science Publishing, 2007, 1-9 [6] Garavan, T. N. and McGuire, D., Competencies and workplace learning: Some reflections on the rhetoric and the reality, Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(4), 2001, 144-164 [6] Parmenter, D., Key performance indicators (KPI): developing, implementin g, and using winning KPIs, Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley, 2007 [7] Gruber, T., A translation approach to portable ontology specifications, Knowledge Acquisition, 5, 1993, 199-220 [8] Wooldridge, M., An introduction to multiagent systems, England, J. Wiley, 2002


Project Title: The 14th Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education (GCCCE 2010) Mining and Visualizing Domain Knowledge in E-Learning Enabled Workforce Development Using Co-Occurrence Analysis
Investigator(s): Wang M
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 06/2010
Completion Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: A Web-based Corporate Training and Performance Support System
Investigator(s): Wang M
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Seed Funding Programme for Applied Research
Start Date: 06/2010
Abstract:
Training and development of employees are essential for organizational operation and advancement. To enhan ce the skills of knowledge workers, web-based training is increasingly being used by companies, especially by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as emergent practices [1]. Despite the ever-increasing practices of web-based learning in the workplace, most of them have fallen short in motivating employees to learn. Significant gaps exist between organizational interests and learner needs in web-based training applications. For employees, although knowledge can be learned by participating in web-based training programs, more often, they do not think web-based training is helpf ul since knowledge learned cannot help improve their work performance. For companies, web-based training is generally designed without taking into account the organizational vision and mission. As a result, most web-based training applications fail to meet the needs of employees and ultimately fail to serve the quest of companies for success in the knowledge economy [2, 3, 4]. Recognizing the needs to align employee training with work performance, researchers and practitioners have been investigating approaches to build training programs on practical tasks and work contexts. Competency-based training has been addressed and used by organizations, where training is driven by development of specific compet encies [5, 6]. While applied in web-based training systems development, the competency method is mainly used to organize learning content. These efforts are more content-driven, emphasizing organizing learning resources based on content structure [5]. They fail to cater for the le arning behavior that takes place in an organizational context, where strategies or approaches for improving work performance should be strengthened [4]. In this project, we propose to develop a performance-oriented online train ing environment. The study will use performance measurement [7] to clarify organizational goals and individual learning needs and link them in training applications. The key idea lies in a Key Performance Indicator (KPI) model, where organizational mission and vision are interpreted into a set of key performance targets for driving employee training towards the goal of improving work performance. This approach makes organizational goals accomplishable by showing a clear picture to each individual as to what is important and what they need to learn to improve performance. In the KPI model, a) key performance indicators for each position, b) capabilities to be developed to improve the performance, c) knowledge topics relevant to the capability, and d) learning resources under the knowledge topic, will be specified. Moreover, in consideration of employees as adult learners and workplace as a social environment, this approach will support self-directed and social learning request. To support self-directed learning, intelligent functionalities will be developed with the KPI model to assist learners in performing adaptive learning activities according to their performance gap, learning progress, and changes of learning environment. To facilitate social learning, the KPI model can be used to identify each individual’s work context and expertise, as well as to organize knowledge assets, with a view to facilitating knowledge building and sharing and social networking among knowledge workers. To implement the proposed training system, ontology- and intelligent agent-based technologies will be applied for system development. The investigators will utilize ontology for a formal and explicit representation of the KPI model, facilitating semantic reasoning of a performance-oriented learning process. With the KPI ontology support, agent-based technology can be used to generate real-time and personalized instructions and recommendations and sent them to learners, to facilitate their learning processes. The ontology-based agents will also support social networking and knowledge sharing by identifying each individual’s work context, expertise, and proficiency according to his/her KPI profile. In this project, we will select an IT company as the application domain for demonstrating the approach. In the IT and software industry, knowledge renovation has accelerated technological innovations with an incredible speed. Organizations and individuals in this industry have to rely on just-in-time training and continuous lear ning to acquire renewed knowledge and skills to survive [8]. Therefore, how to conduct learning and training programs in an effective way has become one of the most significant issues of IT companies. Although training in IT companies have expanded and developed substantially in recent years, web-based training is still at the exploration stage. With this project, the researchers are going to: 1) Develop a performance-oriented web-based training platform, where KPI model is used to clarify and align organizational goals and individual learning needs as well as to direct individual online learning process toward the goal to improve work performance; 2) Evaluate the effectiveness of the developed system in terms of its support on performance-oriented and self-directed employee training, and its impact on organizational enhancement; 3) Explore the use of the developed system to support social learning and knowledge management in organizational contexts. References [1] Rosenberg, M.J., Beyond e-learning: approaches and technologies to enhance organizational knowledge, learnin g, and performance, San Francisco: Pfeiffer, 2006 [2] Tynjälä, P. and Häkkinen, P., E-learning at work: theoretical underpinnings and pedagogical challenges, The Journal of Workplace Learning, 17(5/6), 2006, 318-336 [3] Servage, L., Strategizing for workplace e-learning: some critical considerations, The journal of workplace learning, 17(5/6), 2005, 304-317 [4] Wang, M., Integrating organizational, social, and individual perspectives in Web 2.0-based workplace e-learning, Information Systems Frontiers, in press [5] Sicilia, M.A. and Naeve, A., Competencies and organizational learning: a conceptual framework. In Sicilia, M.A. (Ed), Competencies in organizational e-learning: concepts and tools, Hershey: Information Science Publishing, 2007, 1-9 [6] Garavan, T. N. and McGuire, D., Competencies and workplace learning: Some reflections on the rhetoric and the reality, Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(4), 2001, 144-164 [7] Parmenter, D., Key performance indicators (KPI): developing, implementing, and using winning KPIs, Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley, 2007 [8] Acton, T. and Golden, W., Training the knowledge wor ker: a descriptive study of training practices in Irish software companies, Journal of European Industrial Training, 27 (2), 2003, 137-146


List of Research Outputs

Cheng B. and Wang M. , Investigation of performance-oriented workplace E-Learning for human capital development, International Conference on e-Learning in the Workplace (ICELW) . 2010.
Cheng B. and Wang M. , Mining and Visualizing Domain Knowledge in E-Learning Enabled Workforce Development Using Co-Occurrence Analysis, Proceedings of 14th Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education (GCCCE) . 2010, Best Student Paper Award.
Chiu D., Lin D.D.T., Kafeza E., Wang M. , Hu H., Hu H. and Zhuang Y., Alert Based Disaster Notification and Resource Allocation, Information Systems Frontiers . Springer-Verlag, 2010, 12 (1): 29-47 (SCI).
Chiu D.K.W., Cheung S.C., Leung H.F., Hung P., Kafeza E., Hu H., Wang M. , Hu H. and Zhuang Y., Engineering e-Collaboration Services with a Multi-Agent System Approach, International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering . IGI Global, 2009, Vol.1, No.1.
Chu K.W. , Wang M. and Yuen H.K. , Teacher perception of Implementation of Knowledge Management in School, 6th International Conference on Knowledge Management . 2009.
Chu K.W. , Wang M. , Zhou S. and Yuen H.K. , Teachers’ Perception on Knowledge Management: A Case Study in a Secondary School, 4th International Conference on e-Learning, Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto . 2009.
Lai H.L., Wang M. and Wang H., Applying API to Support Adaptive E-Learning, International Conference on e-Learning (ICEL) . 2009.
Wang M. , Ran W. , Liao J. and Yang S.J.H., A Performance-Oriented Approach to Workplace E-Learning Systems Development, Journal of Educational Technology and Society . 2010, in press (SSCI).
Wang M. , Wang H., Vogel D., Kumar K. and Chiu D., Agent-Based Negotiation and Decision Making for Dynamic Supply Chain Formation, In: Elsevier, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence . U.S., Elsevier, 2009, 20 (7): 1046-1055 (SCI).
Wang M. , Associate Editor, 2009-present, International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering (IJSSOE) . IGI Global, 2009.
Wang M. and Cheng B. , Best Student Paper Award, Mining and Visualizing Domain Knowledge in E-Learning Enabled Workforce Development Using Co-Occurrence Analysis (authored by Bo Cheng and Minhong Wang), Proceedings of 14th Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education (GCCCE), Singapore (note: Bo Cheng is a PhD student supervised by Minhong Wang) . 2010.
Wang M. and Kumar K., Challenges and Solutions for Complex Business Process Management, In: Minhong Wang and Zhaohao Sun, Handbook of Research on Complex Dynamic Process Management: Techniques for Adaptability in Turbulent Environments . Hershey, US, IGI Global, 2009, 1-22.
Wang M. and Sun Z., Editor, Handbook of Research on Complex Dynamic Process Management: Techniques for Adaptability in Turbulent Environments . Hershey, US, IGI Global, 2009, 692.
Wang M. and Sun Z., Handbook of Research on Complex Dynamic Process Management: Techniques for Adaptability in Turbulent Environments . Hershey, US, IGI Global, 2009, 692.
Wang M. , Integrating Knowledge Management and E-learning, International Conference on Knowledge Management . 2009.
Wang M. , Integrating organizational, social, and individual perspectives in Web 2.0-based workplace e-learning, Information Systems Frontiers . Springer-Verlag, 2009, in press (SCI).
Wang M. , Jia H., Ran W. , Sugumaran V. and Liao J., Ontology-Based Intelligent Agents in Workplace E-Learning , Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) . 2009.
Wang M. , Performance-based Learning and Knowledge Management in the Workplace, Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education (GCCCE), Theme for Digital Learning and Human Resourc e Development . 2010.
Zhou S., Siu F.L.C. and Wang M. , Effects of Social Ties Content on Knowledge Transfer, Journal of Knowledge Management . 2010, 14 (3): 449-463 (SSCI).
Zhou S. and Wang M. , Social Ties, Knowledge Transfer Mediators and the Qualit y of Transferred Knowledge: A Relational View, 6th International Conference on Knowledge Management . 2009.


Researcher : Warning PB

Project Title: Mapping Olympic Studies
Investigator(s): Warning PB
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Education Faculty Research Fund
Start Date: 11/2008
Completion Date: 08/2009
Abstract:
This project is part of a PhD thesis that maps the field of study (knowledge domain) of Olympic Studies. This project applies subject profile analysis to a corpus of published journal literature in the target filed of study. Subject profile analysis is an informat ion science method used to analyse a knowledge domain (Marion & McCain, 2001). An example of subject profile analysis is descriptor profile analysis, where subject descriptors assigned by indexers are used to represent the subject content of a corpus of scholarly literature. For this application of subject profile analysis to identify the underlying or foundation disciplines of Olympic Studies. Exploration of the method has already been undertaken. Subject profile analysis of cited references is a time consuming and labour intensive activity which requires bibliographic skills.


List of Research Outputs

Warning P.B. , Henri J. , Shek J. and Leung A., Designing, Implementing And Evaluating Training For School Librarians In Rural China: A Case Study, 38th Annual Conference Of The International Association Of School Librarianship Incorporating The 13th International Forum On Research In School Librarianship . 2009.
Warning P.B. , Chu S.K.W. and Kwan A.C.M. , Information Seeking And Stopping Among Undergraduate Interns., Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM] . 2009.
Warning P.B. , Toohey K. and Zakus D., The Content and Foundations of Olympic Studies: Subject Profile Analysis of a Decade of Olympika, In: Bernardo Buarque de Hollanda, Antonio Holzmeister Oswaldo Cruz, Leda Maria da Costa, Luiz Fernando Rojo, Marco Alvito, Martin Curi , Esporte e Sociedade (Sport and Society Journal) . Brazil, Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre Esporte e Sociedade, 2009, 4(12): Online.
Warning P.B. , Griffiths-Zee I., Poon V., Wong R., Wu B. and Sinclair C., Use Of Databases And Ebooks In International Secondary Schools In Hong Kong: A Small Scale Survey, 38th Annual Conference Of The International Association Of School Librarianship Incorporating The 13th International Forum On Research In School Librarianship . 2009.


Researcher : Watkins DA

Project Title: Academic competition in Hong Kong: comparative and developmental perspectives
Investigator(s): Watkins DA
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: Small Project Funding
Start Date: 11/2002
Abstract:
To find out the nature of competition as viewed by HK secondary school students of different ages; to compare the views of the nature of competition fostered in HK schools with those expressed by like-aged students in the Philippines, Nepal, and South Africa (both black and white samples).


Project Title: The 6th Regional Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP) Competition Perceived by Nepali Students
Investigator(s): Watkins DA
Department: Education Faculty
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/2003
Abstract:
N/A


List of Research Outputs

Kember D.R. and Watkins D.A. , Approaches to learning and teaching by the Chinese., In: Bond, M.H. , The Oxford handbook of Chinese psychology. . Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010.
King R.B. and Watkins D.A. , Invited Colloqia at the Learning, Language, and Culture Laboratory, Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, Exploring the role of social goals in collectivist cultures: Filipino and Chinese societies . Manila, Philippines, De La Salle University, 2009.
King R.B. and Watkins D.A. , Paper presented at the 46th Annual Convention of the Psychological Association of the Philippines, The role of mastery, performance, and social goals in academic motivation among Filipino students . Dumaguete, Philippines, 2009.
King R.B. and Watkins D.A. , Paper presented at the 8th Biennial Conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology, Exploring the role of social goals in motivating Chinese and Filipino students . New Delhi, India, 2009.
King R.B. and Watkins D.A. , Poster presented at the 8th Biennial Conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology, Why are some students happy and others not? The role of academic and social goals in well-being . New Delhi, India, 2009.
King R.B. and Watkins D.A. , Poster presented at the Hong Kong Psychological Society Annual Convention, Social goals and learning strategies among Hong Kong students: A longitudinal analysis . Hong Kong, 2010.
Watkins D.A. , Adaptation of Mainland Postgraduate Students to the Hong Kong’s universities., In: D. W. Chapman, W. K. Cummings & G. A. Postiglione, Crossing borders in East Asian higher education . Hong Kong, Comparative Education Research Centre, 2010, 343-373.
Zeng M. and Watkins D.A. , Adaptation of Mainland Postgraduate Students to the Hong Kong’s universities, In: D. W. Chapman, W. K. Cummings & G. A. Postiglione, Crossing borders in East Asian higher education . Hong Kong, Comparative Education Research Centre, 2010, 343-373.
Zhang L.F. , Biggs J. and Watkins D.A. , Editor, Learning and development of Asian students: What the 21st century teacher needs to think about . Jurong, Singapore, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010, 390pp.
Zhang L.F. , Biggs J. and Watkins D.A. , Preface, In: Zhang, L.F., Biggs, J. & Watkins, D. (Eds.), Learning and development of Asian students: What the 21st century teacher needs to think about . Jurong, Singapore, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010, xi-xiii.
Zhang L.F. and Watkins D.A. , What do today’s teachers of Asian students need to think about?, In: Zhang, L.F., Biggs, J. & Watkins, D. (Eds.), Learning and development of Asian students: What the 21st century teacher needs to think about . Jurong, Singapore, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010, 1-12.


Researcher : Weekes BS

List of Research Outputs

Law S.P. , Weekes B.S. , Wong W.S. and Chiu K., Reading aloud pseudo-characters by individuals with acquired dyslexia: Evidence for lexically-mediated processes in reading Chinese, Language and Cognitive Processes . UK, Taylor and Francis, 2009, 24: 983-1008.
Su I.F. , Klingebiel K. and Weekes B.S. , Dyslexia in Chinese: Implications for connectionist models of reading, In: Brunswick, N., McDougall, S. & de Mornay-Davies, P., Reading and Dyslexia in Different Orthographies . London, Psychology Press, 2010.
Su I.F. , Law S.P. and Weekes B.S. , Semantic Radical Processing in Chinese Character Identification: Evidence from ERP studies. (Invited Talk), Language Engineering Laboratory Seminars at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong . 2009.
Su I.F. and Weekes B.S. , Semantic radical and character transparency effects in Chinese: an ERP study. (Poster), 1st Meeting of the Neurobiology of Language Conferen ce, Chicago, Illinois, USA . 2009.
Su I.F. and Weekes B.S. , The Processing of Semantic Radicals in Chinese Character Identification: Evidence from ERP studies. (Oral Presentation), The International Conference on the Processing East Asian Languages, Beijing, China . 2009.
Weekes B.S. and Kong P.H. , Aphasia and Dementia, Hong Kong Alzeheimer Disease Conference . 2010.
Weekes B.S. , Bilingual Aphasia Roundtable, International Association of Logopaedics and Phoniatrics . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Bilingual Aphasia, Swiss Aphasia Association . Bern, 2010.
Weekes B.S. , Children learning a second language. , In: Universsity of Sussex, Junior Research Association Meeting . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Developmental dyslexia in Chinese: behavioural, genet ic and neuropsychological issues. , In: Multilingual Matters, Language Disorders in Speakers of Chinese . Clevedon, UK., 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Differential effects of emotional arousal and valence on false word recognition: Evidence from EEG, Psychophysiology . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Disentangling emotional valence and arousal effects during word processing, Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse . Rotterdam, 2009.
Weekes B.S. , ERP correlates of verb processing: a comparison of motion and emotion verbs, Psychophysiology . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Effects of noun type on grammatical judgment: Evidence from EEG, Psychophysiology . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Evaluation of lexical and semantic features for English emotion words, In: Alter, K, Brain talk: Discourse in the Brain . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Guest Professor, University of Milan-Bicocca . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Independent effects of orthographic and phonological facilitation on spoken word production in Mandarin, In: Anne Cutler, Language and Speech . Nijmegen, 2009, 52: 113-126.
Weekes B.S. , Issues in Bilingual Aphasia, In: Brendan Weekes, Aphasiology . 2010.
Weekes B.S. , Lexical processing and bilingual aphasia, Chinese Academy of Science (Beijing) . 2010.
Weekes B.S. , Lexical processing in alphabetic and non-alphabetic scripts, University of San Rafaelle . 2010.
Weekes B.S. , Lexical retrieval in alphabetic and non-alphabetic scripts: Evidence from brain imaging, The role of orthographies in reading and spelling . Hove, East Sussex, Psychology Press, 2010.
Weekes B.S. , Literacy in bilingual children, Writing Systems Symposium, University of London . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Memory for serial order in bilingual children, In: Bangor University, Neurobilingualism Conference . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Memory for serial order in bilingual speakers: an EEG study, Psychophysiology . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Neurobilingualism of Aphasia, AHRC/ESRC Research Network . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Orthographic facilitation effects on spoken word production: Evidence from Chinese. , In: Loraine Tyler, Language and Cognitive Processes . London, Psychology Press, 2009, 24(7): 1082–1096.
Weekes B.S. , Reading and writing in Chinese and English, University of Wales . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Semantic radical effects on character categorization and character decision: Evidence from EEG. , Neurobiology of Language . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , The pupil Old / New Effect in veridical and false recognition. , Abstracts of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomics Society . Austin Texas, 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Word recognition in English and Chinese, Writing Systems Symposium, Institute of Education, University of London . 2009.
Weekes B.S. , Written AoA effects reflect family resemblance in the lexical network, Abstracts of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomics Society . Austin Texas, 2009.


Researcher : Weizman Oz Z

Project Title: IASCL-VIII International Congress for the Study of Child Language Early Vocabulary Growth in Cantonese
Investigator(s): Weizman Oz Z
Department: Speech & Hearing Sciences
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 07/1999
Abstract:
N/A


Project Title: 2001 Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting Preschool Vocabulary Growth: Relationship to Maternal Input in Low-income Familes
Investigator(s): Weizman Oz Z
Department: Speech & Hearing Sciences
Source(s) of Funding: URC/CRCG - Conference Grants for Teaching Staff
Start Date: 04/2001
Abstract:
N/A




Researcher : Westwood PS

Project Title: Survey of essential comp